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in 1723, the whites had increased to 34,393, possessions British colonies, and the English and the blacks to 6,171; total, 40,564. This people their kindred and of the same origin. was under the English Government. A few We neel only quote as an example, the Dutch and Poles settled in New-Jersey, a paragraph from the Declaration of Indepenfew Swedes in Delaware, many Germans in dence, drawn up by Jefferson, who surely Pennsylvania, where they afterwards became was not remarkable for his Anglo-Saxon one third of the population, and some French attachments : Protestants, called Huguenots, in New-York and South Carolina. Settlements of Low- “Nor have we been wanting in our attention to land Scotch and Scotch-Irish from the north our British brethren. We have warned them from of Ireland were made in Pennsylvania and the to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.

time to time of attempts made by their Legislature Carolinas, and a small number of Irish Prot- We have reminded them of the circumstances of estants settled the town of Londonderry, in our emigration and settlement here. We have apNew-Hampshire. With the exception of a pealed to their native justice and magnanimity, few Scottish Highlanders who settled in and we have conjured them by the ties of our

common kindred to disavow these usurpations North and South Carolina, and Georgia, which would inevitably interrupt our connections we believe no Celtic colony is to be found and correspondence. They too have been deaf to among the American settlements of either the voice of justice and consanguinity. We the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries. At must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which the revolution in England in 1688, that is, hold the rest of mankind—enemies in war,

deuounces our separation, and hold them, as we

in eighty-one years after the first settlement in

peace friends." Virginia, and sixty-eight after that of Plymouth in New-England, the population of

Of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration the colonies, then twelve in number, Georgia of Independence, thirty-six are believed to being a subsequent settlement, was estimated have been of Anglo-Saxon origin; five Pictat about two hundred thousand, of which ish or Lowland Scotch ; seven Welsh or 75,000 were in New-England, and 50,000 in Cymbric; four Anglo-Irish; one Scotch-Irish; Virginia.

one Austro-Irish; one Swedish ; and one We thus see that the British North Amer- Spanish. On examining the list of delegates ican colonies were settled almost exclusively from the various States to the Continental by Anglo-Saxons, and their rapid progress Congress, from 1774 to 1788, we find that was owing in a great degree to the energy two hundred and forty-eight were of Angloand vigor peculiar to the

race to which they Saxon, three of Anglo-Norman, thirty-one of belonged. The Rev. Dr. Baird, in his work Scotch, ten of Irish, twenty-four of Welsh, entitled "Religion in America," has some seventeen of Huguenot or French, eleven appropriate remarks on this subject :

Dutch, three German, one Swedish, and one

of Spanish origin. Total, 349. The Anglo* The Anglo-Saxon race possessed qualities pe

Saxons represented the States in the followculiarly adapted to successful colonization. The ing proportions, viz.: New-Hampshire, 17; characteristic perseverance, the spirit of personal Massachusetts, 20; Rhode Island, 12; Confreedom and independence that have ever distin- necticut, 23; New-York, 12; New-Jersey, bor and isolation necessarily to be endured before 17; Pennsylvania, 27; Delaware, 13; Maryhe can be a successful colonist. Now, New-Eng. land, 27; Virginia, 25; North Carolina, 19; land, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 19; Georgia, 17. with the exception of Dutch and Swedish ele- An examination of the names of the leadments, which were too inconsiderable to affect the general result, were all colonized by people of ing officers of the Revolutionary army would Anglo-Saxon origin. And assuredly they have doubtless show a similar result to that of the displayed qualities fitting them for their task Congressional list, but we do not deem it such as the world has never witnessed before." important to enter into the examination. If

our Revolutionary fathers, when signing the But how did the people of the colonies Magna Charta of Independence, did not hesithemselves view the question with regard to tate to recognize the ties of kindred in those their common origin? The documents the from whom they were separating, there is patriots of the American Revolution issued no occasion at this day to deny the truths to the world, abundantly show that they of history, and refuse to acknowledge our considered themselves as Anglo-Saxons, their common origin as a nation with that Anglo

Saxon people, against whom we have con- | laws, manners and customs, induces us to tended in two wars for independence, but believe that our national character will not who still hold us in commercial subjection, be materially changed by the effects of imiin consequence of our false system of legisla- gration. It should be the duty of all true tion; which, contrary to the spirit of our Americans to discourage the separate action Anglo-Saxon ancestors, refuses to protect and trans-atlantic attachments and associa: our own industry

tions of the foreigners who come to reside The effect of the mighty stream of imi- among us; and to impress upon them the gration which Europe is now pouring upon our truth, that as all meet here on equal ground, shores is yet to be determined by the events so all distinctions of race should here be of the future. But our former experience as lost sight of, and all denizens, from whatever a nation in receiving the people of various land or clime, should be anxious to be races who have sought this favored land as known in this republic only by the common an asylum, and the ready adoption by the name of AMERICANS. various masses of the Anglo-Saxon language,


I. Sir William Betham, a distinguished British antiquary, in a recent work expresses the opinion, founded on his investigations, that the Welsh and the Gael must have been a totally distinct and separate people; that the Welsh language differs totally from the Gaelic, and has not in fact the slightest affinity, unless it could be considered an affinity that a few words are to be found in each tongue which have the same or similar meaning. Lhuyd and Rowland, two of the most eminent Welsh writers, admit that a people who spoke the Irish language were the predecessors of the Welsh in Wales, and gave names to inost of the places in that country; and that Welsh names of rivers and places were only to be found in the eastern and southern parts of Scotland. “Therefore,” says Betham, “it appears clear that the Picts who inhabited that country must have been the ancestors of the Welsh, and that they conquered Wales, Cornwall, and Brittany, on the fall of the Roman empire ; and calling themselves Cymbri

, they were a colony of the Cimbri, a people who once inhabited the neighboring coasts of Jutland, (Denmark,) the ancient Cimbric Chersonesus, the country opposite the land of the Picts.” Sir William Betham concludes, that the Irish, the Gael of Scotland, (Highlanders,) and the Manks, (of the Isle of Man,) are now the only descendants of that ancient people, of Phænician origin, who speak their language.

11. The following are the names and origin of the twenty signers of the Declaration of Independence, who are not considered of Anglo-Saxon origin :

Lowland Scotch-William Hooper, Philip Livingston, George Ross, James Wilson, John Wither. spoon.

Irish.-Charles Carroll, Thomas Lynch, jr., Thomas McKean, James Smith, Matthew Thornton, George Taylor.

Welsh.-William Floyd, Francis Lewis, Joseph Hewes, Thomas Jefferson, Lewis Morris, Robert Morris, William Williams.

Swedish.-John Morton.
Spanish. William Paca.

The name of Paca, we believe, is only to be found in the Spanish and Portuguese. William Paca, of Maryland, whom we consider of Spanish descent, was of a highly respectable family; but his origin is not mentioned in his biography.

Thomas Lynch, jr., of South Carolina, one of the signers, was of a distinguished family of Connaught, Ireland. His biographer says that the South Carolina branch of the Lynch family, from which he was descended, was originally of Austria, where it was called Lince or Lintz. They removed to England, and from Kent to Ireland.

The names of Thornton, Smith, Taylor, and Carroll, in Ireland, we believe to have been originally of Anglo-Saxon origin. We have some doubt of the latter. It may be Celtic; but we think it is either Saxon or Norman. The ancestor of the family, Charles Carroll, grandfather of the signer, came to Maryland with the early English Catholic colonists, sent out by Lord Baltimore. He was a native of King's County, Ireland, and was a clerk in the office of Lord Powis, in the reign of James the Second.

Among the names of the delegates to the Continental Congress, besides the signers of the Declaration, are Sullivan, Burke, Duane, and Kearney, which it is well known are Irish.

The Sullivans (O'Sullivan originally) are a distinguished ancient Celtic family in Ireland. The Burkes are descended from an Anglo-Norman, named De Burgb, who accompanied Strongbow in his expedition to Ireland in the reign of Henry the Second. (See Burke's Landed Gentry.)

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Peers and princes mark I,

Monarchs, on guarded thrones,
Captains and Chiliarchi ;

Ruling Earth's southern zones,
Thou burning Angel of the Pit, Abaddon!



the wrathful archers of Gehenna; Charioteers from Hades, land of Gloom,

How gleam, affrighted Lords of Europe's crowns, Gigantic thrones, and heathen troopers, whom

Their blood-red arrows o'er your bastioned
The thunder of the far-off fight doth madden.

Moscow, and purple Rome, and cannon-girt Vienna ?

Go bid your Prophets watch the troubled skies !

“Why through the vault cleave those infernal Lo! Night's barbaric Khans,

glances !

Why, ye pale Wizards, do those portents rise,
Lo! the waste Gulf's wild clans
Gallop across the skies with fiery bridles!

Rockets and fiery shafts and lurid lances ?”
Lo! flaming Sultanas, infernal Czars,

In deep-ranked squadrons gird the glowing cars Of Lucifer and Ammon, towering Idola

Still o'er the silent Pole

Numberless armies roll,
Columns all plumed and cohorts of artillery;

Still girdled nobles cross the snowy fields
See yonder red platoons!

In flashing chariots, and their crimson shields
Seel see the swift dragoons,

Kindle afar thy icy peaks, Cordillera !
Whirling aloft their sabres to the zenith!

See the tall regiments whose spears incline,

Beyond the circle of that steadfast sign, Which to the streams of Ocean never leaneth.*

On, Lords of dark Despair !

Prince of the Powers of Air,
Bear your broad banners through the constellations!


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Wave, all ye Stygian hordes,
Whose yonder dragon-crest ?

Through the black sky your swords;
Whose that red-shielded breast !

Startle with warlike signs the watching nations. Chieftain Satanas! Emp'ror of the Furnace ! March, ye mailed multitudes, across the deep;

What bright centurions, what blazing Earls, Far shine the battlements on Heaven's steep. In mail of Hell's hot ores and burnished pearls, Dare ye again, fierce Thrones and scarlet Powers, Alarm the kingdoms with their gleaming harness Assail with Hell's wild host those crystal towers!

Tempt ye again the angels' shining blades,

Ithuriel's spear, and Michael's circling truncheon, 'Apxrov . . . . "Auašav .... The seraph-cavalier, whose winged brigades, Οίη δ' άμμορός έστι λουτρών Ωκεανοίο. Drove you in dreadful rout down to the Night's

ILIAD, xvüi. 489.

vast dungeon ?

G, H, N.


This is one of a class of subjects which of in a centre, they establish a rotary motion? latter years has grown out of and been laid was formed our planetary system, rou h open by the growth of Jther sciences. As the hewn and formless, but with all its magnifi visible world has been mapped out, explored, cent purposes fully engermed within it. The and defined, and the harlequinism of the same law of matter that drives the little youthful sciences has given place to the greater eddy of dust and straw along the highway, marvels of the truth, every form in which na- or covers the bosom of the streamlet with ture manifests herself to us shows an increas- dimples, guides the course of suns and ing mutual dependence, and a convergence planets and astral systems, and, we have to one centre-man. From this connection every reason to believe, of the whole maand newly-discovered unity, the whole range terial universe. The nebulous sphere thus of human knowledge has received an in- formed, filling up the space inclosed within creased and increasing impulse, while on what is now the orbit of the outermost some of its paths a most unexpected blaze planet, was a vast heated furnace, torn with of light has been shed. Among others, the flaming tornadoes that raged and Geography-or Geology, as it should rightly howled through its depths, but still followbe called, were not the term already appro- ing the same path that its chaotic materials priated to a portion of it—is no longer the pursued while yet a fire-cloud. Its rotary dry, unmeaning science it once was held to motion, a product of the conflict between be, involving no great principle and tending this original movement and the mutual atto no great purpose; but it is at last felt to traction of its particles, marks the natal be, in its growth and perfection, a foreshad- hour of our planetary system. In the owing of the physical destinies of mankind. struggle between the contending centrifuAstronomy and Geography, as Laplace and gal and centripetal forces, the outlying porHerschel, Humboldt and Ritter have un- tions of the mass have become cooled, partly folded them, are now history—the history by radiation of their heat into space, and of the material universe and of created life; partly in consequence of their condensation. covering, not thousands of years, but thou- | The least excess of the centrifugal over the sands of cycles; and not stopping with the attractive force would now suffice to detach present, but prophesying of futurity. this ring from the central body, preserving,

Let us go back to those far-off scenes however, its rotary motion, as well as the which their latest and most brilliant dis- primary onward movement of the whole coveries have laid open. “The earth was mass. The condensation of the inner nebwithout form and void.” Vaporiform, shape- ulous matter still goes on; the space beless, glowing with combustion, a thousand tween the ring and the sphere becomes a times more rarefied than the atmosphere vast abyss; the ring, of varying proportions around us, huge volumes of the ultimate and materials, breaks up and becomes itself particles of matter filled the firmament, a sphere; its rotary motion becomes its orbitfleeting though space before the breath of ual, and we at last behold the eldest-born of the Almighty. As the billows of this fire- the planets careering through the ether, and mist rolled on to their common centre, huge hailing, as the ages float by, the successive whirlpools would be formed from its ap- births of its younger brethren. proaching currents, and thus, from the well And now, in its turn and due time, our known law in physics that, when streams of own globe takes its place in the winged fluid matter converge in their course or meet | phalanx. Its satellite is thrown off by the

* The Earth and Man: Lectures on Comparative Physical Geography, in its Relation to the History of Mankind. By Arnold Guyot. VOL. VIII. NEW SERIES.




same laws to which it owed its own exist- | fossiliferous remains, there must have been a

At this period the mass of the earth remarkable sameness and tranquillity of cliwas upwards of 482,000 miles in diameter, mate over the whole surface of the earth. and its time of rotation about twenty-nine The heat of the almost seething waters must and a half days. This rate of speed—the have gone far to counteract the climatic day and night of those primeval years—its inequalities. There was no dry land to satellite still preserves in its revolutionary disturb the equilibrium of the atmosphere, period; while the parent globe, by continued by producing different degrees of rarefaction, condensation, is reduced to the sixtieth of or deflecting from their regular and gentle that diameter, and its rotation accelerated course the great wind-currents ; while the to its present fixed rate of twenty-four hours. marine currents swept equally unobstructed It now assumes its three most marked around the earth's circumference. The natural appearances, the gaseous envelope great density of the atmosphere must also or atmosphere, the liquid or the waters of have contributed to this effect. This was the ocean, and the cooled and hardened the period of the earlier sedimentary rocks, crust. Within this mighty caldron still and the hour before the dawn of animated roars the original and central heat, intensi- creation. “And darkness was on the face of fied by its narrowed limits, and ever strain the deep.” The sun's rays struggled feebly ing against the rock walls of its dungeon. through the thick, murky atmosphere. The

And now we come to that era in this gloomy sea was undisturbed by storms, great history which shows more immediate and in silence the rains were gathered and marks of the preparation of the earth for the returned to its bosom. No life breathed, no home of man; a time inconceivably remote, voice was beard in those dreadful solitudes. but which seems but as yesterday when But far and near, wheresoever the


could compared with those immense cycles through rest, was the vague, illimitable main. which its previous course must bave run. As the cooling of the planet continued, The newly-formed crust must have been in new changes took place. Slowly upheaving, great part, perhaps wholly, covered by the the sunken continents reared their crests,

The waters themselves were proba- and dry land appears. The earth, the air, bly at a temperature nearly approaching and the waters, now act and react on each the boiling-point. We have no reason to other, and become prolific under the lifethink that the solid parts were otherwise giving rays of the sun. The rains, which than irregular in their contour and group before fell in the barren lap of the ocean, ings, nearly as much so, in fact, as at the now pour down on the peaks and jagged present hour, though not possessing the same sides of the mountains. Disintegration elevation. The marine currents doubtless rapidly goes on. Soils and alluvial deposits existed. The sharp outlines of these sub- are formed, and marine and land vegetation marine mountains and continents must thus is now seen. At first, animal life is found have been subjected to a violent chemical in a few types, but little varied, and belongand mechanical action, and must have been ing to the lowest grade in the scale of aniworn away with a rapidity unknown since. mated creation ; but in the succeeding The turbid seas would hold these materials epochs, the traces of life become more abunin suspension or chemical solution. A de- dant, and the number of species extended. posit would then take place of the heavier Before, however, nature has put forth all particles first and the lighter afterwards, her strength, and given to land, and sky, while those substances held in solution would and ocean their thousand forms of life, let be precipitated according to their chemical us look at the map of the globe of those combinations. Each successive layer, which, early years, as the earth has preserved it for when first deposited, would be protected us in the rock-tablets of her autobiography. from the effects of the internal heat by “The largest domain above the surface of rapidly radiating it into the superincumbent the water, in the regions of the future conocean, would, in its turn, when covered by tinent of Europe, was Scandinavia and a part new strata, be exposed to the full intensity of Russia. England and Scotland are only of its fires. Thus were formed the aqueous marked by a few islands along the existing rocks. At this period, and even at later western coast; Ireland, by a few others placed epochs, judging from the uniformity of their | at the corners of the present island. All


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