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WIRE FENCES, MADE BY MACHINERY.
It might not occur to a casual observer, that must, sooner or later, su pervene in our modes of the fences of the United States cost more than fencing. Iron fencing has been suggested, and, twenty times the amount of all our specie ; never-doubtless, would have come into general use, but theless, such is the fact. There is no country on for the want of a method of making it by mathe dial of the globe, so well furnished with wood chinery. This great want has at length been and stone—the common materials for fencing—as supplied. John Nesmith, Esq., a prominent man many portions of this ; yet so great is the cost of in the manufacturing interest in Lowell, has infencing here, that it has become a burden, “gre-vented and patented a machine for the manufacvious to be borne," on our national industry. ture of wire netting, for fencing, trellis-work and Many of our States have little or no rock, from other uses, considerable quantities of which have which to make stone walls ; those formerly occu- been made and sold by the Lowell Wire Fence pied by prairies have little wood from which to Company. make rail fences; and our soil, climate and phys- This fence consists of a strong and beautiful ical geography are such, that hedges or live fences netting, woven by the machine, varnished with are altogether impracticable. Solon Robinson, asphaltum blacking, coated with cold tar, paintEsq., the able agricultural editor of the New ed, or galvanized, rolled up in portable rolls, from York Tribune, says, that in all his travels, he has thirty to sixty rods in length, and sold to consumnever seen but one good live fence in the United ers at from sixty cents to $1.50 per rod—the price States ; and that, he observes, was “ protected on varying according to the height of the fence, the one side by a board fence, and on the other by a size of the mesh, (or squares,) and the number of rail fence."
the wire. It can be readily set up by any ordiIndeed, the agricultural mind of the country nary farmer, and no rails are necessary, but the has long been conscious that a total revolution netting is fastened by wire or staples, to posts of
wood, iron or stone, placed from eight to fifteen sun ; it harbors no weeds, or vermin ; it covers feet apart, and the edge of the netting is to be none of the soil, like hedges and walls; and the kept on a level from one terminus to another. peculiar mode of its texture enables it to undergo When properly set, it is strong enough to “hold” without the slightest injury, that alternate exan ox, and too close to be penetrated by a chicken. pansion and contraction to which all metallic If varnished, painted or tarred once in five or six substances are subjected by the changes of temperyears, it is calculated to last a century or more. ature incident to the atmosphere. All who have It offers so little resistence to wind and tide, that examined or tried it, attest that it possesses in the no gale can blow it down, or flood wash it away. highest degree, those seven cardinal qualities in a If fastened to posts, set upon feet instead of being perfect fence or trellis-work-strength, closeness, set in the ground, this fence may be laid flat on beauty, lightness, portability, cheapness and duthe land, or entirely removed on the approach of rability. the flood-season in districts subject to floods, and Many kinds of this netting are made, adapted set up again as good as ever, when the flood has to all uses, from cattle-fencing to window-netting subsided. It excludes none of the rays of the All sizes of wire are used, from No. 10 w IN
and any kind can be made, suited to fencing for a few sheep separate from the flock. If properly cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, gardens, cemeteries, set, it would hold any thing, and for smaller aniparks, roads, railroads, trellis-work, etc. We are mals, particularly sheep, it is impossible that they happy to insert some cuts presenting a more vivid had some iron rods made with a double foot,
it. have impression of the practicability of this fencing, which I drive into the ground and attach the than any words could convey.
fence to it either by copper wire or stout twine. Fig. 1. The fencing represented is four feet high; A man and a boy, will inclose a quarter of an acre the mesh or squares six inches ; the straight or should be set not more than a rod apart.
in less than an hour, having these posts, which
When I change the fence to a new spot, I unfasten it from the posts—throw it down=begin at one end, and roll it up as you would a carpet. And so in re-setting, reverse the process, rolling it out where it is to be set ; drive down the posts, and then raise it and attach it to them. My fence cost $1,50 per rod, and it is a cheap mode of handling or inclosing at that price. I under
stand now that it is made much cheaper. Fig. 3.
I am very truly yours, RICHARD S. Fay." lateral wires of No. 10 wire ; the body of the fence of No. 12 wire; and sold at from 75 cents to $1,50 per rod.
Fig. 2. This fencing is of the same height as the former, with wire and mesh of the same size, but without the lateral wires running through the body of the fence. Price 60 to 95 cents per rod. Both these make first-rate farm fences.
Fig. 3 represents another kind of this fencing, from sixteen inches to four feet high, with mesh of three inches. The body of this fencing is of| No. 15 wire; the price from 75 cents to $1,50 per rod. This fence, in its several varieties, makes an admirable sheep, poultry and garden fence ; that four feet high serves for heneries. Among those who have tried this mode of fence, is Richard S. Fay, Esq., the popular agricultural lecturer, who writes of it as follows :
“ Boston, Jan. 5, 1855. CHARLES COWLEY, Esq., Agent of the Lowell Wire Fence Co.
“Sir :—Your favor of Jan. 2d is duly received. I have used the Lowell Wire Fence during the past summer, for folding sheep at night on land
FIG. 4. that I wished to manure, shifting once or more every week, and have found it answer the pur
Fig. 4 represents the door of a house, arched pose perfectly. I have also enclosed an acre or with some of this netting as a trellis-work.-two of ground with it for the purpose of keeping Nothing more elegant could possibly be devised
than this, which is at once cheap, light, durable and, if not removed, will soon kill it. I have and tasteful in the highest degree. There is a tried many experiments, and the best remedy I still smaller kind of this netting, of one-inch have found, is to lay bare the roots of the tree
early in the spring, and, with a pointed instrumesh, used for window-netting, etc. etc. ment, (an old table-fork with but one prong is a
On the whole, we admire this novel fence; and good one,) to ferret out the enemy and kill him. when we consider the unreasonable cost of our Wherever the glue exudes you will find a nest of present modes of fencing—the growing scarcity worms; kill them and scrape the roots with a of wood—the want of stone in many States, and
knife, and apply a kettle of boiling water. The
roots can be laid bare until after blooming, as the acknowledged impracticability of quick-set that will retard the sap and bloom until the setfences, we are forced to the belief that this will tled weather of spring; a pint of salt and a pint ultimately become the general mode of fencing. of lime should then be applied to the roots, and We trust that the gentleman, to whose genius we
the dirt returned. It is an effectual remedy, owe this valuable invention, will realize hand- Phil. Dollar Newspaper.
which, I hope, your correspondent will test. somely from its success.
BY E. PORTER DYER.
A garden, a garden, 0 give me a garden, paper concerning the growing of peach trees, and
With soil of a mellow dark mould, the manner of protecting them from the worm or Where my face may get tanned, and my fingers may harden ; grub, and having had some experience in the
I would not exchange it for gold. rearing of trees, and much success in their cultivation, I take the liberty of writing
a few hints, This spading, and hoeing, and raking, and wheeling, which I hope your correspondent will test.
Preparing to scatter the seed in,
To my mind the goodness of Him is revealing To insure the regular germinating of the seed,
Who planted a garden in Edeni they must be placed in a tub or hole in the surface of the earth, exposed to the action of the
The scent of fresh mould—tis refreshing to smell of frost, or freezing and thawing, which breaks the
The toil it requires is reviving ; shell and gives them an equal start in the spring:
The sweat of the brow, though 'tis nothing to tell of,
It sweetens the gardener's living. Without this precaution, many of the seeds would not germinate at all, and others get the start and Our first father found it an exquisite pleasure overrun and shade the rest, rendering the nursery
To practise the science of pruning, uneven and irregular.
Or walk with his Eve in the shade at his leisure,
For instance while “ taking his nooning." If your correspondent wishes to grow trees for market, he must select a rich, gravelly loam, And whether he planted corn, beans, or tomatoes, plowing deep and in good order; the drills three I find not a word or tradition, feet apart, and the seed to be placed ten inches in But always supposed when he dug his potatoes, the drill, to be done as early in the spring as the
He found them in healthy condition. ground will permit. When the sprouts appear His strawberry plants must have looked quite delicious, they must be carefully hoed, and, when six inches At least, while in process of bearinghigh, a common corn cultivator, with a steady As berries and cream were regarded nutritious, horse, can be passed through, and thus the weeds Of cream, his dear Eve was not sparing. and grass can be exterminated without much She always took pleasure in setting her table. manual labor.
To study the taste of her Adam ; When the trees attain the proper size, they can And he from his garden, whene'er he was able, be either grafted or budded with any variety. Found comfort in picking for madam. But the best plan is to grow from choice seed, not And often I've thought had not garden employment grown from a grafted or budded tree, as they Been furnished in Eden for Adam; will not produce the same variety of fruit.
His wife had been homesick, and all his enjoyment The best situation for an orchard is on hilly or Been making herb-tea for his madam. rolling land-north or south not material; but to insure large and well-flavored fruit, the land must be rich and kept in a high state of cultivation. Corn A Good Cow.—One of my neighbors has an and wheat must be excluded, but the first and American Cow, five years old, which has given second years a hoed crop of potatoes or tobacco, him milk enough to yield 14 pounds of butter a followed by clover, which should be plowed in day, from 1st of June to 1st of October, besides
the milk and cream needed on the table for four When the trees begin to bear plentifully, persons—which cow he never thought of valuing nothing should be allowed to grow in the orchard more than $50. but the trees, carefully worked with the plow and The truth is, some folks have such a fancy for cultivator. When trees are heavy bearers, and things far fetched and dear bought, that they will the fruit attains the size of a shell-bark, they not use what springs up near home at any rate. ought to be thinned by hand, and all the smaller How long will it be before Yankees will be perportion removed to make room for the more suaded that Yankee stock is as good as any other, thrifty growth.
when properly cared for. I know but little on I have now come to the most difficult part these subjects—but this I do know, that it is easy of peach-growing, which is the grub or worm. to find Yankee cows good enough for any body. It attacks the root of the tree near the surface, Granite Farmer.
men and as Christians, is limited to no country, When the wealthy merchant is compelled to and to no sect. Doubtless, charity should begin borrow money at two per cent. a month to meet at home, with our family, and friends, and kinhis liabilities, he complains of hard times. When dred, and townsmen, and countrymen, but it the manufacturer finds his expenses to exeeed his should end only wit our means and opportunity profits, and receives no dividends, he complains for doing good to our fellow-men. “The poor ye of hard times. When stocks and lands are low have always with you,” and he whose heart is in in the markets, the lawyer and doctor, and all the right place, will be puzzled with no nice those who have laid away a surplus for a rainy questions of politics or ethics, how “to do them day, imagine they know something of hard good,” while he who loves his money better than times. But none of these people, though they his brother may find objections to every mode of complain most bitterly, are the real sufferers, in relief suggested. “I know,” says a modern wrisuch hard times as now exist in our cities. The ter, “how hard it is to see through a dollar, merchant
may fail in his business, and the manu- though misery stand behind it, if the dollar be facturer may stop his machinery—they may as- your own, and the misery belong to your brothsign their estates for the benefit of their creditors, er. and take the benefit of the Insolvent act, but In this blessed land of plenty, it is enough for still they live in fine houses, their tables are us to know that our fellow-men are hungry and abundantly provided, and their children well naked, to make our duty plain to feed and clothe clothed and educated. They may suffer from dis-them. Let us make them comfortable first, and appointed ambition, but not from hunger, or afterwards preach to them of the doctrines of cold, or nakedness. There is a class, however, religion, and the true relations of social life. whose idea of hard times is not limited by ina- To the farmer, the present distress brings a bility to pay their debts, or to educate tbeir chil- lesson that cannot be too deeply read. While dren, or·to wear fashionable clothing. There misery, naked and hungry, is scared from her are hundreds, nay thousands, who have been, un- midnight haunts, and walks at noonday in the til recently, in comfortable condition, receiving market-place of our cities, maddened almost to liberal compensation for their labor, who rise in rebellion against the law—while the mechanics the morning, not knowing when or how they in some of our cities are holding meetings in pubshall find food for the day, for their little ones, lic places, avowing principles, which, if carried -willing to labor, but unemployed—thousands out, would lead to all the horrors of a Parisian who have been bred and educated with the idea, mob—there is no lack of abundance with the that to receive charity is a disgrace to an Ameri- farmer. can, who yet see no way but through the alms- Overtrading, excess of importation, the failure house to avoid actual starvation. Such is the of banks and railroads, have no terrors for him. condition of many thousands in New York, of Nature is his banker, and her discounts are not some, even, in our favored city of Boston. suspended, when his distress is the sorest. His “The poor ye have always with you,” is a
small deposite of seed in her vaults, is returned text, which they who have more than å bare with usury in abundant harvests. Is it not a competency, should bear constantly in mind.
fact, that the rural districts of New England How our duty to the poor can best be per- are, at this time, in a condition of comfort and formed, is a problem which has never, by states- abundance, while everywhere else are heard cries men and philosophers, been satisfactorily solved. of deep distress ? This is no accidental circumPublic charities, permanently established, by stance. It is a legitimate result of agricultural means of which food and clothing are systematic- life. Again and again, we have urged this view ally distributed, may undoubtedly tend to render upon our readers, when our young men were the poor improvident, and to overcome the true rushing from the homes of their fathers, into the pride of independence, while private individual cities and towns, to swell the already crowded charity seems wholly inadequate to meet the de-avenues of trade and manufactures. mands of humanity.
Let us again repeat what has often been said Again, while we have enough and to spare for already in our columns, that the life of the farall who are born on our own soil, we see some- mer who owns the land he tills, is the life most times, in a single day, tens of thousands landed favorable to true independence and the highest at once in a single city, a great proportion house- virtue. Stick to the land, and invest your monless and friendless, to perish by starvation, or to ey, if you have any, in your farming business, excite your charity. Of the right of foreign gov- remembering that the common prayer, “let me ernments thus to flood our country, with the be quickly rich,” is seldom answered, and if ever, poor, and often the criminal, there is probably oftenest to the hurt of him who utters it.little difference of opinion. But our duty, as Comfort and education and peace may be univer
.3 00 .2 67 ...89 ....50 ...20 64
A. F. L.
sal, but wealth can, from the nature of things,
For the New England Farmer. be but occasional. With all that reasonable be
PROFITS OF HENS. ings can ask, let our farmers be contented with FRIEND BROWN :-I herewith send you the foltheir condition, and not envy the rich man his lowing statement of my last year's experience in gold, for in the language of Izaak Walton, which the hen line. If you think any of our farmer
friends could profit by my experiments, you can we quote from memory, “The cares that be the
publish it. I send it to you for the benefit of that keys that keep those riches, hang heavy at the class of persons who say • hens are more plague rich man's girdle, and clog him with weary days than profit." and restless nights.”
Jan. 1, 1854, bought 8 hens and 1 cock-cost. At the same time, let us be ever mindful to
March 8, help one another.
bought 8 hens.
35 ducks' eggs.
Corn and meal during the year...
$31 20 Mr. Editor :- I have examined, with much in
69 chickens and turkeys sold.
$31 44 terest, the returns on this subject from the Coun
115 dozen eggs sold and used.. ties of Worcester and Middlesex. After what has On hand Dec. 31, 14 hens and 1 cock........@.50...7 50
...@ 371..2 25 been said of extraordinary "butter products," I
.@50....600 did expect to find some such drawn out by the
$74 71 generous premiums offered by the State Society.
Less cost....... The products from the towns of Worcester and Barre are quite fair for the season, (considering Net profit on this small lot of fowls........ ..$43 51 the all-pervading drought,) but they are not bet
These are facts, Mr. Editor. Why cannot our ter than can be found on many farms where the country friends, many of whom have ample room pasturage is good. On the farm where the but- and far better accommodations, make three or ter is made for my family, the cows for years four times this amount every year? have yielded an average product of one pound a
Yours truly, day, for the entire butter-making season, and in Malden, Jan., 1855. the best part of it, nine or ten pounds per week, for each cow, on grass feed alone. These cows
For the New England Farmer. are entirely native. I do not see that Mr. Lincoln’s improved stock has done any better than
BASKET WILLOW. this. I sincerely regret that the reminent far
Mr. EDITOR :— As the introduction of any new mer” of Middlesex, should not have rendered a tree, shrub, vine or plant which can be cultivated full account of the product of his Devons for the with profit, improves the condition of the farmer,
Such an account would be much more and adds wealth to the country, it is with much satisfactory, than “October products" alone. It
pleasure that I am able to submit to your readers is with cows, as with persons—to rightly under the following facts in relation to the cultivation stand their character, they must be summered of the European Basket Willow. and wintered. You cannot begin to form a true idea of the value of a cow, from the product of Having, in the spring of 1853, obtained several
hundreds of willow cuttings, I planted them out one week, or one month,-it must be for the sea- about the 20th of April, on land which had been son entire, with ordinary fair feed. Any stan previously prepared for a crop of potatoes. The dard of judgment not based upon such a founda- Character of the soil was a deep sandy loam. Aftion is not to be relied on. I remember to have ter planting out, which was very hastily done, seen in the Michigan Farmer a few days since, a they received no better attention than is usually statement of four cows that yielded 174 lbs. of butter, and 1050 lbs. of cheese, in the space of
given to a crop of corn or potatoes ; they made a
growth of from three to six feet in height, and in 100 days, the present season. These were said to November they were cut up and the stumps albe native stock. According to my notions, this lowed to remain unprotected through the winter. was doing quite well. A few years since, I re- Last season they received neither manure or culmember the Albany Cultivator gave a statement tivation, but were allowed to grow in their own of the dairy products on the form of Mr. John free, natural, yet graceful way. On cutting them Stone, Jr., of Marblehead, for which he obtained stock consisted of four cows, all descended from after the rate of 80 lbs. less than nine tons to the the first premium of the County Society. This up last November, I measured a rod, and on
weighing found the product to be 112 lbs., or one ill-looking, hornless animal, that was purchased from a Hampshire drove, about thirty
A very large portion of them grew from sis to years since. They were pastured on five acres of eight feet in height. Those which I left uncut ground, and no more, with plenty of pure water have proved perfectly hardy, nor have I a doubt from the adjoining hills. In the space of forty that they are perfectly adapted to this climate. days they yielded 240 lbs. of butter, of first qual
There is now a machine for peeling them at ity. These are products in the ordinary way: a trifling expense, and there is, in my opinion, no There may be Durhams, Jerseys, or Devons, that will do more and better than this—but when they profitable crops which the farmer can grow, nor
longer a doubt that it will prove one of the most will do it on the same kind of feed, and with the same attention, and no more, I think it will be the best land fences of any material which has
can I see any reason why it will not make one of safe to offer double price for such butter.
ever been introduced. I am resolved to give them January 8, 1855.