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UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF THE

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, &c.

INTENDED TO SUPERSEDE

THE USE OF OTHER BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

ILLUSTRATED WITH

THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY PLATES AND MAPS.

SECOND EDITION,

IN TWENTY-THREE VOLUMES.

VOLUME XII.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY JOHN BROWN, ANCHOR CLOSE,

FOR THE PROPRIETORS,

AND SOLD BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM,

1816

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ILE

AQUIFOLIUM, or

I walk or alley in from aile, public this there are many varieties with variegated

elding. Properly aile.

Upward the columns fhoot, the roofs afcend, And arches widen, and long iles extend. Pope. (1.) * ILE. #. f. [aisle, Fr.] An ear of corn. Ainsworth.

(3) ILE, a river of Somerfetfhire, which runs into the Parret, one mile S. of Langport.

ILEHARRE, a town of France, in the dep. of the Lower Pyrenees, near Mauleon. ILEIGNES, a town of Hifpaniola.

cattle.

leaves, which are propagated by the gardeners for fale, and fome years ago were in great efteem, but at prefent are little regarded; the old tafte of filling gardens with fhorn evergreens being abo lifhed. In the difpofition of clumps, however, or rather plantations, of evergreen trees and fhrubs, a few, of the moft lively colours, have a good effect in winter, if properly difpofed. The beft of thefe varieties are the painted-lady holly, British holly, Bradley's best holly, phyllis or cream holly, milkmaid bly, Prichet's beft holly, gold-edged hedgehog holly, Chyney's holly, glory-of-the-weft holly, Broaderick's holly, Partridge's holly, Herefordshire white holly, Blind's cream holly. Longftaff's holly, Eales's holly, filver-edged hedgehog holly. All thefe are propagated by budding or grafting them upon stocks of the common green holly. fmooth leaves; but it is often found intermixed There is alfo a variety of the common holly with with the prickly-leaved on the fame tree, and often on the fame branch there are both forts of leaves. The common holly grows naturally in woods and forefts in many parts of England, where it rifes

LEN, a river of Wales, in Pembrokeshire. LERAY, an inland of Scotland, on the W. at of N. Uift, feparated from it and from the Kirkboft by fands, which are overflowved at water. It is 3 miles long, half a mile broad, relds good crops of barley, befides pasture the ILERGETES, fituated on an eminence between TERDA, in ancient geography, the capital of the rivers Sicoris and Cinga. It was often belieg6 and taken, being expofed to the incurfions l; and under Gallienus it was deftroy. Germans. It is now called LERIDA, in ILERGETES, the people of ILERDA, errone- ordinary height is not above 25 feet: the ftem by

Catalonia, on the Segra.

refly called Iligertes by fome encyclopædifts.

from 20 to 30 feet, and sometimes more, but the

age becomes large, and is covered with a greyish

ILESTGAGUEN, a ftrong town of Morocco, fmooth bark; and those trees which are not loped

in the province of Hea, feated on a mountain.

ILET, a river of Ruffia, which runs into the branches the greatest part of their length, forming

or browsed by cattle, are commonly furnished with

Tolga, 40 miles NW. of Kazan.

alled the twisting of the guts, is really either a per surface, but are pale on their under, having a ILEUS. . . [Latin]-An ileus, commonly oblong oval leaves, of a lucid green on their up. circumvolution, or infertion of one part of the gut ftrong midrib: the edges are indented and waved,

a fort of cone; the branches are garnished with

within the other. Arbuthnot.

with sharp thorns terminating each of the points,

tre oak, thrives well in England, is a hardy and others are bent downward, and being very fort of tree, and eafily raised of acorns. The Spa- ftiff, they are troublesome to handle. The leaves ILEX... [Latin.]-The ilex, or great so that fome of the thorns are raised upward, surds have a fort they call enzina; the wood of are placed alternate on every fide of the branches; when old, is finely chambletted, as if it and from the base of their footstalks come out the

printed.

Mortimer. LEX, the HOLM or HOLLY Tree: A genus letragynia order, belonging to the tetrandria plants, and in the natural method ranking hed order Dumof. The calyx is quated; the corolla rotaceous; there is no the berry is monofpermous. There are fees; but the most remarkable is the XIL PART I.

flowers in clusters, standing on very short footftalks; each of these fuftain five, fix, or more flowers. They are of a dirty white, and appear in May; but are fucceeded by roundish berries, which turn to a beautiful red about Michaelmas, and continue on the trees, if they are not destroyed, till after Chriftmas. The common holly is a very beautiful tree in winter; therefore deferves a A

place

long to it. It is feated almoft oppofite Swanie in Glamorganshire, and is 49 miles NNW. of Ex ter, and 181 W. by S. of London. Lon. 4. 5. W Lat. 51. 14. N.

ILHAVO, a town of Portugal, in Beira. (1.) ILHEOS, a fertile province of Brazil, in th middle divifion.

(2,3.) ILH&os, the capital of the above provinc on a river to named, 90 miles NE. of Port Segaro. Lon. 41. 25. W. Lat. 15. 5. S. ILIA, the daughter of Numitor, and mother ROMULUS, the founder of Rome. See NUMITO (1.) * ILIAC. adj. [iliacus, Lat.] Relating t the lower bowels.-The iliac paffion is a kind o convulfion in the belly.

(2.) ILIAC PASSION. A kind of nervous che lic, whofe feat is the ilium, whereby that gut twifted, or one part enters the cavity of the pa immediately below or above; whence it is all called the volvulus, from volvo, to roll.-Thot who die of the iliac passion have their bellies muc fwelled. Flayer on the Humours.

from the Greek verb xuv, to wind or twift: Se ANATOMY, N° 298, and MEDICINE, N° 193, 89 895.

place in all plantations of evergreen trees and shrubs, where its fining leaves and red berries make a fine variety. A few of the best variegated kinds properly intermixed, enliven the fcene. It is propagated by feeds, which never come up the first year, but lie in the ground as the haws do; therefore the berries fhould be buried in the ground one year, and then taken up and fown at Mi chaelmas, upon a bed expofed only to the morn-feated ing fun; the following fpring the plants will appear, which must be kept clean from weeds and if the fpring prove dry, it will be of great fer vice to the plants if they are watered once a-week; but they must not have it oftener, nor in too great quantity, for too much moisture is very injurious to these plants when young. In this feed bed the plants may remain two years; and then be tranfplanted in autumn, into beds about fix inches afinder, where they may tand two years longer; during which time they must be conftantly kept clean from weeds; and if they have thriven well, they will be ftrong enough to tranfplant where they are defigned to remain; for when they are (3.) The ILLAC PASSION is called allo miferer tranfplanted at that age, they will grow to a larmei, and chordapfus. The name is derived by fom ger fize than thofe which are removed when they are much larger but if the ground is not ready to receive them, they should be tranfplanted into a nursery in rows two feet diftant, and one foot afunder; where they may remain two years longer. If they are to be grafted with any of the yariegated kinds, that should be perform after they have grown one year in the nuris y; but the plants, fo grafted hould continue two years after in the nursery, that they may make good fhoots before they are removed; though the plain ones should not ftand longer than two years in the nur fery, because when they are older they do not transplant fo wall. The beft feafon for removing hollies is in autumn, efpecially in dry land; but where, the foil is cold and moift, they may be transplanted with great fafety in fpring, if the plants are not too old, or have not food long unremoved. Sheep in winter are fed with croppings of holly. Birds eat the berries. The bark for: mented, and washed from the woody fibres, make the common bird-lime. The plant makes an impenetrable fence, and bears cropping, though it does not in all refpects, answer equally well with the bawthorn. The wood is ufed in fineering, and is fometimes ftained black to imitate ebony, lan dles for knives, and, cogs for mill wheels, are made of it. It is alfo made into hones for razors. Mil. lar fays, he has seen the floor of a room laid with compartments of holly and mahogany, which had a fine effect.

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ILFELD a town of Saxony, in Hohnstein. (1.) ILFORD, GREAT, two villages of Effex, (2.) ILFORD, LITTLE, on the Roding, which is navigable hence to the Thames. They are ham lets to the town of Barking; and lie 7 miles NE, by E. of London.

ILFRACOMBE, a fea-port of Devonshire, with a fpacious bafin, formed by a good pier projecting into the Briftol Channel. The high tides here allow large veffels to enter the harbour, This port employs a number of brigs and loops, chielly in carrying ore from Cornwall, coal from Wales, and corn to Briftol. A number of fishing fkiffs be

1

(4) ILIAC REGION. See ANATOMY, N° 267. ILIACORE, a town of Indoftan, in Malabar. ILIAD, [s, from Ilium.] an ancient epi poem, the first and fineft of thofe compofed b Homer. The poet's defign was to how th Greeks, who were divided into feveral little ftate how much it was their intereft to preferve har mony among themselves; for which end he fets be fore them the calamities that befel their ancestor from the wrath of Achilles, and his mifunderstand ing with Agamemnon; and the advantages tha afterwards accrued to them from their union. T Iliad is divided into 24 books or rhapsodies.

ILIENSES, an ancient people of Sardinia, men tioned by Livy; lib. 40. c. 19. l. 41. c. 6, 12. ILIENSIUM PAGUS. See ILIUM, N° 32 ILINSKOI, four towns of Ruffia, in the gov of Noyogorod, Olonsk, Tobolsk, and Tuer. (1.) ILION, or ILIOS. See ILIUM, N° 2. (2.) ILION, a town, of Afia, in Thibet. ILISSIADES, a title of the Mufes; from ILISSUS, a river running to the E. of Athens which, with the Eridanus running on the W. fide falls below the city into the fea. It was facred to the Mufes, and their altar flood on its bank, wher the luftration in the leffer myfteries was ufually performed.

ILITHYIA, a title of Juso and DIANA.

ILIVE, an English printer and letter founder who published fome fingular tracts; particularly. pretended tranflation of the book of JASHER; and an oration, proving that this world is Hell, and that the fouls of men are fallen angels. He died at London in 1763.

(1.) ILIUM, in anatomy. See ANATOMY, N 290.

78,815

(2.) ILIUM, ILION, or ILIOs, in ancient geogra phy, a name of Troy, but moft commonly ufed by the poets, and diftinguished by the epithet us; at a greater diftance from the fea than that afterwards called Ilium Novum. See N° 3 (3.) TLIUM

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