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horse carries his head too low, a curb bridle will should be particularly attended to, for such often be found the best remedy; and the contra- horses are very subject to hang on the bit-an diction is cleared up by the remark, that it is the imperfection likely to increase with age, if not way of adjusting and using the curb, that the counteracted. Although I so far advocate the difference of effect is produced. For the latter use of double rein or curb bridles for certain purpose, a short-cheeked bit, when judicious- purposes, let me not be misunderstood as recomly used, will, with many subjects, be found ef- mending them for general use ; quite the reverse. fectual ; and, in order to render it so, the hands A horse with a good mouth, carrying his head must be raised higher than usual at the precise in the true position, never goes "so freely and instant when the animal endeavors to drop his pleasantly to himself, as with a snaffle bridle ; head; by this means the curb is brought into but it is to teach the horse how to carry himaction, but should be again released when a self, that the curb is in many cases of great utiliproper position of the head is obtained. This ty.

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Our engraving represents the standard climbing have if budded on them, as I had some latent roses, formed by budding the different varieties idea that they would form very graceful penduof climbing roses upon stocks of the standard

lous trees; I accordingly selected from that famvarieties. We sometimes see stocks like minia- trees are, in the blooming season, pictures of

ily a few of its most interesting varieties. These ture trees; and these, by some of our most en- beauty ; not a shoot has ever been touched by thusiastic rose growers, have been transformed the pruning-knife; there is consequently no forinto “ weeping tree roses” —the most beautiful mality; their beauty consists in their gracefulornaments for lawns and gardens which can be

ness and rusticity, which is quite refreshing in imagined. Mr. Rivers, an English floriculturist, varieties of standard roses.

contrast to the closely pruned heads of the finer was one of the first to illustrate and draw attention to the matter. He speaks of them as fol

Mr. Barry says that our native sweet brier, to lows:

be found in all parts of the country, is one of the

best stocks for the purpose. The double prairie “Some six years since, having some rose-stocks five or six feet high, and stout as broom-handles, roses, Queen of the Prairies, Baltimore Belle, I was induced to try what effect some of the Perpetual Pink, and other varieties, furnish flowbeautiful varieties of Rosa Sempervirens woulders of the proper character for budding.

STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. large amounts of grass purchased and cured in orThe State Board of Agriculture held a session der to increase the cows so as to furnish the supply

But with this at the State House on Wednesday, Thursday of milk demanded at the School. and Friday, the 3d, 4th and 5th of January.

extraneous help this demand has not yet been supEvery part of the State was represented, and the plied. More land and more buildings are needed

before the business of the farm can be successfully reports of the several committees were presented, discussed and referred. They show the improve

prosecuted. ments commenced, completed and anticipated.

At the meeting of the Board of Agriculture on Among those completed are a building for the Thursday morning, Gov. WASHBURN was izresent, accommodation of the numerous small tools used and presided until he was called away to attend by the boys, such as forks, rakes, hoes, shovels, to other duties at the Council Chamber. He

said &c. ; a room for blacksmithing, one for depositing carts, sleds and large farming utensils, one

“ Before leaving the Chair, as it was probably

the last time he should have the honor to meet devoted to corn-cribs, and for shelling of sufficient capacity to contain two thousand bushels, a car

with them in that capacity, he would say a few riage room, carpenter's shop, and

a room for pre- them individually, as well as to the cause in which

words at parting. He should be doing injusticc to serving and storing seeds. Another building has been completed sufficiently large to give one hun- they were engaged, if he forbore to express to dred swine ample yards, feeding and sleeping

to them the high personal regard which bis inrooms; overhead is a large room for storing bed

tercourse with them had so much strengthened, ding or litter, and for keeping apples, pumpkins, and the interest he felt in their efforts to promote small potatoes, or any of the early perishable ar

. ticles which make up a considerable portion of

It had been a source of profound satisfaction the provender for swine in the autu.nnal months. to him that he had been permitted to take a This building is accommodated with capacious

humble part with them in urging forward the cisterns for receiving swill from the family of

work in which they were engaged. And he nearly six hundred at the Reform School, and for

eounted it by ho means the least of the honors steaming vegetables or grain if thought desirable. connected with the place ghich gave him the

that In the front part of this building is a commodi- privilege of meeting and acting with them, ous slaughter-house, with a well and pump, and

it had brought him into intimate relation with such conveniences as are necessary where slaugh

gentlemen who constituted that Board, and to tering is required as often as once a week. The know, by personal observation, their devotion to work is all done in a plain but substantial man

the purposes, for which the Board was created. ner, and the building affords such facilities for

He was happy to believe that the interests of swine-breeding and raising as have enabled the agriculture were assuming that importance in the Board to find a profit of some $200 in the course public mind, which their extent and magnitude of nine months in this department of the farm. demanded. Its position among the other callNew and substantial stone walls have been erec- ings and pursuits of our citizens was becoming ted, drains made, and various expedients devised better understood and appreciated in the common for the increase and preservation of manures.

wealth than it had hitherto been. The amount of produce sold from the farm

Not a little of this was owing to the character during the year amounts to four thousand seven and influence of the members of this Board, and hundred and seven dollars and thirty-eight cents, men like them, who had brought to it character, and the amount of labor done on the farm for intelligence and practical experience. The need permanent improvements and for labor done for of some measure to elevate agriculture and prothe Reform School amounts to one thousand eight mote its success in the commonwealth, had long hundred and thirty-six dollars.

been felt. How it could best be done has long The operations of the Board have been limited been a desideratum in the policy of government. and impeded by the want of proper buildings to The plan which had now been adopted seemed to board the workmen, and suitable buildings must him, in the present state of science and of public either be purchased or erected for this purpose. sentiment, the best, or perhaps, the only one that The farm now lies mostly on one side of the could be devised. buildings, and the Board propose to ask the Leg- It brought to the subject the combined knowlislature to purchase certain contiguous lands and edge and experience of gentlemen from different buildings, all conveniently located, to obviate the parts of the commonwealth, who, by full conferpresent existing difficulties. If this request is ence with each other, were able to test theories, granted, it will afford pasturage and mowing so and elicit what the public want to know, the as to double the number of cows now kept. Dur- truth of these as determined by accurate experiing the last year, pastures have been hired, and ment and sound observation. It provided, too,

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for a body of men whose interests were the same hill; the potatoes on this piece were light, exwith those of every farmer in the commonwealth, cepting two or three rows under the shade of a and whose judgment and accuracy could not be fence. I had still another piece of land, a moist, impeached by suspicion of improper bias or self-half I applied plaster in the hill. Where I put

rich loam, on which I planted potatoes ; to oneinterest. He could not but congratulate the peo-plaster, I got 21 lbs. of potatoes; where I did ple of the commonwealth in the promised results not, I got 23 lbs., or in that proportion. of this system. Nor could he, with less satisfac- It is a question with me whether the plaster tion, congratulate them that they had been made that I used was good. I have no means of the honored instruments in carrying out so inter- ever the poorer for the application of plaster.

analyzing. I did not know before that crops were esting and important an experiment. He doubt- The plaster came from Vermont. ed not they would continue to pursue the objects

Yours, &c., E. P. Woods. for which they had been appointed, and would Newport, N. H., Dec. 20, 1854. find their reward in a proper appreciation of their services by a generous and confiding com

For the New England Farmer. munity.

OFFICIAL VISITS TO FARMERS. In taking leave of his associates at that Board, TO THE Hon. M. P. WILDER :-Dear Sir,-In over whose deliberations he had been permitted to view of your position, experience and influence, preside for a brief period, he again assured them from connection with Agricultural Societies and of his sentiments of high personal respect, of his with the State Board of Agriculture, you will

excuse me for making further demands upon your best wishes for their success in every pursuit of attention by the following suggestions.

It is not life, and for their long-continued happiness and uncommon for men who have given their prinprosperity.

cipal attention to one branch of business, for the He thereupon left the chair, which was re- purpose of money-making, especially if they are sumed by the senior member present, and took exhibit plainly—to demonstrate, as matters of

bright, thorough men, to be superior, able to leave of the Board."

fact, the results of their experience—to give reli

able instruction, directions and examples of their For the New England Farmer.

skill and success in that one branch. This they

are free to do, it may be as philanthropists, to FALL PLOWING----PLASTER.

benefit others, but surely as men. It is human MR. BROWN :—There has been a number of nature. Said a sailor, “ you know we all love to articles in the Farmer recently upon

6. Fall

talk about that which lies nearest our heart." Plowing;” my experience has led me to be in He has done so to get more perfect knowledge of favor of plowing at that season. I used to be his darling theme, or to get credit for his supetroubled by the worms eating my corn ; but for rior skill and work. I have found just such men the last three or four years, I have plowed the of concentrated genius and high standing in variground late in the fall, where I was going to ous occupations. I have one in my eye, who plant corn the next year; and since this has could tell you, and show the best constructed been my practice, I have not been troubled at all stables and piggeries ; the process of making and by the worms. I think that by plowing late in saving the most and best manure; by confining the fall, the worms and eggs of insects are ex

his attention to stock and swine growing, what posed to the frost and are thus destroyed.

feed and management would give the largest

return for the outlay of every dollar and dime, PLASTER AS A FERTILIZER.

and 60 shoats growing finely, at a cost of one A great deal has been said in regard to the ben- and a half cents each per day ; his good breedefit derived from the use of plaster of Paris, and ing sows, from three to five years old; another I suppose justly said, too, for I know that it is a lot that will average 350 lbs., at eight months great absorbent, and useful in many of its appli- old, at a cost of four and a half cents per pound ; cations ; but my experience the past season has and 1200 loads of manure, with his method of led me to call in question the utility of this making and applying it. This is one man, and sovereign combination of lime with sulphuric his profits are large by pursuing one branch of acid as a fertilizer, as applied to crops. Last business, well understood. spring I planted a patch of potatoes, and be- This article is written to express my conviction tween the hills I planted peas; both came up of the justness of his views, viz., that “the best well and grew nicely ; but about the time of the interests of the State might be promoted by sefirst hoeing, I put a large table-spoonful of plas- lecting an individual in each county to visit the ter around each hill of potatoes and peas, in six farms reported to be good, and learn from the rows, and left the rest of the piece without any farmers their modes of cultivation, and present plaster. The result was, where I put plaster on the facts ascertained through the press, under the peas, they were stone-dead within a week or the appointment and pay of the State.” two; but where I did not put plaster, I had a Some ten years since the writer was appointed, fine crop. When I dug the potatoes, those where by the “ Hampden County Agricultural Society,' the plaster was applied fell short of those where to prepare an article for their next anniversary there was none, at the rate of one bushel in on the subject of " manures,” which he did, and eight rods; the land was a sandy loam. also recommended to the society the employment

I had another piece of potatoes, on like ground, of a discriminating man, for a year, to visit the where I applied plaster to the whole of it in the best farmers, and collect facts deemed most important as improvements and principles in the from engaging in their cultivation ; while others various departments of agricultural science and have gone into the business hap-hazard, without practice, committing them to writing on the knowledge, or experience, or perseverance,

and spot; and from these items to prepare and pub- pronounced it a humbug, because it was with lish, in tract form, a plain, explicit statement them, as a matter of course, a failure. To those and direction on each one; and to circulate these however, who have any taste for pomological little manuals in all the towns, so that each far- pursuits. and have patience to learn something mer, by means of these and his lectures, may be from their own observation and the experience of reached, excited and instructed in a course of others, the pear culture promises a rich harvest. visits, to the great benefit of his family and com- It takes some years, it is true, for pear trees or munity. This suggestion was made in view of pear stocks to come into full bearing ; in fact, the entire destitution of many families of any the longer fruiting is protracted, the better is the reading or lectures upon the subject of their vo- evidence of the healthfulness of the tree, and of cation, and also of the lively interest that would its ultimato productiveness. Some fruit-growers be kindled up by a visit and paper, telling them consider very carly bearing as an evidence of diswhat others are doing, and what they may do, ease in the tree ; and it is often the case that the that would be a subject of conversation and in- transplanting of a young tree will set it to quiry hardly to be expected without such an fruiting for a year or two, when it will apparentagency. That was proposed for immediate adop-ly recover its decimated roots, and take upon tion, in view of the maxim,

itself a vigorous growth for a number of years

without bearing at all. Let no one discard such “ Greatest good is soonest wrought ; Ling'ring.labors come to nought."

a tree. It is only preparing itself for a ten-fold

better ultimate harvest. If in this latitude, and with the increase of pe- There is an impression abroad that all the old riodicals and lecturers, something is doing, still varieties of pears are “ running out” or becoman anxious observer will sigh in view of the slow ing worthless. This is a mistake. It is true progress of ten years, and the languid pulsation that the St. Michael or Doyenne, Crassanne, of very many yet poor farmers and their boys, Chaumontelle, and other favorite old pears, have like old-fashioned nurseries, never budded. deteriorated ; but this is believed to be the result

These things must be looked at ; let them be of a too high cultivation, rather than any intrintaken in hand by the State. Men may be found sic change in the nature of the tree. Certain it who can bring head and heart and hand to this is that the Jargonelle (the “ Espargne of Rowork, with proper inducements, whose influence sier, and the « Gross Quisse Madame” of most will tell on society as certainly and as strikingly of the old French writers,) is the oldest pear exas the operations producing that splendid array tant, and is still not only a prolific bearer, but is of productions from the mechanic's shop, the the best of all the earlier dessert pears. It is nurseries and the farms do on our State Fairs. believed to be identical with the Pyrum TarentiYours truly,

BENJAMIN WILLARD. num of Cato, and the Numidium Græcum of Lancaster, 1854.

Pliny, and has come down to us through more

than two thousand years, For the New England Farmer.

“Unaltered by the frost of time, CULTURE OF THE PEAR.

Or changing circumstance of earth," For more than twenty years has the “ pear fe- in all its original delicacy and excellence. Some ver," as it is called, been raging in this part of of our nurserymen, we are sorry to say, have New England, and many and solemn have been substituted by mistake the Quisse Madame, the predictions that the thing would be run a pear of English origin, for the Jargonelle-and into the ground," and the market so far glutted we see quantities of the former sold under the by over-production, that pears would not pay for latter name in the markets. The two very much the cultivation. Nurseries have been established resemble each other in shape, in the growth of in almost every town-thousands of trees have the wood, and in the time of maturing the fruit, been sold yearly' at auction and at private sale— but the Quisse Madame is much inferior in size and yet, strange to say, the price of pears in the and quality. The true Jargonelle is almost invamarket is higher this year than it ever was before. riably reddish next the sun. A dollar a dozen for handsome dessert

pears

is There are other early or summer varieties an ordinary price. When it is borne in mind worthy of cultivation, such as the Julienne, the that the pear crop is less affected than any Burlingame, the Bergamot, the Sucre Verte, the other fruit crop of this climate by the casualties Dearborn Seedling, the Sabine d'Ete, the Belle of of the seasons, the facts here stated are sufficient Brussells, Souyrain d'Ete, &c. There is also Petit to show that there is no danger of over-produc- Muscat, the fruit of which grows in clusters, and tion.

ripens in July. It takes about a dozen of these A widow lady who owns a small farm of fifty pears to make a mouthful, and they are often sold acres not fifty miles from Boston, has received by the pint or quart at the fruit stands. It is more money the past season from the product of not a viry profitable variety for the market. two pear trees, than from any one other product For an autumn pear, the first to be named is of her farm. When good fruit of this kind sells the Bartlett, or, as it is called in England, Wilas high as $15, and even $20 per barrel, who liams Bon Chretin. This fruit is generally becan doubt its profitableness over any and all other lieved to have originated in Berkshire, England, agricultural or horticultural pursuits ? The mis- and was extensively cultivated by Mr. Williams, taken idea that it takes half a life-time to bring near London, whose name it bears there. It was pear trees into full bearing has deterred many first cultivated by Enoch Bartlett, Esq., of Dor

FROM THE MIDDLESEX TRANSACTIONS.

chester, which accounts for it synonyme here. which costs two pence three farthings per day. Another account represents it as a pear of Flem- Ten others gained three and a half pounds of ish origin. In the various properties of vigorous flesh, eating six pounds of boiled potatoes daily, growth, great productiveness, delicious Havor, taking nothing with them but salt. Ten others and adaptedness to all soils, and almost all cli- ate the same amount of porridge and buttermilk, mates, no other pear can equal the Bartlett. It without the potatoes, as the first ten, but for dinproduces equally well in the north of Scotland ner had soup; they lost one and a quarter pounds and in the island of Malta.

of flesh each ; and twenty others, who had less The next best autumn pear, in all respects, ac- potatoes, but half a pound of meat for dinner, cording to the writer's experience, is the Flemish diminished in size likewise. From this, it would Beauty; and then come the Louise Bon de Jersey, appear that potatoes were better diet than smaller Duchess d'Angouleme, Maria Louise, Seckle, quantities of animal food, at least for persons in Napoleon, Heathcot, Dix, Capiaumont, Beurre confinement; the meat eaters, if they had been d'Amaulis, Beurre Bosc, Fondante d'Automne, allowed ordinary exercise, which an individual Belle et Bonne, Beurre Spence, Cushing, Edge- usually takes when in freedom, might have exwood, Stevens's Genessee, Harvard, Moccas, Ür-hibited a very different result. — Philadelphia baniste, Wurtemburg, All these are good Ledger. varieties, and produce well on most soils. The Napoleon is ajt rot at the core, but is other

DAIRIES wise a superb pear and a prolific bearer.

Of winter pears, the best in all respects is the Beurre Diel.In some few cases it has proved a

It was a general remark, as well by the visitors shy bearer, but it is usually prolific, and is re

as in the committee, that the exhibition of cattle markable for the healthy and vigorous growth of this year was much inferior to that of the last, its wood. The fruit is large, very heavy, very

and of the several preceding years. No doubt juicy, sweet and delicious. The Easter Beurre this was owing to the effect of the severest drought somewhat resembles the Buerre Diel, and is also ever remembered in the country, which in many a most excellent variety. The Passe Colmar is a

towns cut off the common, and by far the best very delicious

fruit, and the tree a great bearer. food of the cattle, reducing their yield of milk, Then come the Beurre d'Aremberg, the Glout and severely injuring their appearance. Ample Morceau, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Winter Nelis, and well watered pastures seem to be essential to Souverain d'Hiver, Buerre Rance, Ne Plus Meu- the production of the best and largest quantity ris, Bezi Vaet, &c. The Vicar of Winkfield, of milk and butter, and equally so to the health (otherwise known as “Monsieur le Cure," or of the cow. Soiling, feeding out grains, &c., "Clion,") is quite extensively cultivated in this can seldom be resorted to with profit when the region. It is not by any means a first rate des- farmer has at his command sufficient pastures for sert fruit, but it is handsome, sells well, and the his cows to range over and feed at will. It is to tree is very prolific. The fruit-grower can there- the above cause, no doubt, that the liberal premifore hardly afford to discard it.

ums offered by the Massachusetts Society for proThere may be other varieties than those here moting agriculture, failed to bring out the show gamed, which the experience of fruit-growers has of stock that our society confidently hoped to have proved equally worthy of cultivation; but here seen at this exhibition. Let us hope that the efis variety enough in all conscience, and all these fect of these premiums which are to be offered, the writer believes may be safely trusted by those until they are awarded, will another year be such desirous of engaging in the culture of the pear.

as to satisfy the expectation of the public and as Why it is that our farmers will wear out a life-to induce the trustees of the Massachusetts Society time in accumulating broad but sterile acres for to repeat them. We may mention in this contheir children, when they might with much less nection that the same society have decided to extoil leave them a far richer dowry in full-bearing tend premiums of similar amount to such other orchards, is not the present object of the writer county societies throughout the Commonwealth to discuss. He purposes, however, at his earliest as have not already received them, the next year ; convenience, to give the readers of the New Eng

and the large sum of $1200 to be competed for land Farmer (with the leave of its editors,) his under the auspices of the Worcester society, at views, drawn mostly from his own observation Worcester, by all the counties in 1856. and experience, in regard to the proper culture

There were five dairies of cows offered this year of the pear, and of fruit trees generally. If for premiums. One of these, Mr. Buckminster's anything he can say shall have the effect to in- fine herd of Devons, was deservedly admired by spire a better appreciation of the culture of fruit, every observer, but could not be considered by he will feel himself amply rewarded.

your committee because the proprietor failed to Somerville.

make any statement of its history or products as

required by the regulations of the society. Four WHAT A Man Can LIVE Upon.-The vegetari-other gentlemen also exhibited cows, but as they, ans will find an argument for their antipathy to with one exception, also failed to comply with the flesh, in the result of some experiments made in regulations prescribed by the society, the committhe Glasgow prison, where it was found that ten tee could not consider them in reference to premipersons gained four pounds of flesh each in two ums, however well they might be thought to mermonths, eating for breakfast eight ounces of oat-it them. Only one of these dairies produced butmeal made into a porridge, with a pint of butter ter, that of Mr. A. G. Sheldon, of 'Wilmington. milk ; for dinner, three pounds of boiled pota- His carefully prepared statement will be read toes, with salt; for supper, five ounces of oatmeal with interest and profit. But in the opinion of porridge, with one-half pint of butter milk, the committee, the produce was not sufficiently

E. C. P.

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