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these poor creatures toil on through their period should not nature's noblemen do the same and of existence, without a ray of hope to cheer, or a share the rich reward? Can any one man worksingle solace to alleviate their woes.-Allen's Au- ing alone on his farm, learn as much as one huntocrasy of Poland and Russia.

dred men ? May not each discover some practical and important fact, and should not his neigh

bors know it! Let farmers hold such meetings FARMERS' CLUBS.

and take their sons and workmen with them. A We find the following excellent article in our

farmer must have been slothful indeed, if, during

the past year, he has not learned one new fact in exchanges, and wish we could give the writer relation to agriculture ; and should a hundred credit for performing so good a deed, as that of neighbors meet, then each will learn ninety-nine writing it, but there is nothing attached to it by new facts for one communication. Pretty good which we may know its paternity.

interest, surely ; and what is better, the givers

and the receivers each get their pay down. What “We do not mean Herculean clubs, nor goad farmer that deserves the noble name, ever attendsticks, to quicken the pace of Buck to keep up ed such a meeting without learning something with Bright. We mean no such un-farmer-like new, practical and useful ?” expedient to quicken the pace or sharpen the intellect. It is the farmers' social club for mental and agricultural improvement that we have in ADVICE TO CONSUMPTIVES. our mind's eye, and about which we propose to stir up the thoughts of farmers, by way of re- deal in the open air, to convert what you eat in

Eat all you can digest and exercise a great membrance.' Old soldiers love to fight their battles o'er again, and old men like to discourse of

to pure healthful blood. Do not be afraid of what occurred in the days of their youth.. Long sudden changes of weather ; let no change, hot

out-door air, day or night. Do not be afraid of time ago we remember attending a meeting of farmers' boys for amusement and instruction the more need for your going out, because you

or cold, keep you in doors. If it is rainy weather, when the merry sentiment went round the ring, eat as much on a rainy day as on a clear day, with the action suited to the word

and if you exercise less, that much more remains "Thus the Farmer sows his peas,

in the system of what ought to be thrown off by And thus he stands and takes his ease;

exercise, and some ill result, come consequent But you nor I, nor no one knows

symptom, or ill feeling, is the certain issue. If How oats, peas, beans and barley grows."

it is cold out of doors, do not muffle your eyes, It was an ancient farmers' club in miniature, mouth and nose, in furs, veils, woolen comforand we know what lad it was of the number whó ters, and the like ; nature has supplied you with married the district 'school-mar'm,' and in after the best muffler, with the best inhaling regulator, life was sure to get a premium at the cattle show that is, two lips ; shut them before yon step out for the best butter, and won the reputation of of a warm room into the cold air, and keep them being the best farmer in the county. It was the shut until you have walked briskly a few rods son of a Scotchman, who was always first and and quickened the circulation a little; walk fast foremost at the juvenile meeting, when amuse- enough to keep off a feeling of chilliness, and ment was always blended with instruction. Those taking cold will be impossible. What are the meetings taught us the useful lesson, that a little facts of the case ? look at the railroad conductors, often shows what a good deal means. While the going out of a hot air into the piercing cold of scholars in our county districts are profitably winter and in again every five or ten minutes, spending a winter's evening at the spelling school, and yet they do not take cold oftener than others; would it not be well for their fathers to assemble you will scarcely find a consumptive man in a in some convenient place, and in a free and famil- thousand of them. It is wonderful how afraid iar manner, tell their experience in farming, consumptive people are of fresh air, the very and communicate to each other how they man- thing that would cure them, the only obstacle to age to raise the best stock, and enter into all the a cure being that they do not get enough of it; minutiæ and variety of good husbandry? It and yet what infinite pains they take to avoid seems to us that much useful information would breathing it, especially if it is cold ; when it is be elicited, and that each and all would derive known that the colder the air is the purer it very great benefit from participating in so pleas- must be, yet if people cannot get to a hot climate, ant and profitable a discussion. Such farmers' they will make an artificial one, and imprison clubs are held weekly in many of the school dis- themselves for a whole winter in a warm room, tricts of Massachusetts, Maine and New Hamp- with a temperature not varying ten degrees in shire--why should they not be held in every town six months; all such people die, and yet we foland district in Vermont? Can any one assign low in their footsteps. If I were seriously ill of á good and sufficient reason why such meetings of consumption, I would live out of doors day and the 'lords of the soil,' for mutual improvement, night, except it was raining or mid-winter, then and for discussing the great and paramount ques- I would sleep in an unplastered log-house. My tion, what shall be done to promote agriculture, consumptive friend, you want air, not physic ; may not be as pleasant and profitable in Vermont you want pure air, not medicated air ; you want as they are in other States ? Questions given out nutrition, such as plenty of meat and bread will at one meeting and discussed at the next, will give, and they alone ; physic has no nutriment, elicit thoughts and important facts,'excite a laud- gaspings for air cannot cure you ; monkey capers able ambition to excel in word and in deed, in in a gymnasium cannot cure you, and stimulants theory and in practice. Merchants, mechanics cannot cure you. If you want to get well, go in and manufacturers hold such meetirgs, and why for beef and out-door air, and do not be deluded into the grave by newspaper advertisements, and States. These statistics are of the most suggesunfindable certifiers.—Dr. Hall.

tive character. Why should not the United

States at least supply the raw material sufficient TRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW YORK to furnish the quantity in a manufactured state AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

which she demands for her own consumption ? Through the polite attention of the Secretary,

The committee upon flax and its culture state B. P. Johnson, Esq., we have before us the Tran- that there is in the State about 8,000 acres under sactions of this Society, for the year 1853. It is

flax culture, yielding about $15 profit per acre, enlarged and printed in a style deserving much over the expense of cultivation. praise. In its paper, typographical execution,

Mr. Wilson's lecture is followed by a conillustrations and binding, it surpasses its prede

densed description of the characteristic and disCessors, showing that the arts connected with tinctive points of several of the breeds of importbook-making are improving, pari passu, with the ed stock. The next subject of importance is the science and art of agriculture. Massachusetts report on farm implements. We have not space must look well to her laurels in these respects.

for the remarks we should be glad to make on This fine volume of 780 pages is filled with va

this subject. Yankee inventors must look to ried and valuable information, showing not only

their laurels in this matter, or the New Yorkers the actual state of agriculture at the present

will bear away the crown. The next report is time, and the advance that has been made on the upon cooking-stoves and furnaces, showing the past, but also a steady purpose to incorporate in

wide range of observation taken by the Society. to the mass of knowledge available to the culti

Then we have descriptions of thirty-five new vavators of the State, the discoveries in science and rieties of Pears, by a nursery firm at Rochester. art, that are made in other countries and cli- We cannot but admire the perseverance of nursmates.

sery-men in producing new varieties of this deliThe first thing we notice is a copious and well- cious fruit. We have sometimes admired their inarranged index, adding much to the value of the genuity also, in pointing out distinctions where volume.

but the shade of a shadow of difference existed. We next, have Mr. Secretary JOHNSON's report

We should be glad to know how many and which to the legislature, showing briefly what has been among the varieties of pears already produced, accomplished, and making important suggestions are really valuable and worth cultivation. Profor the future.

fessor Wilson appears before us again in the next We then have the address of WILLIAM C. article, and gives us an account of the sugar-beet, Rives, of Virginia, delivered at Saratoga in 1853. and various statistics from Continental Europe This address contains some broad national views relating to the subject. of the paramount influence of agriculture to this

The salt manufacture is one of great importance country. Then follows a highly valuable lecture in the State of New York. The production has upon flar, delivered at the same place, by John increased in little more than fifty years from Wilson, of Edinburgh. This is a subject of great 25,000 bushels, to about five-and-a-half millions importance to this country, especially when con- This business the Agricultnral Society has taken sidered in connection with the improved methods under its fostering care. of preparing the fibre for the use of the manufac- The next article of general interest relates to turer. The statistics of the flax industry which a species of weevil, the lthycerus Noveboracensis, Mr. Wilson presents are of a startling character an insect that has committed extensive ravages to one wholly unacquainted with the subject. upon fruit and forest trees in various parts of the Great Britain is paying annually twenty-five Northern States, from Dr. Fitch, of Salem, N. millions of dollars for the flax and hemp which Y., and Dr. Harris, of Cambridge, Massachushe manufactures, and seven and a half millions setts, with some remarks upon the Palmer worm, for flax-seed, and two-and-a-half millions for lin- by Dr. Harris. seed cake, and requires 600,000 acres to produce Then comes the account of the annual meeting the supply which she needs, while her demand is of the State Agricultural Society, with the reannually increasing. One million, sixty-eight ports of the several committees. Many of these thousand, six hundred and ninety-three spindles reports are upon subjects of the highest imporare employed in the United Kingdom in spinning tance to the farmer. Several of them were prelinen, and six hundred and forty thousand in pared with great care and labor, and contain other countries.

facts and suggestions of much interest. An artiIn 1850, Great Britain manufactured 110,- cle upon the origin, culture and uses of Indian 000,000 yards of linen. In 1852 she exported corn, will amply repay the careful attention, not linen goods to the amount of about $26,784,355, only of the cultivator, but of every housewife in fifteen millions of which came to the United the country.

The Treasurer's account shows that the receipts make copious extracts from several of the county of the Society, for 1853, were $12,684, and that reports ; — but we can only commend them after paying current expenses, premiums, &c., to all who are so fortunate as to obtain the volthey have a balance of $802,00 to carry to next sume. The only thing which we especially regret year's account.

in the volume is the absence of the labors of Dr. The remainder of the volume is occupied with SALISBURY. We trust the managers of the Sociabstracts of the reports of the several county soci-ety do not consider that there is no more occaeties, and extracts from the addresses delivered at sion for his analytical services. The good which their annual meetings, thus bringing before us he has so ably commenced, should, under their the condition and doings of the several counties in auspices, be carried forward unto perfection. one connected view. We wish we had space to


GIFFORD MORGAN COLT, VERMONT. This engraving represents the four years old powers of endurance, even as roadsters, almost Gifford Morgan Colt, exhibited at the Vermont beyond belief. We scarcely can look upon one State Fair at Brattleboro', September, 1854, and of the best of his type without a sort of fascina-. received the first premium of $15, in the class of tion. Woodbury Morgans, from four to seven years old horses.

PHOTOGRAPHIC COUNTERFEITING. He is a very dark chestnut color, and is a de

A Cincinnati gentleman writes to the New York scendant of the old Gifford and Green Mountain Tribune, describing the results of some experiMorgans, and is claimed on the part of his own- ments which have been made in that city, by Mr. ers to be the most thorough-bred Morgan now Fontayne, a daguerreotypist, relative to the art living of his age. He is a colt of great action, notes, he says, manufactured in this manner, far

of photographic counterfeiting. The counterfeit and is considered a very characteristic and favor- surpass in the perfection of their details any thing able specimen of the breed, in all particulars. of the kind which has ever been done by the old His last year's colts bear a strong resemblance method of engraving. Every line and every to the old Morgan family. He is owned by J. H. speck is accurately copied, so that when the PETERS & Co., Bradford, Orange County, Vt.

photographs are taken upon the proper bank note

paper, they defy detection, either by the unaided For all uses, the farm, the road-team, or the eye or by the microscope. A number of bills, carriage, we do not believe the Morgans, as a copied in this way by Mr. Fontayne, were prebreed, are excelled by any other. Their carriage sented at various banks in the city of Cincinnati, is frequently lofty, and often very graceful. Their

and in every case they were pronounced, after

careful inspection, to be genuine. temper is docile, so that boys and women may By this newly-discovered system of photograeasily manage them when well broken, and their Iphy, all kinds of ordinary writing or printing

may be copied-checks, notes, autographs or let- The subject of cereal grains was adopted for ters. The only safeguard to the public in respect the evening. to bank bills, seems to lie in the fact that bright

Mr. KNOWLES, of Eastham, said that formerly red, blue or green colors, cannot be imitated by the photographic process, and that bills which rye was not considered to be worth more than are partially printed in these colors, are conse-half as much as it now commands in the market. quently secure from the possibility of counter- At present prices, he considered it as profitable as feiting? Bills counterfeited by the photographic any crop our fathers could raise. As to raising method, may always be detected by wetting them wheat, but little has been done on the Cape exwith a solution of corrosive sublimate or of hydriodate of potassium—the liquid immediately

cept at Orleans, where it has not been attended turning the photographic picture white. This with much success, owing, perhaps, to inexperitest, however, would prove but a poor safeguard ence. Either rye or barley, however, is profitato the public generally.

ble, The trouble with rye has been in sowing it

broadcast, and not harrowing in deep enough. Reported for the New England Farmer. He thought it would leave the land in as good


Mr. JENKINS, of Andover, said, in relation to

raising grain alone, he did not know how it The second meeting of the series was held at could be made profitable in the castern part of the State House, on Tuesday evening, 23d inst. There was a good attendance. The meeting was with English grass, it could be made remunera

Massachusetts ; but thought that, in connection called to order by Mr. KNOWLES, of Eastham, and

tive. It is a mistake to attempt to raise grain Mr. E. W. Bull, of Concord, was invited to oc- and grass together on dry, sandy land. Most cupy the chair.

farmers in this part of the State have some very Mr. Bull opened the discussion by some re- wet as well as very dry soils on their farms, and marks upon

the cultivation of the small grains. their policy should be to gravel the wet land and Massachusetts, he said, pays annually $10,000,

manure it well, for the raising of grass, con000 for four. Yet if her soil was properly culti

stantly reserving the dry land for grain, which vated, she could sustain a population equal to will not need so much manure. twice the present; and, in view of the present

Mr. FREEMAN, of Orleans, did not think wheat high price of breadstuffs, the cultivation of the cereal grains is of more than usual importance.

could be raised profitably on the Cape, even if the Rye, perhaps, is the grain which is, on the whole,

land was manured highly, and he believed that best adapted to our sandy soils and dry seasons.

was the general opinion there. Although wheat He had tried guano in raising it, on a piece of was once raised successfully there, it cannot be dry, sandy land, which had not been manured

done now. There was some property existing in for ten years probably, being in grass all the the soil then which it does not possess now. He while, of which hardly enough was cut to pay

had seen corn taken off of land and wheat put on, for the trouble. The land was plowed in Sep

but it would not grow-while grass, following tember to a good depth, and two hundred weight

corn in the same way, Aourished vigorously, of guano to the acre harrowed in on the furrow,

showing that there was something wanting for

the wheat. There was no difference in this reafter which five pecks of seed to the acre were sown, which produced a good stand of plants,

sult between winter and spring wheat. the season being favorable. The amount of seed The Chairman remarked that Mr. Brown, of was too much, however, for when harvest-time Concord, who had raised fine crops of wheat, had came, the grass-seed sown with it was smothered. made use of lime to the extent of 15 bushels to In the spring, 50 lbs. additional of guano was the acre, sown broadcast, and perhaps to this sowed on one-half of the acre, while on the other manure his good crops were attributable. half none was applied. The difference in the Mr. HOWARD, of the Boston Cultivator, said it yield of the two half acres, was only one bushel was formerly supposed that a good deal of lime in favor of the extra manuring, from which he was necessary to secure a good crop of wheat ; concluded that manuring beyond 200 lbs. to the but Mr. Emmons, the State geologist of New acre with guano for rye, was not profitable. York, after analyzing the soils of all parts of the One-half of the rye was cut the first week in State, found that the lands of the best wheatJuly, and was found to be much whiter and growing counties contained the least lime. In better than the rest, which was cut a week later. Seneca county, at present the greatest wheat In England, it is the practice of farmers to cut county in the State, only one-half per cent. of the their rye as soon as the stem is yellow under the ingredients of the soil is lime. He mentioned ear, and by so doing the flour is much whiter. this to show that the utility of lime for raising His experience confirmed the utility of the prac- wheat was doubtful. tice.

Mr. BRADBURY, of Newton, said that in the wheat-growing counties of Pennsylvania and Ma- Mr. Webster, when he first commenced farming ryland, great quantities of lime were used, and it at Marshfield, purchased seven cargoes of lime was considered indispensable. They formerly and applied it to his land ; but of its specific efraised large crops of wheat without any manure ; fect, he could not speak, although its use was but their lands gave out, and geologists advised discontinued subsequently, and it was thought by the farmers to replenish their lands with lime. farmers in that vicinity that it was of no benefit They did so, and the result was that they ob- to the land. In his opinion, it exhausts the tained as good crops as they ever did. In some land. of these counties there is plenty of limestone,

Mr. JENKINS related an instance in which a from which the farmers supplied themselves, friend of his purchased a large quantity of lime, while in others there was not ; and the good effect and applied it to his land for various crops, but of the lime was so obvious, that the farmers in he could not raise a thing. the non-limestone counties transported limestone Mr. BRADBURY remarked that this last case verifrom the others to manure their lands. In some fied his statement in regard to the use of lime in parts of Pennsylvania and Maryland, the roads Pennsylvania, where they do not expec are macadamized with limestone, which, becom- profit until the third and fourth years, by which ing finely pulverized, is blown by the wind upon time the land is restored to its natural strength. the adjoining fields, and it is found that the Besides, farmers there put on vast quantities, land along these roads is fertilized exceedingly by much more than farmers here would think of dothe lime thus thrown upon it. It is the practice ing. among farmers in Cumberland, Dauphin and Mr. BUCKMINSTER, of the Ploughman, inquired Franklin counties in Pennsylvania, and in Mary- what use was made of the land for the first two land, to apply 80 bushels of unslacked lime per years, to which Mr. Bradbury responded, that acre once in about seven years, plowing it in after once in four or five years, they put in clover. The it becomes pulverized by the action of the sun farmers there do not calculate on getting grain and rain. They do not expect much from it the from the land more than half of the time. The first or second year, but during the third and lime does not tell till the third and fourth years, fourth they reap the benefit.

after which, the land again declines. Mr. HOWARD said he did not deny that line Mr. BUCKMINSTER thought that at this rate farwas an essential element of the soil, and con- mers could hardly afford to put on 80 bushels to stituted a part of the food of plants, which should the acre. be supplied with the proper quantity; but he did

Mr. BRADBURY said that the lime was manunot think that the state of things in Pennsylvania factured very cheaply there, owing to the abundwas a just criterion for the granite soils of New ance of a poor quality of wood which was not England.

profitable for marketing, and they were not so Col. NEWELL, of Essex, said that wheat did particular in burning the lime as if it were to be not grow so well in his county now as formerly. used for building purposes. He had made it himHe had known 40 bushels to the acre to be raised, self at a cost of only 5 cents per bushel, and it but that quantity gradually fell off to 5 or 6 could be bought for 8. He would not recombushels. What the reason was he could not tell. mend its use here. He simply made a statement Latterly they had succeeded better ; but of this, of what he had seen and known; but thought also, he did not know the cause. He had raised the matter should be considered by farmers. wheat for thirty years, getting all the way from

Col. NEWELL thought that lime would be a 40 down to 5 bushels to the acre. Had never cheap manure at the cost here, if it would proused lime but once, applying then ten casks to duce similar effects on our soils, and last seven the acre, and harvesting 20 bushels of wheat per years. Farmers here cannot manure their land acre. The land was laid down with grain to so cheap, under the present system. grass, and he got two large crops from it; but Mr. PROCTOR, of Danvers, said two purposes whether it was owing to the lime or not, he could were to be regarded—first, to raise grain, and not say. There is something in the land which second, to fit the land for grass. In his early will not produce wheat, while it will yield larger days, barley was an excellent grain to lay down crops of grass than ever before.

land with ; it paid well, and he had known 40 Mr. JENKINS inquired in regard to planting bushels per acre to be raised with common manwheat in drills, and was answered by Mr. How-uring. It had to be abandoned, however, for ARD, who said that this method was pursued to awhile, owing to a blight caured by an insect; but some extent in New York and Pennsylvania. By latterly it is coming forward again, and is a very it the land could be kept free from weeds, and fair crop for seed and grass. Rye, in Essex counthus promote the growth of the grain. ty, is the most profitable crop the farmer can

Hon. Setu SPRAGUE, of Duxbury, said that raise, and for eight or ten years he had known it

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