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Mr. BUCKMINSTER, of the Ploughman, related desirable that every State and Territory should be ish observations along the line of the Boston & represented. Lectures and interesting discussions Maine Railroad. He noticed that English cherry are expected on subjects pertaining to the objects trees, which had been growing for ten years, were

of the Acsociation, by distinguished scientific and

practical Agriculturists. dry in the leaf in the latter part of July, and fir The various Agricultural Societies of the trees and evergreens suffered in the same way. country are respectfully requested to send deleOn digging four feet deep under an evergreen, the gates to this meeting ; and all gentlemen who are soil was completely dry—at least felt so in the interested in the welfare of American Agriculture, hand. He attributed these results to the dryness course between the different sections of our land,

who would promote a more cordial spirit of interof the season.

and who would elevate this most important purMr. Dodge, of Sutton, said that in the south suit to a position of greater usefulness and honor, part of Worcester county, those whose lands were are also invited to be present on this occasion. sufficiently deep and well manured did not suffer

MARSHALL P. WILDER, President. much by the drought, and never do. So far as

For the New England Farmer. his experience had extended he had found that it was necessary to make the soil deep and rich. RELATIVE VALUE OF FOOD, On the hilly lands of Worcester county he be In the New England Farmer of Jan. 13, I find lieved that the salvation of the crop depended on an article copied from The Plow, The Loom, and loosening the soil to a great depth. A depth of The Anvil, on the subject of Root Crops. The

article is, in the main, what every judicious farmten inches he thought would remedy the evils

er will approve ; yet there are some indications of complained of. His soil is clayey and loamy. that ultraism which is the bane of all practical He thought it no harm to bring up the subsoil to farming. Among other objectionable sentences I the surface, and turn the other under. He never cannot help noting the following :-" The more had better crops of turnips than this year. They

diluted our food, provided we do not overtask the were planted on land plowed ten inches deep- of iť to its destination, the better for the health

energies of the intestinal canal in the conveyance turnips and grass seed together.

of the animal." Mr. BARKER, of Pittsfield, said he had observed Now this means, if it means anything, that, the effects of droughts for twenty years, and he the less concentrated the food of animals,—that had never seen one yet which would affect a good

is, the greater the proportion of bulk to nutrifarmer. Good farmers get good crops, while poor The writer does not seem to perceive that, in car

ment, -the “ better for the health of the animal.” ones never will. Farmers in his section have had rying out this doctrine, he must inevitably run it good crops.

" into the ground;" for it comes to this, that, The Chairman remarked that deep plowing ment at all, it is better adapted than any other

when food is discovered which contains no nutrimight answer on some lands, but not on the Cape, for sustaining animal life! We have all heard of where nothing but sterile sand would be turned people who lived on “ faith and dumplings," and up by deep plowing.

all agree that it is pretty hard feed; but our Mr. Hall, of Bradford, said he visited a nur- writer on “ Root Crops ” would give us all faith sery in New Bedford last summer, and found the

and no dumplings. It may be good doctrine to young trees, particularly the pears, in a remark

die by, but assuredly it is a hard one to live

upon. The chameleon, fabled to diet upon the ably thrifty state, large and vigorous. He asked circumambient air,” would be a model animal the proprietors if they did net manure highly, to carry out such a principle. and was told that they did not; but instead, It is argued by all writers on animal economy, double trenched all their ground. It is an ex- (except perhaps the one here referred to,) that pensive process, costing $200 per acre. A few proper food for man as well as beast requires bulk weeks since he again saw one of the proprietors centrated food, like Indian corn, will gnaw the

as well as nutriment. A horse fed entirely on conof the nursery, and inquired about the drought manger in order to obtain the bulk of fibrous in his vicinity. He said it was very severe, but wood which nature requires ; unl if he cannot he could not perceive that it had injured his nur- procure it, he will sicken and die. • The Hindoos, sery much if any. Mr. Hall also related another most highly concentrated form of food, (contain:

it is said, who feed mainly on rice, which is the fact tending to demonstrate the value of stirring ing about 95 per cent. of nutriment,) will somethe soil for facilitating and preserving vegetation times eat dry grass or splinters of wood. There

At the close of Mr. Hall's remarks (9] o'clock) can be no doubt that bulk as well as nutriment is the meeting adjourned.

required in order to sustain the animal functions ;

but all bulk and no nutriment must be quite as U. S. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.—The Third An-only real truth to be sought is the proper pro

prejudicial as all nutriment and no bulk. The nual Meeting of the United States Agricultural portion. Society will be held at Washington, D. C., on Wednesday, February 28, 1855. Business of im- his ultraisms, had some very good ideas, and was

The late Dr. Sylvester Graham, who, with all portance will come before the meeting. A new well read in everything relating to physiology, election of officers is to be made, in which it is was of opinion that wheat, rye or corn, ground

without bolting, constituted about the proper the whole is estimated. Under this rule enorproportion for the human stomach. This is about mous crops of corn have been producel; for 60 per cent. of nutriment to 40 per cent. of bulk. instance, a gentleman in this town last year He was also of opinion that about 20 per cent. of raised 155 bushels to the acre, and this year upnutriment was the proper proportion for domestic wards of 100 bushels of corn to the

acre, I think, animals, like the cow and the horse. Good Eng- have been raised in the county. If this rule is lish hay contains about ten per cent. of nutritious the best, let it be adopted throughout the State ; matter, and, of course, according to his theory, if not, let some other, for, as it is now, there is something more highly concentrated is required in reason to believe some persons receive more credit order to develop the perfect animal. A moderate for raising large crops than others simply by the quantity of grain, ground and mixed in the form measurement.

HOWARD. of “ cut feed," has, in the experience of all grow West Bridgewater, Mass. ers of stock, been found best adapted to animal health and physical development. This principle, or theory, does not tell well for

WIRE FENCE. the opinion of the writer referred to as regards The following letter from Hon. MarshalL P. the value of the English or flat turnip as a food WILDER, President of the United States Agriculfor animals. That vegetable contains about 90 tural Society, refers to the wire fence described per cent. of water, and of the remaining ten per

first cent. more than half is woody fibre. Only about and portrayed on our page. four per cent. of the turnip is nutrition. The

Dorchester, Jan. 15th. 1855. potato, on the other hand, when divested of its CHARLES CROWLEY, Esq., Agent, &c.:- Dear Sir,eighty-five per cent. of water, is nearly all nutri- I have recently examined some of the netting of ment-or very nearly fifteen per cent. It is near- the Lowell Wire Fence Company for fences, trellises, ly four times as nutritious as the turnip, pound

etc. From my own experience and that of others, I for pound. I would by no means discourage the cannot doubt that it is perfectly practicable as a fence raising of turnips, for the seed can be sown when for fields and gardens, or that it is well adapted to all it is too late to plant any other, and of course durable fence is required. Where stone is not abun

uses where a strong, close, elegant, economical and where no other crop can be raised for the season. dant, or where lumber is expensive, as in many of They are useful and healthful to a degree, al

our States, I should deem it the most practicable though they impart a disagreeable flavor to milk, fence that could be procured. If our railroads are and should not be fed to milch cows except in hereafter to be enclosed, as safety and economy devery small quantities at a time. No grounds ca- mand—they can scarcely be fenced cheaper or better pable of producing other crops, should be reserved than by this mode of fence. The stouter kinds of for the flat turnip; but grounds from which early this netting are of such strength, that cattlo could crops are harvested may be profitably devoted to not easily penetrate or pass it; while the closeness of this crop. In some seasons the turnip will grow the lighter kinds, renders them admirably available well if sown as late as the twentieth of August, for garden uses, heneries, and poultry fences. Fencor even the first of September; and as the seed is ing like this, has for some years been extensively easily raised, farmers and gardeners will lose used in Great Britain; and, since it can now be made nothing in scattering it, not too thickly, over be equally adaptive to the United States. I know of

at a much less cost, by machinery, it would seem to grounds harvested up to those periods. But the

no fencing so good as this, that can be procured for turnip crop never ought to interfere with any $1,50 per rod, the highest price asked for the most other

costly kinds of this netting; and this is, probably, the Neither do I agree with the same writer that only fencing of equal merit that can be bought for the carrot is the most nutritious of all root crops. $1,50 per rod. I think it will be found on analysis that the com As a material for rose-trellises, grape-trellises, and mon turnip beet is more nutritious than the car- ornamental work in gardens, I think it unequalled in rot—the saccharine matter in the former being cheapness, durability and beauty, by anything yet entirely nutritious. This beet is also much bet- devised. It will, without doubt, eventually be ro ter for milch cows, as the carroty favor of milk ceived into general use, when its merits are appreciated

Yours respectfully, is almost as bad as the turnip flavor. For horses, by the public.

MARSHALL P. WILDER. during the winter, the carrot is undoubtedly the best of all root crops, and for their use it should be freely cultivated.

For the New England Farmer. Somerville..

NATIVE CATTLE.
For the New England Farmer. MR. EDITOR :-In the number for January of
MEASUREMENT OF CROPS.

the Journal of New York State Agricultural So

ciety, is the following testimony, that may be MR. Brown :- I would suggest to those inter- instructive to those who are not willing to admit Ested, through the columns of your paper, the that cattle, which are generally termed native, propriety of the adoption of a uniform rule for are of any value. the measurement of crops for premium through Mr. T. Wells, from Chenango county, under out the State. I am led to do this by the dis- date of Dec. 16, 1854, writes : “I doubt very satisfaction manifested by many in relation to much whether there has ever been any better the rule adopted by the Plymouth County Agri- breed of cattle, either for beef or milking, than cultural Society in the measurement of corn for the native red cattle. It is keeping that makes premium. By this rule, as is well known, an the cattle.” Mr. Thompson, President of the average square rod is selected while the corn is Yates County Society, writes to B. P. Johnson, in the field, the product weighed, and by which Secretary of the State Society : “Some attention

E. C. P.

is paid to the breeding of Durhams and Herefords, And under that wagon is a live pig, tied by but native Americans are most in favor for the one foot, looking as if he might have a year's exdairy."

perience with about two months growth, designed Perhaps it will be said the men who write thus are of the Know-Nothing order ; but if they are,

for immediate slaughter, or to be kept a few I think they are in a fair way to be of the ma- months longer, as the purchaser may think

proper. jority. So say those of my acquaintance whose A half-dozen living calves, of a few weeks' age, judgment is most worthy of confidence.

are lying, tied neck and heels, gasping for breath, Please oblige your readers by giving this a

on the hard pavement, and not far off as many place in your Yankee Journal. Jan. 15, 1855.

cows, of all colors and shapes, for sale. Most of them are poor in flesh, though with marks of

good qualities as milkers. Turkeys are sold, not For the New England Farmer.

by the pound, as with us, but at so much apiece, LETTER FROM MR. FRENCH. at prices not very different from those of Boston. A GLANCE AT WASHINGTON CITY MARKET. I find good practice for all the knowledge of fracThe principal market of the city of Washing- ions which I derived from the arithmetic in my ton is upon Pennsylvania Avenue. The buildings school-days. On my inquiring the price of poconsist of a large extent of low one-story brick tatoes, I received the edifying reply, “ three fips and wooden white-washed structures, of no par- for a quarter of a peck.” A fip being six and a ticular order of architecture, which, were it not quarter cents, you have the basis for a calculadisrespectful, might be described as sheds better tion how much potatoes were sold at per bushel. than by any other words. These are divided into That, however, was the highest retail price, the stalls, and are rented to the market-men. But price by the bushel being from one and a half to the sales are by no means confined to these build- two dollars. ings. All around, on, and about the adjacent I was quite shocked to see, exposed for sale, sidewalks and squares, on market mornings, three like vulgar ducks and geese, beautiful swans, times a week usually, is a throng of sellers, prin- killed for food! Heretofore, I had regarded these cipally blacks, in ludicrous variety of appearance stately creatures as intended solely to gratify our and employment. Backed against the curb-etone love for the beautiful; but alas ! this utilitarian are long rows of market carts and wagons, of all age pays little homage to that beauty which is conceivable shapes. Here is a tolerable looking not at the same time profitable. A common and horse-cart, with a mule attached, having his excellent cheap article of food is exposed in mane sheared and his tule also, except a tuft of abundance, cooked ready for the table, which hair at the end, to gratify the freakish taste of they call hominy, and which ought to be used his negro driver. There is a market wagon, of at the north. It is made of white corn, merely large size, with three or four hoops bent over it, cracked and hulled, and boiled soft, and forms and a large cotton covering, to shelter the half- the best substitute for potatoes. It is eaten with dozen darkies who have come into the city in it, meat, like the common garden vegetables with us. ind who are now pursuing their separate duties No yellow corn is used here for food, and little or of selling little commodities about the market. no rye and Indian bread, such as is common with Many of these wagons, loaded with grain, vege- us. The market is abundantly supplied with tables, poultry and other eatables, come to their game of all kinds, ducks, venison, quails and the places during the night, or previous evening, so like, and with finer mutton than is often found is to get good stands, which are appropriated by in Boston. Prices of provisions and every thing the first comer.

are arranged upon the principle that every officeSquatting down upon the pavement, on all holder shall spend his salary, more or less. Pubsides, are numerous old colored women, with lic opinion seems to demand this, and houses are iittle stores of fruit, eggs and the like, advertising constructed to meet this idea. There is no such their wares by word of mouth to the passers-by. thing as a cellar under one house in a hundred, There are three or four singular-looking animals, so that provisions cannot be laid in for a winter, bearing some resemblance to small pigs, which a as with us, but the market-basket must go down small nigger introduces to your notice by the three or four times a week, for a half peck of question, “ Have a possum, massa ? There potatoes and a dozen apples, and a cabbage and again is an old lady, who has bunches of the three or four turnips, and so on, requiring as smallest kind of little birds, of the size of robins, much time as the whole would be worth in our dressed ready to cook; and there another, with a northern villages. Most of the pork sold here is coop of small live chickens, not of much larger of small size, of pigs weighing about a hundred size, which are sold at some twenty-five cents pounds. Aside from the lard and middlings, each, to be forthwith served up at the hotels for animals of this size make much better food than dainty morsels of food.

the full-grown, over-fatted hogs of the northern

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markets. The idea is gaining ground in New FORGIVE AND FORGET. England, I think, that there is more profit in BY THE ACTHOR OF “ PROVERBIAL PHILOSOPHY." killing our swine, at a year old, than in keeping

When streams of unkindness as bitter as gall,

Bubble up from the heart to the tongue, them over an entire winter. Here, however, the

And meekness rising in torment and thrall, dead bodies of these quadrupeds indicate that By the hand of Ingratitude wrungtheir sphere of action was not limited to a sty In the heart of injustice, unwept and unfair, merely, but that a good long set of legs and a

While the anguish is festering yet,

None, none but an angel of God can declare nose to match, were essential to their style of

“I can forgive and forget.” life.

But if the bad spirit is chased from the heart, One fact impresses all who come here from the And the lips are in penitence steeped, north, that in every thing pertaining to agricul- With the wrong so repented the wrath will depart, ture, there is wanting the system, and neatness

Though scorn on injustice were heaped ;

For the best compensation is paid for all inl, and energy, which educated free labor alone can

When the cheek with contrition is wet, develope.

And every one feels it is probable still, I am expecting to visit the farm of a friend At once to forget and forgive. near the city soon, and will give in my next some

To forget? It is hard for a man with a mind, idea of how a New England man cultivates a

However his heart may forgive,

To blot out all perils and dangers behind, southern farm.

H. F. F.

And but for the future to live ; Washington, D.C., Jan. 8, 1855.

Then how shall it be? for at every turn

Recollection the spirit will fret,

And the ashes of injury smoulder and burn,
For the New England Farmer.

Though we strive to forgive and forget.
PEALING THE BASKET WILLOW.

O, hearken! my tongue shall the riddle unseal,

And mind shall be partner with heart, MR. Brown :- I have lately witnessed the trial

While thee to thyself I bid conscience reveal,

And show thee how evil thou art ; of a machine, invented by GEORGE J. COLBY, of

Remember thy follies, thy sins and thy crimesJonesville, Vt., for peeling the basket willow, which

How vast is that infinite debt! is destined to become of great importance in this

Yet Mercy hath seven by seventy times country. It does the work in the most perfect

Been swift to forgive and forget. manner, is operated by one horse-power, and with two men, will peel one ton per day.

Brood not on insults or injuries old, It has been fully proved, within a few years,

For thou art injurious too

Count not the sum till the total is told, that the European Osier will thrive as well in

For thou art unkind and untrue ; this as in the old country, and those cultivated

And if thy harms are forgotten, forgiven, here are sought after by the manufacturer in

Now mercy with justice is met ; preference to the imported. There are annually 0, who wouldn't gladly take lessons of Heavenimported to the United States over five millions Not learn to forgive and forget? dollars worth, besides the manufactured article,

Yes, yes, let a man when his enemy weeps, which amount is very large, all of which might

Be quick to receive him as friend ; be cultivated in this country to great advantage. For thus on his head in kindness he heaps The only objection to the cultivation of the

Hot coals—to refine and amend ; willow in this country, has been the scarcity of And hearts that are Christian more eagerly yearn labör required to peel it for market, as it must Over lips that, once bitter, to penitence turn, be done in the spring, during the short period And whisper, "forgive and forget." that the bark will strip, and in many localities the required labor cannot be had. The estimated

For the New England Farmer. cost for peeling by hand, is about $40 per ton. That objection is now removed by the invention MACHINE FOR CHOPPING BRUSH. of a machine for the purpose. I doubt if there

Messrs. EDITORS :-In passing through Methuis

any business that will yield the husbandman as large a profit as the cultivation of the willow, bu en, a few weeks since, I had occasion to call on

Col. Charles E. STANLEY, of that town, when I those who have suitable soils. It will thrive well

was shown by that gentleman a machine, or on most of our soils, or any that are rich and moist, or what is termed good grass land ; but

rather, cutter, belonging to him, to which horsethat is best adapted which is natural to our na- and brush at the door. It is called “ Daniel's

power is applied, for the purpose of catting limbs tive willow, and will yield an average of two tons per acre.

The present price for the willow patent” of Vermont, being very much on the is 6 cents per pound, with an increasing demand, principle of some hay-cutters, only on a much and much larger than the supply.

larger scale. Two huge knives, about eighteen

inches long, one-half inch thick, and four and a The best willow for cultivation of which I am half in width, are strongly fastened on the shaft acquainted, is the Salir viminalis; it grows in roll. A good feed roll is also applied. Hard this locality from eight to ten feet high, is very wood limbs, without trimming, that are not more smooth, free from knots, and never branches. than three inches, or pine, that are not more There are other varieties that are valuable for

than four and one-half inches through at the hedges, or live fences, which will yield an annual butt, are cut with ease. By changing the gearprofit for Osiers.

J. R. JEWELL.

ing, they can be cut any length desired, from Bolton, Dec., 1854.

four and one-half to one-fourth of an inch in

a

length. When green pine limbs are cut two for vesper prayers. The ground is intersected in inches long and spread upon a floor not more almost every practicable direction by carriage than ten inches in depth, they will dry so as to roads, and narrow footpaths wind around the burn well in a week.

sides of the steep cliffs, amid thickets of cedars Col. Stanley says he can cut limbs and brush and pines, clumps of fir and weeping larches, and to the above degree of fineness faster than a smart solitary old oaks, the majestic monarchs of the man, with a good yoke of oxen, can haul and forest. dump them from one-fourth of a mile distant. The house is situated on a high point, comThe advantage of cutting it so fine is, that it manding a view of the noble Hudson on the east, brings much scraggy and otherwise worthless the magnificent scenery of the Highlands on the brush, up to more than the value of its weight south, and on the north and west a thick mass of in solid wood, which, in these times of scarcity trees, streams, and ruined hamlet cottages. It is and high prices of fuel, is an object of too much built in the Englisb villa style, with piazzas and importance to be overlooked. Colonel Stanley's deep bay windows facing the river, and abounds neighbors bring brush to him to be cut on equal in gable roofs, with oriole and dormer windows shares. As near as I could judge, this machine jutting out, and clustering chimneys terminating will do the work of forty men.

the pinnacles. The interior is adorned with rare The reason that the chips dry so quick, is, that curiosities, collected in Europe and America, they are not cut square off, but obliquely, one paintings of distinguished personages, landscapes sidě being concave and the other convex ; conse- of beautiful scenery, marbles, bronzes, medals, quently they are shattered to such a degree, that statuary, and engravings in rich profusion. the air is admitted entirely through them, and This is Idlewild. the drying process immediately commences. Danvers, Jan. 16, 1855.

SERF LABOR IN POLAND. “IDLEWILD."

In every village is an overseer, whose duty it is

to call in the evening at each hut, and notify the From an interesting letter which appeared in inmates as to the part of the plantation where the columns of the Rochester Advertiser, we con- they are to meet the following morning, and be dense a brief description of Idlewild, the garden ready to start for work. Men, women and chilhome of N. P. Willis. It is situated on the west-dren are included in this order, of course; they orn bank of the Hudson river, a few miles south assemble as directed, and are then driven like so of the town of Newburgh. In its immediate vi- many oxen to their labor. Of whatever kind the cinity are many beautiful country seats, including work may be, the women are obliged to toil as among others those of J. T. Headley, the artist the men; the children are assigned lighter tasks, Durand, and the late lamented Downing, all of such as picking stones, &c. Over each division is which are adorned by the rarest embellishments of placed an overseer, having in his hand a whip of art. But Idlewild, situated amid the most lively braided strips of leather, and should any one prescenery of the valley of the Hudson river, is the sume to stop even for a moment, the lash is uuinost beautiful country seat in the region. The mercifully applied ; children are not exempt from domain comprises about one hundred acres of this infiction, and whoever may be the object of land, which, when they came into the possession of punishment, he or she, is obliged to kiss the Willis, were clothed in a dense black forest of ce- hand or foot of the inflictor. Should any one redars, firs and pines, and other mountaią trees, as fuse to do so, as is sometimes the case, the poor wild and thick as when the Indian war-hoop creature is laid upon the ground, and receives echoed through their shades. The grounds pos- forty additional stripes, then with blood tricksess a great variety of surface, scene and prospect, ling from his back returns again to work. In and the fine taste of Willis has seized upon every some instances (the overseer being in an unusual opportunity to enhance the charms which nature passion,) children, perhaps a son or a daughhas grouped in such harmonious contrast. ter, are required to hold down a parent, whilst

Running diagonally through the estate is a another member of the same family is made to broad, deep glen, over whose rocky bottom flows administer the lash with his utmost strength. a clear cold stream of water. Willis, by means These things seem heart-sickening to relate, nerof jutting rocks and artificial dams, has broken ertheless they are true, and not a day passes this stream into singing cascades and murmuring without many individuals being subjected to such waterfalls. In one place he has lured a portion treatment. When they leave their miserable of the waters from their channel, to fill a pond for homes in the morning, each peasant carries upon his gold fish. In another he has taken half the his back a coarse cloth sack, containing the dinstream to form the shooting jets of a fountain ; ner of its bearer ; this consists of a loaf of brown and still further down the glen he has checked its bread, having the appearance of baked suwdust ; flow and swollen it into a miniature lake for his and if the bearer has been so fortunate as to have little boat. At several points along the stream he recently killed a pig, he takes with his bread a has thrown rustic bridges from bank to bank. piece of raw pork. Before commencing work, The view from the lower extremity of the glen these sacks are deposited in heaps upon the upward, through the deep vista of trees joining ground, and at noon, when the signal is given, their branches over my head, is said to be very they rush with the speed of half-starved animals, henutiful. It resembles a vaulted cathedral ; and every one for his bag, and then commences a dethe imaginative eye may behold in the large vouring of bread and salt in the most ravenous brown stones, with their mossy sides, which are manner. Each gang is allowed a mug of water, scattered in picturesque confusion throughout the and this is passed from one to another until ali scene, gray, cowled monks, counting their beads have been served. Such is the manner in which

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