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ing to come up was probably caused by the seed leading characteristics of the Monthly Farmer are, having been smoked by the Indians, a process used 1. It is more valuable than any mere book upon by them in the curing of this grain. This should
agriculture, because it not only contains the general be guarded against, by those procuring seed to plant. One objection to the cultivation of this plant principles of the great Art, but because it is made might be the deciduous habit of this grain, as it up from the latest experiences of practical men upon drops into the water as soon as ripe. To prevent the soils in our own localities. this waste when cultivated in the water, a lesson
2. The elegant manner and convenient form in might be learned from the Indians, who are in the which it is printed ; making a handsome volume for habit about the time that it begins to turn from its milky state and to ripen, to run their canoes into the library when bound. The binding, in muslin, the midst of it, and tying bunches of it together, with gilt back and handsomely lettered, will cost just below the ears, with bark, leave it in this situ- but twenty-five cents. ation three or four weeks longer, till it is perfectly
3. The expensive engravings which illustrate the ripe. Cultivation might change this habit of dropping its seeds, or the stalks, of the plant could be stock, plants, fruits, climbers
, flowers, machines, cut years fore it was ripe.
buildings and fences, which are described in its colAch, ing to Loudon, the Wild Rice has been in- umns. trodus uinto England, and grows, as with us,
4. The absence of long catalogues of premiums arounds and streams of water. In the pres- and programmes, which are only of temporary inent high örices of all cereal grains, it would seem terest. very important and desirable that we should intro
5. Its articles spring from leading principles in duce the Zizana into cultivation, and thus realize the high anticipations of those, who have preceded
the art of agriculture, and will, therefore, be as ralus. There is another plant which merits attention uable to the inquirer any future year, as at the presfrom our farmers, viz. the Mountain Rice, oryzopsis ent time. asperifolia of Michaux. It is found in Massachu- 6. Its writers are nearly all men of practical acsetts, in the interior of the State, but has not been quaintance with the business of the farmer. seen to our knowledge on the seaboard. The seeds
7. Some of its writers are men of profound learnare white, about as long as rice, and farinaceous. Mr. Pursh says, I observed this grass on the broad ing in the various arts and sciences, and particularly mountains of Pennsylvania, and consider it worth in chemistry, in its relations to agriculture. the attention of farmers as the considerable large 8. The matter which has been collected and printseeds contain the finest flour of any grain I know. ed with so much care, is easily made available by a In closing this article I would remark, we have
full and accurate index to the articles and illustramuch to expect from the cultivation of any native plant, capable of bearing a valuable grain, by its be- tions and names of correspondents; so that any ing perfectly adapted to our climates, and its com- principle which has been discussed, or any fact reparative exemption from diseases incident to the corded, may be referred to without loss of time. cereal grains of foreign origin. And while the
These are some of the points which are promiwheat, rye, barley, &c., natives of other countries, are diseased and infested with insects, our Indian nent in the Monthly Farmer, and which we know corn, a native of America, being at home, delights have been appreciated, for its circulation has more in our bright sun, and dry atmosphere, and is one than doubled during the last year! of the most healthy plants we cultivate, and remarkably free from blight and diseases. Danvers-port, Oct. 12, 1855.
beneath them to work—to employ themselves inTHE MONTHLY FARMER. dustriously in some useful labor. Beneath them to It is well known to our readers, that we publish a accomplishes the most by his industry is the most
work! Why, work is the motto of life; and he who Weekly and Monthly edition of the New England truly great man. Aye, and is the most distinguished Farmer. The Weekly is in the common newspaper man among his fellow-creatures and his God—who form, printed upon fine, white paper,
and on new
so forgets the great blessings of life, as to allow his type. Its first page is always made up of agricul- better die; for, says the Holy Writ, “He that will
energies to stagnate in activity and uselessness, had tural reading, and the other three pages, of war, po-work not, neither shall he eat.” An idler is a cumlitical, religious, mercantile, mechanical, manufactur- berer of the ground, a weariness and a curse to himing and miscellaneous intelligence—together with self, as well as to those around him. the prices current, carefully corrected, and a few ad
Beneath human beings to work! Look in the arvertisements . This part of the paper is conducted, Immortality stands ready to seal his works with her
tist's studio, the poet's garret, where the genius of solely, by WILLIAM SIMONDS, Esq., a gentleman of ineffaceable signet, and then you will only see indusability, and possessing great experience as a jour-try standing by her side. nalist. He resides in the country, but has his busi- Beneath human beings to work! What but work ness office in Boston.
has tilled our fields, clothed our bodies, built our The Monthly Farmer is in Book form, and is
houses, raised our churches, printed our books, culti
vated our minds and souls ? "Work out your own made up each month from the agricultural matteron salvation," says the inspired Apostle to the Genthe first page of the weekly paper. Some of the tiles.- Cornish Banner.
S. P. F.
worm were over.
N. T. T.
CHARCOAL AS A MANURE.
For the New England Parmer. Persons from Massachusetts who wish for such LITTLE THINGS:
trees, should send to some friend in Maine and re
quest them to put them up in hogsheads, dug up OR A WALK IN MY GARDEN.....No. 5.
in the way I have proposed, and they will nearly all
live. Fifty trees, perhaps, might be packed in a While gathering a few straggling onions from a hogshead at a trifling expense, and transported to large bed sown in the spring, I was led to inquire any part of the State perfectly fresh. In regard what can be done to get rid of the onion maggot.
to the time of transplanting, late in the fall, or It is but seldom that a crop can be obtained in this early in the spring, are the only safe seasons. vicinity. I tried one experiment- of digging the Planting them in clumps, so that they will shade earth entirely away from the bulb and allowing the each other, will ensure more complete success. The stock to lie on the ground till the ravages of the effect is more pleasing as an ornament than from a
The hot sun was too much for straight hedge. them. But this is a tedious process. When a
Belhel, Me., Nov. 1, 1855. boy, I remember of seeing a succession of bountiful
crops of onions raised on a bed where charcoal VALLEY OF THE YO-SEMITY, had been made. I want to wander a few moments
AND ITS STUPENDOUS WATERFALLS. from the garden to say a word respecting
The Mariposa (California) Gazette has published
a communication from a Mr. J. M. Hutchings, who The value of charcoal, in most cases, is usually set visited this valley in company with Messrs. Ayres too high, at the expense of other substances. The old and Millard, two gentlemen belonging in San Franmethod of piling together twenty or thirty cords of cisco, and Mr. Stair
, of Coulterville. Assuming hard wood, and covering it with turf and trenching the that these gentlemen are known to the editors of ground all around, not only furnishes charcoal, but the Mariposa Gazette, and that the account is what is of more value, an abundance of potash, soda, therefore reliable, we cannot but regard with wonlime and phosphorus. Hence, great crops of wheat der and admiration the scenery described. The may be raised under such circumstances. A recent party appears to have started from an Indian vilcorrespondent of the Farmer tells us how to burn up lage on the Fresno with two Indian guides, and the pine stumps on the ground. I will tell him of a writer says :method I once practised, from an article which I "From Mr. Hunt's store we kept an east-ofread in my boyhood from the old N. E. Farmer, north course up the divide between the Fresno and which was, to 'dig a hole under the body of the Chowchillah valleys; thence, descending toward stump and let it dry, put in some small wood, and the south fork of the Merced river and winding before the fall rains bank it up as a coal pit, and set around a very rocky point, we climbed nearly to the it on fire. It would coal out the body of the stump ridge of the middle or main fork of the Merced, and render it easy to remove the roots. We always and, descending toward the Yo-Semity valley, came expected to raise huge potatoes on these spots. upon a high point clear of trees, whence we had Returning to the garden, I find myself looking at our first view of this singular and romantic valley;
and as the scene opened in full view before us, we AN EVERGREEN HEDGE.
were almost speechless with admiration at its wild Thousands of evergreens perish for want of a little and sublime grandeur. knowledge in their management. The safest way
“On the north side stands a bold perpendicular is to transplant, from an open pasture, trees not mountain of granite, shaped like an immense towmore than two feet in height. My method is this; er. Its lofty top is covered with great pines that, I take an old axe which I am not afraid to strike in the distance, seem like shrubs. Our Indian into the ground, and cut a circle round the tree, guides called this the 'Capitan.' It measures from striking two or three times in the same place if ne- the valley to its summit two thousand eight huncessary, and at a distance of a foot or more from dred feet. the trunk ; let one person take hold of the trunk “Just opposite this, on the south side of the valclose to the ground, and another higher up, and ley, our attention was attracted by a magnificent remove earth and all. An evergreen is worth waterfall about seven hundred feet in height. It nothing after the earth is removed. With two looked like a long broad feather of silver depending boys, I have in this way dug and carried in a cart over a precipice; and, as this feathery tail of leapthree-fourths of a mile, seventy-five trees, and ing spray thus hung, a slight breeze moved it from transplanted them in one half-day; and all but two side to side, and, as the last rays of the setting sun or three lived, and grew about as well the first were tinging it with rainbow hues, the red would summer as if they had not been removed. There mix with the purple, and the purple with the yelis a little secret to be learned in setting out a low, and the yellow with the green, and the green hedge. Instead of making a long trench first, I with the silvery sheen of its whitened foam as it take off the turf and lay it one side, and then dig danced in space! deep enough to set one tree, dig up the earth from “Passing further up the valley, we were struck the spot where the next tree is to be planted and with the awful grandeur of the immense mountains use it to cover the roots of the preceding one. In on either side, some perpendicular, and some a little this way there is no loss of earth in the grass, and sloping. One looks like a light-house, another like you have ready access to every part of the tree. a giant capital of immense dimensions ; all are sinEvergreens will do better planted in grass land, or gular and surmounted by pines. in the shade of other trees, where the intense heat “We crossed the river, and, still advancing up of the sun is absorbed. It is almost impossible to the valley, turned a point, and before us was an inmake an evergreen live on the sunny-side of a describable sight—a waterfall two thousand two white house, or on a very dusty street.
Thundred feet in height, the highest in the world.
It rushes over the cliffs, and, with one bold leap, direction, and the same slot and pin turn them more falls one thousand two hundred feet, then a second to the wind, always adjusting itself to the necessiof five hundred feet, then a third of over five hun
ties of the occasion. dred feet; the three leaps making two thousand two hundred feet.
FARMERS and others in want of a cheap motive "Standing upon the opposite side of the valley power, should look to the inducements offered of and looking at the tall pines beloy, the great height putting up wind-mills upon their farms or premises. of these falls can at a glance be comprehended. It may be used very economically to pump water "About ten miles from the lower end of the val
for irrigating or draining land, watering cattle, or ley there is another fall of not less than fifteen hundred feet. This, with smaller falls and a lake, for household purposes to the tops of houses. It mark the head of the Yo-Semity valley, which is, may be used, and will operate very satisfactorily, therefore, about ten miles in length and from a half to thrash and clean all kinds of grain, to shell corn, to one mile in width. Although there is good land and grind wheat, rye, corn, or any other thing to be enough for several farms, it cannot be considered upon the whole as a good farming valley; but ground, cut, or mashed, such as apples
, roots, vegeSpeckled trout, grouse and pigeons are plentiful.”
tables, etc. It is particularly adapted to churning, working butter, washing, turning grindstones, sawing wood, cutting straw, and stalks, or fodder. It will bore and mortise timber, drive small saw-mills,
lath-machines, turning-lathes, etc. etc., and if you 1
wish, it will ventilate your house exceedingly well. It will not plow, harrow, cultivate, or mow, but any work which can be brought to it may be performed; and it will perform readily, without waiting to be caught, fed, or harnessed. The only food these mills require is about one gallon of oil a year.
They do not require as much nursing and attention as horses or oxen, one coat of paint will keep them clean and beautiful a year or more. The attachments used to connect them to different machines, so as to do different kinds of work, cost less than the harness and equipage of horses, and will
last more than twice as long. The expense for reTHE VERMONT WIND-MILL.
pairs is much less than that for the shoeing and INVENTED BY A. P. BROWN, OF BRATTLEBORO', vt. preparing of teams for labor. The same amount of
The advantage of using wind in preference to power costs less, and the wind power will not die. horse or steam-power has not been duly appreciated Wind-mills will work by night as well as by day, by farmers and mechanics. All the difficulties in and will run steadily without a driver. They are using wind-power to advantage are overcome in the generally ready to work the greatest number of mill above represented. It is ingenious, simple, and hours when their work is most needed, viz., in the a most perfect regulator of its own motion. It fall, winter, and spring. They do not regard the spreads a wide sail to light breeze, and a small ten-hour system, but work early and late, summer surface to a heavy one. An accelerated motion is and winter. checked by the action by the mill itself as readily Any particular information concerning these mills as the steam-engine is checked by the action of may be obtained of FOWLER AND WELLS, 308 Watt's centrifugal governor.
Broadway, New York, who are manufacturing ten Its construction will be readily understood by ref- different sizes, ranging from $35 to $350 each. erence to the engraving. The radical feature in which this machine differs from others is simply
GRANITE DUST, A RICH LAND MANURE.—While this: it governs the obliquity of its own fans, k, to at Northbridge, Mass. on Wednesday of last week, the wind by means of the centrifugal force of those examining the granite quarries at that place, I had fans. Each is furnished with a helical or spiral slot a conversation with the workmen, engaged in dressand pin, made fast in the arm, as seen at i, fig. 2. ing out that stone, and inquired of them in referIn case of acceleration, the tendency of the fans is when thrown on the ground. They informed me
ence to the effect of the fine dust upon vegetation to overcome a suitable coiled spring, or a weighted that its effect upon grass was astonishing, and that lever, and to move farther out on their respective it has been used in gardens with great success. This arms, and in so doing the spiral groove, or slot, is a very important fact in agricultural science. slides on the pin and turns the fan more and more
Granite is composed of felspar, mica, and quartz, edgewise to the wind, presenting less surface. When potash. In my researches in New Hampshire I
and the felspar contains about fourteen per cent of the velocity of the wheel is diminished, the spring found a very great abundance of felspar. It is eaor weight immediately draws the fans in an opposite sily reduced to an impalpable powder by means of a
portable iron mill, such as is made by Mr. Bogard- one public establishments for agricultural education, as of New York. The cost will be trifling. The not to mention others of a kindred nature, or those discovery, if carried into operation to the extent private schools where the art and science of good that it may be, may make New Hampshire one of farming are taught. the richest agricultural States in the Union, and I Prussia is a monarchy, with fifteen millions of take great pleasure in making it public.-Ports- people. New York is a republic, with three milmouth Journal.
lions, and a territory, which, though not quite half
as large, is richer and better situated, with means NEW BOOKS.
of transportation incomparably superior. Prussia
has seventy-one public establishments to instruct The Muck MANUAL, by SAMUEL L. DANA, of her people in farming, the science of sciences, and Lowell:
: a new edition, with an additional chapter on the art of arts. New York has not one; and the "bones, superphosphate of lime, and its preparation.” proposition to establish a single Agricultural ColWe have often spoken of this work as of impor- lege has again and again been voted down in her
Legislature. Ought so shameful a contrast to extance to all who cultivate the soil.
ist between that monarchy and this republic.—TriThe general subjects discussed are-Geology of bune. soil; chemical constitution of rocks and soils; the elements of soil, their properties and chemical ac
For the New England Farmer. tion; the organic constituents of soil; the mutual GREEN CORN FOR SOILING. action of the organic and inorganic elements of soil ;
In the October number of the Farmer, I find that manure; artificial manures and irrigation; physical the milk-producing qualities of green corn have been properties of soil, and bones; superphosphate of called in question, by one at least, who seems to lime, and its preparation. Price $1,00. have had opportunity of testing their value for such
The RABBIT FANCIER, by C. N. BEMENT, Albany. a purpose, and that you, Mr. Editor, like the “rest This is a treatise upon the breeding, rearing, feed
of mankind,” are quite confident in your opinion re
specting the utility of raising and feeding it for the ing, and general management of Rabbits; with re
purpose above mentioned. Your opinion, so far as marks upon their diseases and remedies. An ad- my knowledge extends, coincides with that of nearmirable
way to interest children is to supply them ly all who have written upon the subject. Our agwith a pair of these pretty animals, where the situa- ricultural papers, our patent office reports, together tion will allow of their being kept, and then they farmers, furnish a mass of evidence in favor of using
with the oral testimony of many excellent practical will need the Rabbit Fancier to teach them the true
green corn for milch cows, to which individual excourse of management. Handsomely illustrated. perience, of an opposite character, can oppose but Price 50 cents.
little weight or influence. And yet I must say, that, The VINE-DRESSER'S MANUAL, by CHARLES Ree- so far as my own experience goes, I have found this MERLIN, of Ohio. This work, of 103 pages, gives its numerous commendations would strictly justify,
kind of feed to fall far short of the expectation which minute directions for the choice of location and soil, and have sometimes been inclined to regard it, for preparation of the ground, kind of grapes to culti- producing milk, as almost worthless, and even invate, trellis work, trimming, gathering, manuring, jurious. That it contains some nutriment, and that and wine-making. Price 50 cents.
cattle may subsist better with than without it, along The STABLE Book, by JOHN W. STEWART, vet
with a moderate supply of other food, or that it is
better, under certain circumstances, than nothing, I erinary surgeon, Glasgow, with notes and additions, do not doubt; but for working cattle, horses, or adapting it to American food and climate, by A. B. milch cows, when given in a crude state, I do think ALLEN, Editor of the American Agriculturist. 11- it a very poor substitute for good hạy or grass. So lustrated with twenty-three engravings. An excel-far as appearances go, very few kinds of food would lent work for any who use the horse. Price $1,00. milk than this, and such I have expected, in accord
seem better adapted to produce an abundant flow of All these works are issued by SAXTON & Co., Ag- ance with opinions so generally and confidently exricultural publishers, N. Y. They are handsomely pressed, would be the result in my own practice; a printed and bound, and for sale by S. R. Whipple result which I have never yet reached, with several & Co., and Ruggles, Nourse, Mason & Co., Boston. years of experience.
An acquaintance of mine, and a careful observer of the habits of cattle, once told me that green
stalks INSTRUCTION IN AGRICULTURE.—In the kingdom should never be fed to cows in the morning, previof Prussia there are five Agricultural Colleges, and ously to going to pasture, as they would so far ina sixth is about to be opened ; in these are taught jure the animals' appetite for grass, that instead of by both theory and practice, the highest branches feeding as they otherwise would, on more nutritious of science connected with the culture and improve- food, they would go and lie much of the day in the ment of the soil ; of Agricultural schools of a more shade. elementary order, there are ten; there are also Whether it does satisfy the appetite, without yieldseven schools devoted to instruction in the culture ing corresponding support, I cannot say, but am inof flax; two specially devoted to instruction in the clined to that belief. In its various stages of management of meadow lands ; one for instruction growth, from that of the tender plant, to the fully in the management of sheep: and there are also grown stalk, green corn—other things being equal, forty-five model farms, intended to serve in intro- contains, acording to analytical experiment, from ducing better modes of agriculture ; in all, seventy-leighty-four to ninety-four per cent. of water. It contains as great a per centage of water when nearly to be doing well during all this time. They were full grown, as at any other time; and of course as playful and lively, and their hair was bright, but little solid or nutritious matter as at any other time, when put to doing the spring work of the farm, they unless the saccharine juice with which it is charged were greatly deficient in strength and durability. possesses that quality, which is quite improbable. Thus I have given you, briefly, my experience in Were this juice extracted and fed to the animal part, hoping that a further and more careful examalone, it would, doubtless, pine away and die. Nor ination of the subject, by practical men, may lead to can it be expected that the small amount of solid, more reliable and satisfactory results. It is very say six to ten per cent. that is consumed along with important that something of abundant and rapid it, will of itself be sufficient to counteract the dele- growth should be available as a substitute for the terious effects of so large a share of juice, and at the ordinary supply of feed in case of drought, but I apsame time, keep the animal in a healthy and thriv- prehend that those who may depend almost entirely ing condition.
on green corn for such a purpose, are destined to At the commencement of feeding stalks, cows meet with disappointment. C. BLAKELY. will not generally eat much of them, unless they Bristol, Ct. are partly cured, which goes, I think, to show, that the juice which they contain is not, at the time,
PROSPECTS. highly relished by them.
If an increase of business is an evidence of SucThree years ago I fed seven cows quite liberally, for a month or more, on green stalks. My custom cess, we are abundantly assured that our efforts to was to feed in the morning, as it was the only con- furnish to the farmer the materials for more thorvenient time of doing it, and to scatter the stalks ough and efficient operations upon his lands, and over a portion of an adjoining pasture on which they had not of late been fed, so as to give them as
thereby to increase his annual profits, have not clean a place for eating as possible, taking care to
failed of their object. New friends have come to give them much more than they would immediately us from every quarter, both as subscribers and conconsume, which they would generally finish off in tributors. The list of the Monthly Farmer has more the course of the day. I could not perceive that the than doubled during the past year, while large adstalks made much if any difference in the quantity ditions have been made to the Weekly, so that we of milk produced, but the cows continued to give have the prospect of starting on the new year with less and less about as the grass failed them, although they continued to consume a proportionably larger a combined edition of some Twenty-four Thousand amount of stalks. I have this fall made another copies. This will enable us to carry out designs trial of this kind of feed, and with results less flat-long contemplated, of furnishing more and better tering than before. For several weeks I could not engravings, and in various ways, of giving the paper conveniently furnish my cows with any but the poorest pasturage, but attempted to make up this defi- a greater value. We have recently expended seveiency by feeding them what stalks they would eat eral hundred dollars for designs and engravings, at night and morning.
which will be given from time to time, and which, But they did not thrive or even hold their own while they will elegantly illustrate the work, will on this kind of keeping, but began to appear gaunt, also add to its practical character. were dissatisfied with their condition, which they manifested by being cross and ill-natured towards
We have no important changes to announce, cach other, and by a disposition to roam abroad, with the exception, perhaps, that we may obtain whenever an opportunity was presented, in quest of regular contributions from the able pen of Prof. something more satisfying. And worse than all
, NASH, of Amherst. Each of the Editors will resome five or six of the seven cows thus treated, commenced witholding their milk entirely for half
main at his post, and devote himself to the approthe time or more, so that I feared that all, a new priate duties of his charge, while our numerous and milch cow included, would become entirely dry able correspondents will faithfully contribute to the before I could give them a change of feed. Finally common weal of all. I began to practice reform; gave them yellow pump- Such are the encouraging prospects for the year kins, carrots, cabbages and good rowen feed; but they have not yet, after the lapse of a month, recov
1856. We have bowed out the Old Year with such ered from the effects of dieting on green corn! I grace as we could command, and have buckled on once kept a horse for a few days on the same kind the harness with stout and cheerful hearts for the of food, with the ordinary supply of grain, but as it labors of the New. It is but a matter of "changing seemed not to be doing well, I soon discontinued it
. work” between us, after all. So let us go at it with The horse drank but very little water during the time it was thus kept, refusing it, some days, entire a will, and make this year what we shall wish it ly.
may have been when we have got through it. If the cows were, in like manner, affected by the stalks, as is highly probable, that may account, in WAR AND AGRICULTURE.— The United States part, for their drying. I have, in a few instances, army consists of about 10,000 men, and costs fed ears of corn with the stalks as they were culti- $8,525,240 a year. All the result is, a few ragged vated for a field crop, so as to produce an increase uniforms, dismantled forts, rusty guns, and still of milk. I would advise those who may have stalks more ragged and rusty characters called veterans. to feed, whether green or dry, not to feed them en- The Illinois central railroad has about the same tirely alone, but with other kinds of feed. Some number of men who, receive from the company, years since, I fed a yoke of oxen entirely on stalks 83,700,000 per annum, and make over one hundred neariy, or quite through the winter. They appeared miles of railroad each year.