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It A LESSON IN ITSELF SUBLIME.
full credit to the statement, and do not now.
seems to me hardly possible to find a cow that A lesson in itself sublime,
will give milk, that will yield more than a pound A lesson worth enshrining,
of butter to each and every eight quarts of her Is this "I take no heed of time,
milk-whatever may be the breed. If I could Save when the sun is shining."
find a herd of cows that would do this, I should These motto words a dial bore,
be satisfied. And wisdom never teaches
Dec. 25, 1854.
For the New England Farmer.
"A Medley."'-As this article in the January There is no grove on earth's broad chart
Farmer is devoted to myself, I wish for a little But has some bird to cheer it ;
more space in reply than would be adınissible in So hope sings ou in every heart,
the narrow limits of my usual monthly review; Although we may not hear it; And if to-day the heavy wing
not so much from any desire or intention of conOf sorrow is oppressing,
troversy as for an opportunity of giving the reaPerchance to-morrow's sun will bring
sons for my caution against mortgages. AgreeThe weary heart a blessing.
ing perfectly with friend Durand, that every For life is sometimes bright and fair, writer should be allowed his own “say,” I have And sometimes dark and lonely,
never supposed that any of my running comThen let's forget its toil and care,
ments could be considered as an infringement on And note its bright hours only.
this privilege, especially as I fully believe in the We bid the joyous moments haste,
correctness of the sentiment, bluntly, expressed And then forget their glitter
by old Dr. Johnson to one of his sensitive friends, We take the cap of life, and tasto
“Depend upon it, sir, no man was erer written No portion but the bitter :
down but by himself.” But we should teach our hearts to deem
Regarding the subject of mortgages as one of Its sweetest drops the strongest ;
vital importance to the young farmer, and beAnd pleasant hours should ever seem To linger round us longest.
lieving that a false step on this ground is often As life is sometimes bright and fair,
the most fatal and irretraceable of his whole And sometimes dark and lonely, course, I am induced to give somewhat in detail Let us forget its toil and care,
my personal experience with mortgages, although And note its bright hours only.
by so doing I expose myself to the charge of egoThe darkest shadows of the night
tism-but, “how can we reason but from what Are just before the morning ; Then let us wait the coming light,
For the sake of distinctness, we will allude to All boding phantoms scorning ;
our experiences in the mortgage line, as they ocAnd while we're passing on the tide
curred in the order of time. of Time's fast ebbing river,
No. 1. The small fund of money that I saved Let's pluck the blossoms by its side,
of my earnings, for some three or four years afAnd bless the gracious Giver.
ter twenty-one, was devoted to a debt on the As life is sometimes bright and fair, homestead, that descending from my grandfathAnd sometimes dark and lonely,
er, was lived under by my father, and, after myWe should forget its pain and care,
self, was assumed by two others of his sons; yet And note its bright hours only.
the old farm had to be sold at last, and the fam
ily name of your humble "commentator” passed For the New England Farmer. from the title-deeds to the “ancient domain." REMARKS ON COWS.
Among the earliest recollections of my boyhood,
that of the efforts of my parents to raise” the Mr. Editor:- I was much pleased with the means for paying the interest” is not the most good sense manifested in your description of a pleasant. That favorite colt, that web of cloth cow for family use, in your last paper. Just af- spun by my mother's own hands and needed by ter I read that, I took up, an excellent paper, the backs of her boys, and many other things published at Manchester, N. H., in which was that went, not to kill, but merely to keep alive, copied from the London Agricultural Gazette some that mortgage, are among the indelible impresremarks about "an extraordinary cow.” I was sions of my first experience.” curious to know what was deemed an “extraordi- No. 2. I loaned some money to a man in nary cow” in London. This animal is said to Michigan, whose land was paid for, and who had have yielded fifteen quarts of milk daily, on grass put up one of the neatest log-houses I ever saw. feed alone, four months after calving, of a qual-Three split logs, placed one above the other, were ity to give eloven and a half pounds of butter in of such size as to raise the walls sufficiently high a week. Pretty well this, but how does it com- for the roof, giving a comparatively smooth ceilpare with what is said of some of the cows and ing, and a look of solidity and comfort within, heifers of your own Middlesex? If I do not mis- far superior to the usual style of smaller, unsplit take, gentlemen there have boasted of their De- logs. The good woman "shuddered” at the von Stock, as yielding products far better than idea of a mortgage, and, with tears said to her this. Milk of a quality to give a pound of but- husband, “It will turn us and our children out ter to each and every four quarts, -on grass feed of the home we have labored so hard to make alone. This may be sw, but I never could givel comfortable." But, almost in the language of
Mr. Durand, he replied, “I cannot afford to let With his axe and a borrowed auger he made our land lie idle,—there is no if nor and about chairs, tables, milkpans, and a bedstead which it, -I must have a team and do something." He was corded with strans of bark. did have a team, and soon told me he had thirty He then went bravely at the giant oaks but it acres in wheat, but then he must have a large was slow work to clear off their huge tru s, and barn and other “improvements,” which left noth- he soon saw that himself and wife, his oxen and ing from his crops for the mortgage. The result cow might starve before he could get in and harwas, that long after the mortgage was “out,” vest a crop. He was ashamed to beg, and would not having enough of the Shylock in my compo- not borrow. So he broke up "housekeeping, sition to foreclose," an exchange for newer and left his land to "lie unimproved,” and let himcheaper land was effected ; and if the good wo- self by the month to purchase provisions for a fuman and her children were not exactly turned ture campaign against the noble old forest monout of house and home, as she predicted, they had archs. After clearing land a few years, but makto exchange the old home, with its garden and ing rather slow progress, he exchanged his eighty beautiful young orchard, for one without these acres of timbered land for one-half as many of comforts, and without the associations that clus- “Openings" which were mostly subdued. Mere ter around the first place." Nearly twenty he soon got a start in the world; improved his years have elapsed, and that mortgage is still buildings; bought more land; collected about alive-only a part of the principal, to say noth- him the conveniences of life, and years ago, ading of interest, then loaned, has found its way mitted to me that he had as much property as he back to my pocket.
wanted. No. 3. Secured by a mortgage on a small I will here remark, that I regard a mortgage New England farm, I loaned a small sum of mo- for the purchase-money of real estate, as quite a ney. The mortgagor never paid a cent of either different thing from one for "improvements," or principal or interest, but long after the notes conveniences of any kind. Two of my four mortwere over due,” they were paid in full hy a son gages were given for the purchase-money of the of his who was a merchant's clerk, and wished to premises ; and both these were paid off. But give his parents a home.
enough has been written on this topic for once, No. 4. Lastly, for a few years as mortgagor, and we leave it here. I have tried "living under a mortgage on a When I wrote the caption of this article, I small farm. I had but just shaken it from my thought of making some remarks upon Mr. Dushoulders, when I commented so warmly upon rand's stricture on my comments on "Improving Mr. Durand's recommendation of mortgages, and Soils by Shade.” If he will read the first column made the awkward, but, I think, very natural of that article on page 499, November Farmer, in comparison of the "nightmare.” With a pretty connection with his own strictures, I am willing large family to support, with semi-annual inter- to abide the decision of the tribunal to which he est to meet, with a grim “principal” looming up appeals, waiving my right to the closing arguin the rear but not in the distance, and with the ment. The space he occupies with comments income of the labor of but a single pair of hands, on a few lines from my review, will suggest to if a man don't experience something like the him the impossibility of my profiting much by “nightmare," then what does he experience ? his advice. To place the leading, or some strik
So much for my trials of mortgages. From what ing idea of an article in a position that shall exI have seen of their operation in other hands, I cite curiosity, or to present some additional hint believe that my four experiments may be taken or fact, has been the humble object of my monthas a fair average of the whole, were their history ly medleys. Anything like the plan suggested to be as honestly written.
by Mr. Durand would occupy quite too much We thence infer that of every four mortga- space. If I have done his articles injustice by ges which are fastened on farms, two, or one- my brief extracts, or by unfair criticism, it was half of the whole, unhouse the mortgagor or his certainly unintentional. Of all the many writdescendants ; and of those that are paid, one- ers whose labors have done so much to give the half are indebted to trade, or some source other Farmer a reputation for sound sense and practithan farming, for the means with which it is cal value, he is the last one with whose feelings done.
I would intentionally trifle. A READER. Did I, then, make "an uncommon great bug Winchester, 1855. bear out of very small materials ?" "A little shows what a great deal means ;' and on this
A HOME FOR ALL. principle I wish to be excused for parading so much of my personal history, and for my appre Under this attractive title, the house of Fowlciation of the “materials” it affords, not to ers and Wells, Publishers, 142 Washington St., “frighten” but to caution. In contrast with the mortgage principle in volume of 200 pages, written by 0. S. Fowler,
and 308 Broadway, N. Y., have issued a ncat general, and with that of my No. 3 in particular, as well as to illustrate the truth of the ad- one of the firm. It describes the gravel-wall plan, age, that “where there's a will, there's a way,"lof building, and discusses the following heads :even without a resort to mortgages, I wish to 1. Nature's Building Materials. 2. Wood is obgive the outlines of the history of another Mich jectionable. 3. Brick. 4. The Lime, Gravel and igan farmer, who had just money enough to Stone Walls. 5. Selection of the material. 6. "take up," at government price, an eighty-acre lot of timbered land, pay for a c'w, a small pair Lime, its proportion, and mode of mixing. 7. of oxen with yoke and chain. Felling a few Placing and working the mortar-bed. 8. Relative trees, his neighbors helped him put up a cabin. cost of the gravel-wall. 9. Foundations. 10.
Mode of placing the boards for boxes. 11. Scaf
For the New England Farmer. folding. 12. Width of walls and their solidity. SELECTION OF APPLES. 13. Door and window frames. 14. The top of
In grafting or planting an brchard, it is of the the wall. 15. Chimneys, ventilation, &c. 16. utmost importance to obtain the best varieties unOutside and inside finish. 17. Cost of the gravel- der cultivation, those which are productive, the wall. 18. The quality of this gravel-wall, and, fruit of the first quality and the trees hardy, and 19. Vermin are excluded from it. The work is vigorous growers. In selecting, we should apnot confined, merely, to the subject of construct- proach as near as possible to this standard, al
though there are but few varieties that unite all ing buildings on this plan, but speaks of the requi- these qualities. Varieties are so numerous at the sites of a good, comfortable home, and some of its present day, that recommending a selection for embellishments. Those who intend to build may cultivation is rather perplexing, and difficult. find this book valuable to them.
There are many kinds which rank as first-rate, although there is a difference of opinion with re
gard to some of them ; this is not surprising' as For the New England Farmer. tastes differ. An apple which one might pro
nounce first-rate, and which, indeed, might be so, PLOWING LANDS IN AUTUMN.
another, perhaps, would call second-rate : yet MR. EDITOR :- I was surprised to see my name there are kinds with respect to which nearly all in your paper under a private communication are agreed, and which are universally known as requesting you or some friend to write, (if you first quality ; these should be extensively propathought best) against a prevalent practice which gated. Having been engaged in grafting, many I considered detrimental to good husbandry, viz.: years, I have had an opportunity to learn somePlowing lands on which corn and all hoed crops thing by experience and observation of many vahad been raised the past summer, and which had rieties. Although my knowledge of the subject is been highly manured the previous spring. I re- limited, compared with many others, I propose to gret that I was understood in that communica- name a few varieties for cultivation, having been tion to be against fall or autumn plowing, ex- familiar with them all for years, and found them cepting the lands above named. I know that all all things considered, among the best. I can with grass or stubble lands should be plowed early in confidence recommend the following list, nearly the fall, before the frost kills the vegetation. all of which may be found described in Cole's The diffrence between plowing such lands before fruit book. or after the vegetation is killed is similar in point Early Williams,
American Red Juneating, Leland Pippin, of economy, to plowing in a field of clover in its
Porter, green state, or letting it remain until it is noth
Shirley Apple, or Foundling, Superb Sweet, ing but dry straw.
Danvers Winter Sweet, Hubbardston Nonsuch,
Rhode Island Greening, I was as much surprised at the remarks of
Roxbury Russet, your correspondent, “A. K. P. W.," as he was
Seaver Sweet, at mine. I did not believe there was one farmer Mother,
Priest Sweeting. in New England who had given the subject due
0. V. Hills. consideration, that would say the manure left on
Leominster, Dec., 1854. the surface by the last hoeing, say in the middle of July, and remained there until the middle of
For the New England Farmer. November, (four months) would retain much if
THE DIANA GRAPE. any of its fertilizing properties, or that it would be good economy to plow up a fresh supply of Mr. Brown :-In the “Transactions of the inexhausted manura to cover the little that re- Middlesex County Agricultural Society for the mained on the surface which had been already year 1853,” which I had the pleasure to receive exhausted in promoting the growth of the last from you, I find the following, speaking of the crop. Such a course would expose that fresh fruit exhibited: “Hovey & Co. had a plate of supply to be exhausted by inhalation for the en- the famous Diana Grapes. They seem to be a suing six mouths, without a particle of benefit to cross between the Sweetwater and Hamburg. the next crop. “Money makes money,” it is We understood that they are ripened with diffithe same with manure.
culty in the open air." Let us examine this “A. K. P. W.” says that fall plowing kills statement and see if it is correct. When I first the insects which destroy the crops. It may be saw the above I was inclined to think that it was 80, but a New England farmer who will not hus- a mistake of the printer-that unfortunate class band his manure to the best advantage, will not who have to shoulder so much blame—but if it long have crops for himself or insects to destroy: was, why did not the proof reader find it out and He also says that lands plowed in the fall stand correct it, or did he not know but what all that the drought better than if plowed in the spring. was said would apply to this variety of grape ? If so, that must be attributed to some peculiarity That the Diana is a famous grape I will not deof his soil.
ny; it is bound to become more so : but that it As manure is the great desideratum, I would is a cross between the Sweetwater and Hamburg ask, what is the best method of rendering one I do deny, as it bears no relation to either of those dressing of manure the most valuable for the sev- varieties in any respect. It was raised from a eral succeeding crops ?
seed of the Catawba, by Mrs. Diana CREHORE, of Yours respectfully,
Milton, Mass., who received the grapes from
H. S. PERRIX. Squire SEAVER, of Roxbury, who had a very flourOrfordrille, Dec. 18, 1854.
ishing vine of that variety, which, though its
J. F. C. 1.
original owner is dead-still lives. It was orig- About the second or third hoeing I will put ininated several years ago, and shown at the Mass. to each hill a spoonful or more of guano and hoe Hort. Society, when their rooms were in Tremont it in. I have always put a portion of my manstreet, and named by the Society, in honor of its ure into the hill, sometimes as much or more originator. Until within the last five years it has than I spread before plowing. My corn has alattracted but little attention. “We understood ways been remarkably thrifty, until about time that they are ripened with difficulty in the for the ears to form, when the plant would seem open air.
A greater mistake could not have to wantsustenance to finish its work, consebeen made, and I am surprised that any Commit- quently I would get a full growth of "fodder” tee that had had any experiences or associated and a moderate yield of corn. I think the corn with those who had, or even read the reports of plant is benefited by the manure in the hill durthe different Agricultural and Horticultural Soci- ing the time its stalks are growing, say in May, eites, should ever prepare such a statement for the June and July, when the periphery of the feedpress. The great merit of this variety is in ing roots extend far beyond the circumference of its early ripening,-a fortnight at least before the hill leaving few feeding roots near the centre the Isabella, and four weeks before the Catawba. of the base of the plant. Now it is not to be wonThe greatest grape grower of Massachusetts says dered at if the manure is chiefly placed in the hill, it will be fifty years before we get a grape supe- that the plant should be thrifty while the extremrior to the Diana, that it will ripen when the Is- ities of the roots are working their way through abella wili fail. I will not accuse the committee the hill ; nor is it any more strange that the earof making this wrong statement for any selfish or ing should be moderate when their supplies are wrong motives, nor am I disposed to find fault furnished by roots which have extended their with their report merely for the sake of finding feeders far and wide, until their extremities meet fault, but because I saw that such a report was and mingle with the roots of neighboring hills. calculated to do mischief by leading people as- The fulness of the ear and kernel must in a great tray. I think it will be hard to find a better measure depend upon the supply of nourishment hardy grape, or one that ripens earlier. found by the roots after they have extended from Newton Centre.
the hill. If the manure be mostly spread and plowed in, we expect that it benefits the crop
most when it is most needed, viz. : when it is For the New England Farmer.
forming the kernel. LIME--SALT...THE CORN CROP. The corn crop draws the base of its support Messrs. EDITORS :- I have read something of from the ground; its roots extend wide and deep; Prof. Mapes' ideas of using salt as a manure in their microscopic filaments absorb only the moist connection with lime. The lime is to be slaked minute particles of nourishment which pass with a solution of common salt, and to be used along the vessels undergoing chymification and for sowing broadcast with oats, etc. We wish to chylification, a complete process of digestion, unknow whether this manure “will pay” when til it is fitted and entirely adapted to invigorate lime costs $3,00 per tierce and salt 58. per bush- the system that has taken it. It converts the el. Also we want to know how much of the gross particles of the earth into sugar for the preparation will pay” to lay on an acre, and, stalk and milk for the seed. also,why it will not answer to apply it to the hill Chemically viewed, the corn plant is a laborafor corn? I have tried the old fashioned method tory compared to which Prof. Mapes' is but a of raising corn, and raised from 25 to 40 bushels shadow. "Its crucibles are self-formed from its to the acre, until I think I can improve the crop germ ; its furnace the glorious sun ; its material by improving the method of cultivation. The elicited from the gross matters that compose the following is the plan I propose "doing the corn crust of the earth itself; its experiments always business" next year. I have a piece of iand with successful, and its product what no human art a smooth, rolling surface, and moderate southern can equal—a golden ear of corn. slope. The soil is somewhat sandy, light, with Physically, it may be compared to the human heavy clay bottom ; it has been plowed usually digestion, first dissolving its food, then separating 4 inches in depth, and the crops taken off since its chyme and chyle, and conducting the refined the memory of the oldest inhabitant;' conse- matter along various channels and through variquently the surface was nearly exhausted to the ous organs, eliminating all the secretions necesdepth of four inches when I plowed the field two sary to its own growth until it is lodged in such vears ago, manured broadcast with about 25 parts, where it is needed to forin and sustain the loads to the acre, and planted to corn, producing perfect man. a fair yield. Last year it was manured broad- The growth of the stock is of less consequence cast and plowed in, producing a very heavy crop than the production of the car.
The stock is of oats. About 16 loads to the acre were plowed mostly formed when the supplies are largely in for the oats. On this piece I propose raising drawn from the hill, and the ear when the matecorn next year. I shall spread and plow in (ten rial is gained mostly froin the adjacent soil, in the inches deep) 40 or 50 loads of stable manure to latter part of July, August and early in Septemthe acre, harrow well and plow again crosswise ; ber. harrow again, and strike the furrows 3 feet The largest growth of stocks is not necessary apart and about 8 or 10 inches deep, then cross- to the greatest production of corn, yet it is necfurrow the same depth. Then take a bag of essary to get a certain amount of vigorous stock guano (Peruvian) on one side, and a bag of seed-in a healthy and thrifty state, when the ears corn on the other; with a hoe I will fill the fur- set and the fall feeding is to commence to form rows where they cross each other ; mix a little of the kernel. If an adequate supply of nourishthe guano with the soil, and plant my corn. ment is placed within reach of the plant at the
right time the ears will be numerous, large, long Worcester and at Barre-and know that there and well-filled, the kernel plump, fat and shining, are other towns in other counties, that can do as other things being equal.
well or better, if tempted to undertake it, we To conclude, I should expect the greatest have hope remaining, that the days of "improveyield of corn to the farmer, who, (ceteris pari- ment in agriculture” have not all passed away ; bus) furnished the largest supply of manure and -and that the ancient landmarks are still worthy commingled it to the greatest depth and in the most to be regarded with respect.
Essex. intimate way with the soil, planting properly, and Dec. 26, 1854. keeping down the growth of all extraneous substances.
TRAINING HORSES FOR THE SADDLE. The average corn crop in the southern part of
We have always been of opinion that horses Vermont, as far as my acquaintance extends, is,
were used under great disadvantages, irksomely in my opinion, not over 30 bushels to the acre. to themselves, besides awkwardly and annoying Some few poor farmers I know, who do not get to their riders who had not been educated, or, 20 bushels' to the acre, whilst others average, as it is called, "broke in,” for the purpose for taking the years together, over 60;, very few 80; which they were intended. Compared with the and rarely do I see a crop that yields 100 bush
number who receive no “breaking” at all-or els to the acre. The town of Guilford, I think,
none save what little they get to quiet them to will compare favorably with the average of towns domesticity, from the hands of the country "colt in the south part of Vermont, for it exports more breaker,” how few are they who have once had a than it receives from other towns. This town produces about as much pork as is mount an animal of this numberless class, and
schoolmaster's whip over their heads. And yet, consumed, quite a surplus of beef and butter, then afterwards throw the leg over a really broke about its own supply of cheese, and a surplus of
or managed horse, and the difference is likely to. oats, barley and most kinds of fruit. The exports of fruit consist chiefly of apples, pears and between riding a horse and riding a cow. True
prove as great as-speaking not so very wildlypeaches, some of which are not exceeded. A few it is, with persons who do not from experience of our farmers are beginning to give a share of understand this, riding is riding, so long as it be attention to growing some of the finer varieties of the grape, which, at present bid fair to be re-would as soon ride a donkey as an awkward, no
on horseback ; but a true and expert horseman munerative. Quinces, wool, and early lambs for
mouthed, no-paced horse. market, are no small sources of revenue to many
On all occasions it is a consideration of moof our friends.
E. G. Cross.
ment to avoid alarming a horse ; and although Guilford Centre, Dec. 8, 1854.
this applies to every hour of his life, it is of great
er consequence with young than with aged horsFor the New England Farmer. es ; that is to say, young ones will be alarmed at ANCIENT LANDMARKS.
trifling objects, which at a future age they would
not notice. In this day of progress extraordinary, by the The control which we acquire over the horse power of steam and with the speed of lightning, depends upon the mouth, and likewise a vast proit is gratifying to find some things stable and un- portion of the agreeable or disagreeable associashaken. Never were we more strongly impressed tions which render exercise on horseback pleaswith this sentiment, than on turning over the ant or toilsome. A good mouth is the medium leaves of the 36th Annual Report of the Worces- by which any improvement in the natural carter Agricultural Society. Thirty-six years ago, riage of an animal is to be accomplished. When thought we, who were then in the ascendant, and going at a slow pace, the way in which a horse where are they now? Nearly all those in active carries himself may, to a very considerable extent, life then have passed away: "One honored name be controlled ; but when at full speed, or even still remains, vigorous and instructive, as appears when nearly approximating that pace, his unre upon these pages. Hence a lesson, despise not the strained action must prevail. By habit in the instruction of the Fathers. “Young folks think slow paces, improvement in the faster ones may old folks fools-Old folks know young ones to be be slightly obtained; but that must be brought 80.” If we do not mistake, this 'modest volume abouť by very moderate attempts, otherwise the of about 100 pages will be found to contain les-action of the animal, far from being corrected, sons of instrruction, worthy of preservation, None will inevitably be rendered worse. A horse that of your images stuffed for show-but real sub- bends himself nicely, is undoubtedly more pleasstantial matter. We refer particularly to the ant to ride than one which runs with his nose statements and reports on the management of down to his knees; or the reverse, with his head farms—of dairis, —of root crops, &c. The wit in rivalry with that of his rider ; and such defects poured out on swine, and other kindred topics, are, in most cases, capable of correction if propwill do very well at the table, but is hardly wor-erly treated in juvenile days; but too much conthy a place on the shelf of a library. It requires straint is adverse to pace both for racing or hunta Fessenden, a Lincoln or a Poole, to use wit on ing. When a horse carries his head too high, it topics agricultural, in a manner that will not be- may, in many instances, be remedied by using a come stale.
curb, without any port, but with rather long We trust the dairy experiments in this volume cheeks, and the curb chain hung quite loose. Acwill commend themselves to the favor of those who companied with good hands, this often produces elicited them. We had almost despaired of any- an excellent effect, especially with young horses, thing good (except good dinners) coming from the which are disposed to contend against the control efforts of the Mass. Society. But when we see of a martingale. such products, as have been brought forth at It may appear as a contradiction, but when