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BY WILLIAM D. BROWN.
HINTS ON THE BREEDING OF FOWLS. thoroughly cleaned out now and regularly sup
If not already done, now is the time to look over plied, during winter, with clean, dry straw. your lots of fowls, and carefully select out the hens
If you design to change one or more of your and roosters designed to be kept for breeding next roosters, now is the time to do it. They will thus year. The fecundity of hens affords the breeder
bave abundant time to get acquainted with their great facilities for improving the breed, but how partners before spring, In selecting a rooster, we saldom does he take advantage of them. To make
should not look so much to beauty of outline, as to decided improvement in a breed of horses, cattle, a vigorous and valiant demeanor, strong, muscuor sheep, requires more time than most go-ahead
lar thighs, full breast, and plump, heavy body, Americans, who are ever ready to pull up stakes, having more muscle than fat. Color is a mere and sell out for a “consideration"-are willing to
matter of fancy. White fowls are supposed by bestow. In fact, the bare idea of spending half a
some to be delicate; but this bas not proved so in life-time in perfecting a breed of animals, would our experience, though it is probable, as a general be enough to frighten them from the undertaking.
thing, that colored fowls are ibe hardiest. White Hence we shall probably continue to import the or bluish legged fowls are the favorites with some, pure breeds of cattle originated by more plodding
from the whiteness and apparent delicacy of the nations. But with fowls, the length of time re the richest and most highly flavored.
meat; but it is admitted that the yellow legged are quired need not deter any one from attempting to improve the breed. By careful and judicious
If a little flesh meat can be cheaply obtained selection, any farmer — or we would rather say, it. Tť is a tolerably good substitute for the worms
during winter, the fowls will be all the better for any farmer's son - may, in two or three years, and insects they obtain in warmer latitudes. Be add a hundred per cent to the good qualities, and correct most of the deficiencies, of his present very careful, however, not to give them any salt breed of fowls — unless, indeed, they are already fatal. There can be no doubt that salt is not re
meat, as it always proves injurious, and sometimes much better bred than the ordinary fowls found in farmers' yards in most parts of the country.
quired by fowls in larger quantity than that obIn this country, and even still more so in Greattained as a constituent of their ordinary food. Britain, fowls have been looked upon as beneath They must have access to fresh water, and if they the serious consideration of the farmer. But this cannot find enough food from the scatterings of is far from being the case. There is no other the barn-yard, must be fed as the judgment of
the farmer dictates. item on a farm that foots up more net profit than a good breed of properly kept fowls. This is a
For the New England Farmer. fact gradually taking possession of the public mind, (thanks to the agricultural press and —
PRUNING APPLE TREES. though we do not fraternize with them — the REPORTED TO THE CONCORD FARMERS' CLUB BY chicken speculators,) and we shall ere long witness a decided improvement in the common fowl of the MR. PRESIDENT :—The subject assigned to me country. For, without taking into consideration for a short essay was Pruning. I shall speak only the improvement caused by the introduction of of apple trees. Asiatic and other foreign breeds, the stimulus of The apple tree grows with a superabundance of high prices and good profits bas directed the at- limbs, that provision may be made against casualtention of farmers to their common breeds, and it ties, and an opportunity afforded for the cultivator cannot be doubted that if they once take hold of to train according to his particular taste, or the the matter in earnest, great beneficial results must necessities of the locality. speedily follow, and that without the introduction A young tree in the nursery requires but little of any foreign blood.
pruning, if any, for the first two years. The side Now is the time to take this matter in hand.- limbs contribute to the growth of the stock, which Select out hens under four years of age, having naturally grows with a regular taper from the reference, particularly, to a bealthly and vigorous ground up. When the low limbs of a young tree constitution, large, well-formed bodies, and rather are early removed, and the sap driven into the top, small legs and feet, bright eyes and pendent combs. the tree will not sustain an upright position. Early maturity and good laying qualities must not The top increases faster than the trunk, which soon be forgotten. The form is a good indication of becomes too weak to support it. A tree that bas the foriner, and also, to a certain extent, of the been trimmed at the right time, requires no staking latter. If early maturity, beauty of form and re- when transplanted. When a tree iz trimmed in the finement are carried too far, the tendency to lay nursery, it is hardly possible to shape the head and eggs is supposed to be diminished. If a hen is leave on only such limbs as will be required when known to be of an uneasy disposition, or a poor it arrives at the bearing state. The head should layer, on no account keep her.
be worked up gradually, a few lower limbs each 'Having selected what hens you intend to keep year being cut away, for breeders, it will be advisable to sell off all the Cultivators generally agree that the lowest limbs others now, so that the remainder may be better at the trunk of the tree should be out of the way fed during the winter. It is vain to expect of teams passing under it. It will be found a abundance of eggs next spring if the hens are great convenien in plowing to have the tree starved during winter. A few hens fed will always trained with one straight upright stem. Those prove more profitable than a large number half- side branches are of the right kind that join the starved during a few months of the year, even trunk nearly at a right angle. They can never though they may have a superabundance of food break, even if bent to the ground at their extremiat other times. See, too, that the hen-house is ties. It will be found that there will form about warm and dry. Hens, like sheep, can stand any- the junction a hard knot which never gives way. thing better than water. Let the hen-house be A tree properly shaped when young will seldom
TIME OF PRUNING,
require the removal of large limbs. If this is ever way, the frost will penetrate far downward, loosernecessary it is well to check the sap for one or ing and disintegrating the soil below the furrows, two summers by partly girdling the branches you while the ridges will crumble down, as they will wish to remove. This may be done without the not hold water, the air will circulate freely through slightest danger or inconvenience during the grow. them, decomposing the mineral portions, and coning season, and in the Autumn, when the limbs veying in ammonia and other gases. are cut away, the wounds will keep dry and soon tion will be equal to ten or more loads of good become perfectly hard. If they are of considera. manure upon clay or compact soils. ble size, it is well to cover the exposed part with a In the spring it will only be necessary to run a little paint.
plow once or twice through the centre of each In my own practice, I have found great success ridge, and then level the whole down with a heavy in partly girdling limbs which I wished to check barrow. and subsequently remove. I have found the prac- Another advantage in this process, is that when tice interesting in one particular; the limbs gir- land is thus prepared, it dries out and warms sevdled are sure to bear before the others. The de- eral days eariier in the spring. Again there are scending sap is checked and forms fruit spurs. some soils that are exhausted upon the surface, Scions set in thrifty stocks generally require no but which contains poisonous substances in the pruning the first year. The second year, where subsoil
. If this subsoil is thrown up in contact two have been set and both lived, one should in- with the air and frost during winter, these poisonvariably be removed. If the limb is large and ous compounds (usually proto-sulphate of iron or thrifty, great care is necessary to save the remain- manganese) will be destroyed, or changed to a ing scion from a too great rush of sap. This may harmless form, during the winter. be done by leaving on the limb sufficient branches. The above practice is especially to be recomof the original stock, which should be gradually re- mended in the garden. One of the most successmoved. I may remark here that too many scions ful cultivators of an acre of ground in our acquaintare usually grafted into a tree. A few in a few ance, digs it up in the fall to the depth of three or years will afford enough top. Trees usually bear four feet, making deep trenches and high ridges, apples on the outside, in the sunshine. A thick so that the whole acre appears to be covered with top is always barren.
high winrows of hay placed closely together.
We strongly urge every farmer who has not
tried this method, to lay out their plans now for If you trim when the tree is not in leaf, when experiment in this way, or on a larger or smaller the sap starts it will ooze from the wound, and scale, during the present season. - American Agridiscolor and kill the bark. The part exposed will culturist. rot, and soon decay will extend through the entire heart. If the tree is small, it is often ruined ; if it
CONCORD FARMERS' CLUB. is a large tree, it is very seriously damaged. It is better to prune in Autumn or while the tree is in
The Annual meeting of the Concord Farmers' full leaf. In June the wound will immediately be- Club took place on the evening of the 9th inst. gin to heal. In September it will remain dry and The persons elected were, sound.
E. W. Bull, President.
Minor Pratt, Secretary.
Joun RAYNOLDS, Treasurer. lent knives are made, which every owner of a tree
Standing Committees were then elected and Reshould use. For removing limbs of a considerable ports ordered on the following subjects :-masize I use a mallet and a light hand chisel. The nures; hoed crops; root crops ; grain crops ; grass chisel cuts smoother than a saw, and quicker.
crops ; live stock; farm buildings and farms; farm
ing tools; reclaiming waste lands; garden fruits ; FROST AS A MANURE.
ornamental gardening; fruit and ornamental trees;
draining ; feeding stock; pruning, and a special We know of no treatment so directly beneficial, committee on the value and effects of guano as a for almost every class of soils as that of throwing fertilizer. up land in narrow ridges, in the fall or early winter. There are few soils, worth cultivating, at all, that do not contain more or less materials
TIMBER. which can be made available to plants by the com- How full of graceful sentiment is the following extract from bined action of air and frost.
Vaughan's Poems, published in 1640 : Take two plots of heavy soil, side by side, and Sure thou didst flourish once, and many Springs, let one lie unmoved till spring, while the other is Many bright mornings, much dew, many showers
Pass'd o'er thy head; many light hearts and wings, deeply plowed in autumn, and the result will be
That now are dead, lodged in thy living towers : very visible in the spring crop. But the manner ot plowing is important. To secure the greatest And still a new succession sings, and flies –
Fresh groves grow up, and their green branches shoot advantage, a single furrow should be thrown up,
Towards the old and still-enduring skies, and another back-furrow directly upon it, so as to produce a high ridge, and another ridge is to be made in the same manner with a deep dead-furrow between the two. The process is to be continued
Often breakihg up a surface keeps a soil in thus through the whole field, so that when finished
health-for when it lies in a hard bound state it will present a surface of high ridges and deep dead furrows, succeeding each other, about once enriching showers run off, and the salubrious air in two or two and a half feet. If prepared in this cannot enter.
TOOLS FOR PRUNING.
While the low violet thriveth at their root.
For the New England Farmer.
THE ARGAN TREE. MACHINE FOR PEELING WILLOW.
The following letter, descriptive of the Argan MR. BROWN :-Those of your numerous readers tree, by the British Acting Vice Consul at Mogawho are engaged, or contemplate engaging in the dore, will be read with interest. The tree is valcultivation of the basket willow, will be pleased to uable in dry countries as furnishing what is there learn that there is a machine for peeling the wil. much wanted, a supply of food for cattle in seasons low. Mr. GEORGE F. Coley, of Jamesville, Vt., of drought. thé inventor, has had a machine made by which its
The Argan tree grows more or less throughout merits have been fully tesied; and all who have the States of Western Barbary, but principally in witnessed its operation, agree that it does the work the province of Haba, and south of this town. to perfection and with the greatest facility, and be- The soil on wbich it is found is light, sandy, and lieve it to be one of the greatest labor saving ma- very stony. It is usually found upon the hills, chines of the age. This, I believe, is the first ma- which are barren of all else, and where irrigation chine ever invented for the purpose, either in this is impossible. or the old country, and must add vastly to the cul- I should imagine, from the appearance of some tivation of the article in this country. Mr. C., who of the trees, that they are from one to two hunhas been successfully engaged in the cultivation of dred years old ; and a remarkably large one in the willow for several years, estimates the cost of tbis neighborhood, I should say, is at least three peeling, in the ordinary way, at from $80 to $120 hundred. This tree measures round the trunk per acre, or at $10 perion, while he claims that his twenty-six feet; at the height of three feet it machine, which requires but one horse power, with branches off, one of them measures eleven feet two men, will do the same work within at least near the trunk ;) these branches rest upon the from two to three days, at the rate of one ton per ground about fifteen feet from the trunk, and day. Mr. C. has taken measures to secure a patent. again ascend. The highest branch of this tree Bolton, Vl., Dec., 1854. J. R. JEWELL.
is not more than sixteen to eighteen feet: the
outer branches extend to a circumference of 220 THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY FARMER.–Prof. feet. This is the largest I am aware of. J. A. Nash, of Amberst, bas become the editor and The system of propagation in this vicinity is Proprietor of this paper, and we find its columns mostly by seed. When sowing, a little manure is filled with the well written and valuable facts so placed with it, and it is well watered until it shoots, familiar to the mind of the writer. The Valley from which period it requires nothing further. It Farmer, under the care of Prof. Nash, will be the bears fruit at from three to five years, which ripens medium of such intelligence as most of us need in from May to August, (according to the situation the operations of the farm. We wish it abundant of the tree.) The roots extend to a great distance success.
under ground, and shoots make their appearance Postage.—Gentlemen writing the Agricultural at intervals, which are allowed to remain, thus Editor on their own affairs, and requiring a reply, doing away with the necessity for transplanting will be kind enough to enclose a stamp for the re- or sowing: As the fruit ripens, herds of goats, turn letter.
sheep, and cows are taken out; a man beats the Pretty FINE CABBAGE.-W. C. Hoff, Esq., tree with a long pole, and the nuts fall and are bas sent us from his fine gardens, at the Mission devoured voraciously by the cattle. In the evenDolores, a very compact and finely grown Cab- ing they are driven bome, and when comfortably bage, of the Flat Dutch variety, weighing 32 1-2 settled in the yard they commence chewing the lbs. If any of our cultivators can beat this, we cud and throw out the nuts, which are collected should like they would bring along their specimens. each morning as soon as the cattle have departed -California Farmer.
upon their daily excursion. I have heard it reFEED LIBERALLY.—It is generally acknowl- marked that the nut passes through the stomach edged that cattle of any kind, when well fed and of the animal ; but this is only a casualty and not looked after, repay much more fully the judicious a general rule. Large quantities are collected by outlay incurred for their maintenanee, than ill kept women and children, which are well dried; the animals repay the niggardly expenditure incurred hull is taken off and stored for the camels' and in keeping them alive. Profit is derived only from mules traveling in the winter. They are conthe excess above that wbich is absolutely necessa- sidered very nutritious. ry; the quanity of nourishment which just keeps The process of extracting the oil is very simple. an animal alive, is to a certain extent lost. This The nuts are cracked by the women and children. we say is generally acknowledged, but we are sor- The kernels are then parched in a common earthry to say, not so generally practiced upon.-Rural en vessel, ground in bandmills of this country, New Yorker.
then put in a pan, a little cold water sprinkled GENEROUS PRICE For Fruit.-Two splendid upon it; then it is well worked by the hand (much Oregon l'ippins, weighing 2 1-2 and 2 1-4 lbs., and the same as kneading dough) until the oil sepaone splendid Pear, weighing, 1 3-4 lbs., were sold by rates itself, when the refuse is well pressed, wbich Mr. Weaver, at No. 1 Washington Street, at $10 completes the process. The oil is let stand and each.— California Farmer.
the sediment removed. The cake (in which a WINTERING CABBAGE PLANTS.-Any method good deal of oil remains) is generally given to the simple and inexpensive, for preserving of autumn milch cows or goats. Some of these Argans are sown cabbage plants through the winter, is a valu- in clusters, others single trees. able consideration. We know of none better adopted for the great bulk of people, than the following, practiced to a considerable extent by mar
Our doctrines are — feed the earth, and it ket gardeners, and in dry, sandy or upland soil
, will feed you — feed the apple tree, and it will with good success.
yield fair fruit.