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as possible, they plug the wound with chewed paper, a method which, if it is efficacious, leaves the most hideous marks of the gash. The band now seems to have scattered, and to have broken into the temple in parties of three or four, coming across an unfortunate priest as they did so, who, however, was not very severely wounded and then in the darkness they dashed into all the rooms, slashing recklessly about them, and plunging their swords through the mattresses in the hope of transfixing a sleeper. There can be little doubt that they would have succeeded in their purpose, had it not been for the lateness of the hour at which most of us had retired

to rest.

Before daybreak Sir Rutherford Alcock had despatched an express messenger to Captain Craigie of H. M. S. Ringdove, then lying at Yokohama, twenty miles distant, describing the position of matters, and urgently requesting him to come at once to our assistance. Meantime the native guards had been increased to 500 men. At one o'clock in the afternoon we were cheered by the sight of twenty blue-jackets, led by their officers, tramping up the avenue, their faces beaming with the anticipation of a possible fight in store. Their arrival inspired a confidence which our previously defenceless condition probably exaggerated; for what could so few even well-armed men do against the hostile population by whom


were surrounded, had they chosen to renew the attack, which we considered highly probable? They were accompanied by Monsieur Duchesne de Bellecore, the French Minister, who, on learning of our adventure, instantly put himself on board the Ringdove, bringing with him a party of


Frence sailors, "pour partager les dangers," as he chivalrously remarked. Our most welcome reinforcement instantly set to work improving our means of defence. The palisades all round looked to and strengthened, and every conceivable measure of precaution taken to prepare for another attack during the night, which seemed highly possible,for we thought that the escaped Lonins might spend the day in recruiting their numbers and assault us in much stronger force. We heard from various sources that the city was in the highest state of excitement, and we felt, therefore, that we had only as yet, perhaps, been actors in the first scene of a drama, the dénouement of which it was impossible to foresee. At the same time we quite felt that the decision at which our Minister had arrived was the right one, and that we must hold our position at all hazards, as it would never do to allow either the Japanese Government or people to suppose that we could be frightened by isolated acts of violence into abandoning rights which had been solemnly assured to us by treaty. With the exception of the American, there was no other foreign Legation in Yedo at the time, and it had so far escaped molestation. In anticipation of a lively night, an elaborate system of sentries was organized upon a somewhat composite basis. At both the gates, and at various points in the grounds, was a mixed guard of Japanese and English or French, while at every bedroom-door a Japanese and a blue-jacket kept watch together. I don't think anybody slept much that night; and whenever I did fall into a dose, it was only to wake with a start from a dream in which I was being attacked. The bamboo rat

tle of the Japanese watchmen, associated as it was with my first alarm, produced a painful impression upon my weakened nervous system; and it was a relief to gaze at my two sentries stolidly facing each other from opposite sides of the doorway, both armed to the teeth according to the fashion of their respective civilisations, unable to interchange an intelligible word, but each, no doubt, entertaining some curious speculations in regard to the other.

to me

All through that first night I fancied I heard the angry murmur of the dense population by which we were surrounded, who seemed as sleepless as ourselves; but this may only have been the effect of a fevered imagination. The night passed off without an alarm, but it was only the first of a series in which this unpleasant state of tension was in no degree relaxed. Nor did the days bring much relief. Sinister and unpleasant rumours were constantly reaching us through sources of information which, it is true were not to be much relied upon, for they were Japanese, though in some cases more or less secret. It was not safe for a foreigner to show himself outside the gates, so that we felt more or less beleagured, while official visits were paid and communications were being kept up between the Minister and the Japanese Government. Nobody thought of laying aside his revolver for a moment; and whether he was eating his meals or copying a dispatch it was always placed on the table beside him.

Under these circumstances I was only an encumbrance, for I was unable to use either arm, and my wounds needed more serious attention than it was possible to give them on shore. After the first two days, therefore, I was put on board the Ringdove, under the

care of the assistant-surgeon. Captain Craigie, who was living on shore, most kindly placed his cabin at my disposal; and here I entered upon a series of experiences which, in their way, were the most disagreeable which it has ever been my lot to encounter.

After the wound on my right shoulder was sewn up, my right arm was bandaged to my side so as not to open the sutures; my left arm was also firmly bandaged, so that I was deprived of the use of both, and had to be fed by my servant. Then, from loss or poverty of blood I became covered with boils, which of coures were worse just under the bandages. In addition to this, ophthalmia broke out among the crew, and I got it in both eyes. The themometer was standing at 95o. I was as red as a lobster from prickly heat, which produced an incessant irritation, and the cabin buzzed with mosquitoes like a beehive. A bandage over both eyes kept me in total darkness; and it was as difficult to lie on my back on account of the boils as on either side because of my arms. monotony of this existence was only relieved by having myself constantly scratched; by indicating the localities of mosquitoes I wished killed; by having nitrate of silver poured in both eyes, which felt very much as if they were being extracted with corkscrews; by having my wounds cleaned, plastered, and attended to; by being fed, and smoking. It is for such emergencies that a beneficient Providence has especially provided tobacco.


As every available man was on shore, there was nobody to talk to except the assistant-surgeon and the second master. It was just when I was suffering the most acutely from this accumulation of miseries that we had another serious


I was vainly trying to find the best position to dose in when I heard a great scrimmage on deck, and some sharp words of command given in an excited tone. Rousing B., who was sleeping near me, I told him to hurry on deck and see what was the matter. In a moment he came back in the highest state of excitement, with the pleasing intelligence that an armed Japanese junk was bearing down to board us, and that everybody was on deck with pikes and other weapons of defence. As all the combatant part of the crew had been landed for the defence of the Legation, leaving only the engineers, stokers, cook, steward, and one or two others on boardthe Ringdove was only a gunboat -this information was not reassuring. It seemed that sooner or later I was destined to meet the fate of a rat in a trap. Listening anxiously, I heard the shouting increasing, evidently now proceeding chiefly from Japanese throats, and then felt a great bump. Apparently the climax had arrived, and I sent B. up again to assist in repelling the boarders. In two or three minutes the noise ceased, and he reappeared, accompanied this time by the doctor, who told me that the junk had sheered off. Whether the collision had been with hostile intent, and those on board had changed their minds on finding us prepared for them, and abandoned the idea of attempting to take us, or whether it was simply the result of clumsy navigation, remained a mystery, which the darkness of the night, and the suddenness of the whole episode, rendered it impossible to solve.

If my various tortures were severe while they lasted, the length of their duration was fortunately short. Owing to the fact that they were unaccompanied by any fever, and that I could eat well, I speed

ily began to regain strength, and in less than a week was able to go on deck. Here I began to revel in a delightful feeling of security, which had become quite a novel sensation; the ophthalmia was cured, and I could indulge in the full enjoyment of the novel aquatic life by which I was surrounded,— in watching the quaint-shaped junks passing to and fro, and the no less quaint-looking fishermen plying their vocation after their peculiar and original methods, in their no less peculiar and original costume, which often consisted of absolutely nothing except a bandage over their noses, the reason for which I never discovered. Their chief occupation seemed to be to prod the muddy bottom of the bay with long tridents for eels. Then there was historic Fusi-yama, with its beautiful conical summit towering over all, and the city of Yedo, with its extensive suburbs straggling for miles all round the margin of the bay.


A few days later I was glad to find myself able to obey a summons from Sir Rutherford Alcock come on shore in order to be present at a conference with some of the chief Ministers of State on the subject of the recent attack. It was a blazing hot day, and when I reached the shore exactly opposite the gate of the Legation, I found the intervening street occupied by the procession of an important Daimio. On the occasion of the progress of one of these great feudal princes, they used to be followed by a small army of samurai or clansmen, numbering sometimes as many as a thousand all two-sworded swashbucklers, all ready to fight on the smallest provocation to uphold the dignity of their chief, and exceedingly sensitive on the point of honour. The natives, on meeting a procession of this kind, were expected either to

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move away from the road alto- the full narrative of events congether, or humbly to prostrate tained in his despatch, and also to themselves while it passed. Under be the bearer of a personal letter no circumstances was anybody from the Tycoon to the Queen, allowed to cross it. This was an in- apologising for the occurrence. sult which it was considered should The question of indemnity, and be wiped out by the death of the the nature of the satisfaction to be rash man who should offer it. required, were matters also to be Since the great revolution which discussed; while the trip was one practically extinguished the Dai- by which, under the circumstances, mios, and which was one of the my health could not fail to derive results of intercourse with foreign benefit. During the month which nations, I believe these dangerous now elapsed before the admiral processions have been abolished. arrived, the only event of importAt the time I had no idea of the ance which occurred was the news extreme tenacity of the Japanese that two Ministers of State who on this point of etiquette, or of the had been to see the Tycoon were risk I should run if I attempted attacked by Lonins: they were, to cross the procession. I stood however, bravely defended by their for some time watching the line, retainers, and, after a severe strugwhich seemed interminable, the gle, the Lonins were completely demen marching slowly in pairs. At feated, many being made prisoners. last the heat of the mid-day sun I now began to perceive how necesbecame so overpowering that I sary it was, as a measure of selffeared I should faint. The gate of protection, for Daimios always to the Legation, only a dozen yards be attended by a large escort. off, stood invitingly ajar, and, perceiving a wider gap in the line than usual, I made a dash through it. The samurai were so much taken by surprise, that before they could draw their swords I was past them, but not before I had time to perceive their murderous intent, and to slam the gate in the faces of two or three that rushed after me. After our conference with the Ministers was over, I was informed by Sir Rutherford that he had written to Sir James Hope, then admiral on the station, requesting his presence, and that nothing could be finally decided upon until after a consultation with him, but that he had determined to abandon his intention of going home on leave, and would remain at his post until he received instructions from home, that he had further decided on sending me back to England to furnish any information which might be required in addition to

At last about the middle of August, Admiral Hope arrived, accompanied by Sir Hercules Robinson, then Governor of HongKong, and it was determined that we should lose no time in paying an official visit in grand state to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs. This involved passing through the most crowded and disaffected quarters of the town, for a distance of about two miles. I scarcely knew whether I was sufficiently recovered to make this effort on horseback, but the alternative was to be cooped up in a norimon,-a sort of palanquin, which, however had the disadvantage of being square, and not oblong, like the latter, and thus oblige me to maintain a squatting position during the whole time. As I considered that the chances were rather in favour of our being attacked than otherwise, I preferred riding, although I had to be led, as I was unable to hold

the reins. Still, with a sharp pair of spurs, I had always the chance that my steed, in a wild and headlong flight of his own, would carry me out of the mêlée.

The party consisted of the Minister, the Admiral, Sir Hercules Robinson, several naval officers, members of the Legation, and myself, escorted between two lines of marines and blue-jackets, who certainly looked as if they were prepared to give a good account of any Lonins who might be rash enough to attack us. The streets through which we passed were densely crowded with scowling multitudes, amongst whom the two-sworded gentry, whom we knew entertained towards us feelings of special animosity, were very numerous. Our progress was necessarily slow, so that it was an hour before we arrived at the building where the two Ministers for Foreign Affairs were waiting to receive us. We found them attended by many other officials, for it was the custom in Japan never to allow these audiences to assume a private character; and many of those who were present exercised the functions of metsuke-in other words, of Government spies or reporters.

After the first formal compliments had taken place, in accordance with preconcerted arrangements all the English officers and gentlemen who had accompanied us withdrew, leaving only the Ministers, the Admiral, and myself, and the interpreters. This was a signal for all the Japanese, except the two Ministers, to retire an unprecedented event, so far, in the annals of Japanese diplomacy; but it was to be accounted for by the fact that the Ministers had a confidential communication to make to us affecting another European Power, which could not

otherwise have been kept quiet; it was therefore in their own interest to break through their ordinary course of procedure.

After discussing this question, Sir Rutherford Alcock informed them that I was to be the bearer to England of the Imperial Mission to the Queen, and we talked over the possible chances of another attack, and the inconveniences which seemed to attend an official residence in the capital of Japan. The first Minister, Ando Tsusimano Kami, remarked, in the course of this conversation, that peril to life was an incident inseparable from high office in his country, and that everybody who filled it, whether foreign or Japanese, must, as a matter of course, run the risk of being murdered. I thought then that this was a mere complimentary way of reconciling us to what was intended to be sooner or later the invariable fate of foreign officials in Japan. But a very short time afterwards poor Ando Tsusimano Kami proved, in his own person, the unjustness of my suspicions; for he was attacked by a band of eight Lonins, dragged from his norimon, and so severely wounded that for some time his life was despaired of. So far as I was personally concerned, the most important result of this interview was the decision which was arrived at-that before going to England I should proceed in H.M.S. Ringdove to the island of Tsusima, situated in the straits of the Corea, accompanied by Admiral Hope in his flag-ship, to investigate the truth of the report which we had received of the Russians having made a permanent settlement in that island, contrary to treaty, and to take measures accordingly. A few days afterwards I sailed from Yedo on this most interesting mission.

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