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the Royal Academies, (as woodsmen are re- | heart been made glad to see a Chief Justice warded by the Board of Supervisors for of the Courts gird up his loins for a journey trapping wolves and panthers,) it cannot be of circumnavigation, walking swiftly through expected that enterprising young men will the Reports, then stepping into the uncerstop to gossip with ancient chroniclers about tain marshes from which flows the Common queens and chamberlains who have been Law, and wallowing through these juicy bogs dust these thousands of years. When com- into the statutes of the Picts and Saxons ; pounds which could have blown Babylon then ascending to the marble vestibule of sky-high are to be mixed daily in chemists' the civilians, and treading the cold colonnades laboratories, who is going to undergo the of that imperial temple; thence exploring seventy years' captivity again, like some pro- Egyptian, Jewish, and Hindoo codes, and found Hebraists we wot of ? No; earth, reappearing to the view of an alarmed pubair, and the heavens are to be investigated, lic with curiosities as unwieldy as obelisks and for other things there is no time. The and Assyrian sculptures. It is also a goodly learned world, not long ago, got on the scent thing to see some mathematician, in the exof some new planets, and whole universities pectation of finding a short cut into certain set off ravenously after the poor little things mysteries, attempt voyages to which poor which had done nobody any harm, like vil. Sir John Franklin's is a joke. I have seen lagers turning out to rid the neighborhood them wedged in by the icebergs, (as one of foxes. They have bagged some half- may say,) and besieged by morses and white dozen, I think, within five years. It was bears, (to continue the Polar illustration,) till dreadful to see what an appetite was roused one would, without hesitation, pronounce the by success. The rage seems to have some good gentleman's case quite hopeless. But what abated at present; at least, the multi-at length the barriers crack, the growling tude have gone back to their business, leav- besiegers are baffled, and the stout advening a few inveterate old Leatherstockingsturer presses on to other perils. All are not still hunting with their smooth-bores in the equally fortunate, however. Occasionally haunts of these wary orbs. Even the ladies you will meet one, who, like the Ancient sallied out in the great hunt. Miss Mitchell, Mariner, seems to have shot an albatross as is well known, performed the Amazonian somewhere, contrary to the marine Game exploit of “settling” a fine comet one | Laws, and must needs go around with his bright evening, and wears the Prussian med- narrative, fastening himself upon wedding al (or Danish, is it?) in testimony there- guests and other honest people, who have of.

plenty to do besides hearing strange and To recall our wandering wits to the sub- uncomfortable tales of far countrees. ject of this disquisition. As certain induce- These are not Book-Rovers, but Bookments, besides the mere fun of the thing, Travellers. Shall I tell you what Book-Roseduce our merchant and divine into out- vers are ? landish places, so, when certain objects are | Genius of Nonsense! I have listed to be gained thereby, some men are even under your flag, I fear, and of course feel tempted to undertake desperate and dis- | bound to wear off my fingers up to the couraging pilgrimages into the Wilderness knuckles, or even higher, in your service, of Books. How many sturdy monks and whenever required so to do. If, however, weather-beaten theologians has the world such an humble recruit might presume to seen trudging, staff in hand, through my take the liberty of an old pensioner, I would thological deserts, ransacking dusty scholas- suggest that you ought to be satisfied with tic catacombs, and agitating the dry bones my exploits for the present, and grant me of prophets, and fathers, and hierarchs, a furlough. By your leave, therefore, great (falling to blows not unfrequently, in sor- Genius, I will go my way. If you disaprow be it told, and bruising each other scan- prove of the desertion, and dispatch a cordalously with their knotty cudgels,) and poral's guard to apprehend me, allow me to returning from their wanderings in old age advise you, send the fastest one in the barwith ponderous spoils. How oft has our | racks.

G.

H. M.

THE REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA, AND THE EXTERNAL POLICY

OF ENGLAND.

The following article requires a word of explanation. It is from a French gentleman, long a planter in Venezuela. We admit it into our columns for its many points of interest, and for the boldness, eloquence and force with which the writer's views are given, notwithstanding his deficient knowledge of our language. Some of these views we do not agree with, but it will do no harm to submit them for the consideration of our readers. The author should have fortified his charges against Great Britain by some documentary or historic proof. We give it as it comes to us, with all its peculiarities of style and idiomatic expressions, trusting that our readers will agree with us, that these add to its raciness, and in many places give it additional force.-En.

The continental system, originating in | under blockade all the ports of France and the mind of Napoleon, ought not to be con- of her colonies. Moreover, on the 11th and sidered as a conception of a superior order, 25th November in the same year, she prowhether regarded in a political, industrial, claimed that all cargoes, accompanied by a or humanitary point of view. It is an old- certificate of origin not English, and prefashioned idea, confined to a narrow sphere, sented by Frenchmen, would be seized by which, under the powerful lever of the in- her ships. flexible will of Napoleon, and under the France replied, proclaiming that all neuinfluence of the vast genius of this modern tral vessels that should submit to be visited Charlemagne, has taken colossal dimensions, by England, or should put into an English and made an immense development. port, would be denationalized and seizable

But we must admit that the continental in all places as English property. blockade promulgated in 1806, at Berlin, 1 In the face of this embittered struggle of by his decree, was but a sanguinary response this unjust procedure on the part of the two to the declarations of the blockade, by which ! governments, who had declared a war of Great Britain pretended to interdict to neu extermination, and who recoiled not from trals the entry of every port which it pleased any means by which they could injure their her to put under subjection, without having enemies, whatever might be the injuries the ability to blockade them in reality. It done to other nations, so feeble that they was this fulmination, a species of excom | had to remain spectators of such violations munication, emanating from the palace of of all the laws of international right and of St. James's, which pretended to circum- humanity—what were the seas but a series scribe such cities and sea-ports as were not of dangerous rocks, where it was impossible in the good graces of the British.

to escape the unrestrained privateers of one The 15th March, 8th April, and 16th of the belligerent nations without falling into May, 1806, they declared under blockade the legalized piracy of the other ? the coasts of the continent, from the Elbe | The Americans at last grew tired of being to the port of Brest, and all the ports of the victims. Accordingly, acts of Congress, under Adriatic. To such a violation of all recog date of 1st March and 9th August, 1809, nized principles, what answer could be given? were passed, in which they resolved to

From Berlin Napoleon responded to the abandon Europe, and not to send any more cabinet of St. James, that he, on his of their vessels there. privileged authority, as Emperor of the 1 The governments of France and Great French, declared under blockade all the Britain became themselves ashamed of their British Islands.

proceedings. They saw the necessity for Great Britain would not remain quiet. justifying such excesses, and published maniOn the 7th of January, 1807, she declared festoes, each of them endeavoring to throw

the blame on the other. Latterly another | These are not new principles ; they have war came to distract the arms of France, and been admitted repeatedly at various and at she was forced to confine herself to the con all times, when nations have been dispastinent.

sionate. Napoleon himself, when, burning At length two treaties of peace were made; with anger, he wrote, at Berlin, in 1806, at the one in 1814, the other in 1815. These the point of the sword, the terrible decree of treaties did not, any more than the treaty the continental blockade, well knew that it of the peace of Amiens, speak of neutrals, was absolutely necessary to respect the rights notwithstanding all the powers of Europe of humanity; for that reason, he desired in were there, and particularly Russia, who make Great Britain responsible for the conhad so often proclaimed the sanctity of the sequences of the continental blockade by principles of neutrality. Why this silence in combating his eternal enemy with her own these treaties? Why has the right of neu arms. He himself proclaimed that the right trals been left unsettled, depending in the of conquest ought not to be applied but to event of every war on the degree of passion those who belonged to the State of the of the combatants? Why these things and enemy, and not to the property or to the not others? Beaumarchais would demand, merchandise and vessels of individuals; that why? I am ignorant of it. Were the framers the blockade should be real, and confined at this epoch more interested in legitimacy only to fortified places. He proclaimed all than in humanity and in commerce? Did contrary conduct monstrous and in violation they fear to wound the feelings of the of international law, as acknowledged by British Government? Is it forgetfulness, civilized nations. or is it confidence in the duration of peace ?! The time has now arrived when the govWhatever it might be, it is considered as ernments of enlightened nations should give a great oversight the absence of certain security to the commerce of the world, and rules upon so important a point of interna respond to the appeal which reflecting minds tional rights.

among all nations have urged, so that this Should a new war occur either with generous end may be attained. France or any other nation of Europe or of The continental blockade was not acthe world, the sea would again be trans- cepted, but submitted to by the several formed into an arena of incessant rapine, cabinets of the continent. Subsequently by fruitful of the fury of the belligerents, con- force of his victories Napoleon successively sulting no other law than their anger. constrained Austria, Russia, and Prussia to It is indispensable to the commerce of all acknowledge the continental system. nations, that it should not be at the mercy | This blockade, which was for the contiof all kinds of governments, who should nent in general, but for France in particular, feel themselves disposed to engage in war. a source of prosperity, by favoring the sev

Ii is a very proper time, in the midst of eral nations of Europe in the development profound peace, and when the eyes of all of their manufacturing industry, gave a fatal nations turn with disgust from the scenes of blow to the commerce of Great Britain. disorder by which Great Britain and France The ports of Europe closed against her vesdisgraced the civilization of the nineteenth sels—the prosperity and production of the century,-it is a very proper time, that the East Indies always increasing—numerous governments of those nations, who are con- manufacturers working without cessation sidered the first, should agree upon some and without markets sufficient for their proterms which they would respect themselves ducts — such was the critical position in and cause others to respect likewise. No- | which Great Britain found herself. Her thing is more easy than to make a code statesmen were then obliged to find some of neutrality. Let all the legislative assem- means by which to remedy this deplorable blies be interrogated upon this important state of affairs. In these circumstances, to matter, make it the subject of appeal to all what expedient was the British Ministry nations, and you will have a response from under the necessity of having recourse, to every side. Blockade must sometimes exist, heal the commercial wounds inflicted by but in an actual blockade, the flag should the continental system—to create new recover the merchandise; the munitions of war sources in fine, to open new markets and only should be prohibited.

| to find a sufficient outlet for the goods of her VOL. VIII. NO. III. NEW SERIES.

18

merchants and the productions of her man- | by the influence of her politics, an emanciufacturers ? For this purpose they turned | pation, which not only presented to her their attention to the colonies across the many actual advantages, but which yet ravseas.

ished from Europe the benefits of her comFrom the consideration of the foregoing mercial balance. It is very probable that facts, we will find, upon examination, that America will be able to learn to dispense with she was forced to adopt a political system the produetions of Europe, before Europe with regard to the colonies of the European can free herself from the usages and from nations, for the purpose of placing them in the wants which will render it her tribumore direct commercial connection with her- tary. self, and so bring them to a state of greater or | Amongst the colonies which have shaken less dependence upon her.

off the yoke of the mother country, and All the colonies belonging to France were which have conquered their independence, induced to separate by force from the mo- there is one which chiefly deserves to fix ther country, and also those belonging to the attention of the historian, not only in Spain to throw off the yoke of colonial respeet to the vast extent of her territories vassalage.

and to the fertility of her soil, but also for She endeavored to destroy in these coun the full and vivid blaze of glory, which Boltries monarchical principles, and substi- ivar, the Washington of tropical America, tute in their place democratic—to convert has spread over its politics and over its all these States into small republics, offer- history. ing them effectual support on the express After this, it is easy to perceive that condition of forming with her commercial I intend to speak of Colombia. I protreaties; developing in these young and fee- | pose in this article to give a succinct ble republics, who did not create on account history of Colombia, and to conduct the of their weakness any feeling of jealousy, reader gradually across the diverse phases the germs of industry and of civilization; in which have caused this vast country to throw fine, creating among them new wants, ayd, off the yoke of Spain, and which have 'ocin reality, instigating a consumption of her casioned her division into several small Reproducts greater and more multifarious. I publics ; to consider, in a new aspect, the

Such was the admirable political plan incessant action which Great Britain has that Pitt, Fox, and their successors adopted | exerted on this colony, and the direction in regard to the colonies.

which she has known how to give to the By being mediators between the colonies politics of this country for the interest of and the mother country, the British Gov her commerce. ernment could maintain the conservative In order to initiate the reader into the principles of European governments. But intimate details of the history of Colombia, this way of mediation was not in har- and in order to give to him an exact idea mony with the politics of the British Min- / of the diverse transformations which this istry. The English merchants, as soon as country has gone through, I regard it as they entered into treaty with the revolted | indispensable to get at the fountain-head, subjects for the exploration of the mines, de and to broach the chief political events spoiled the Spanish crown of the revenue which signalized the last years of the eighof twenty per cent. to which it was entitled teenth century. The existence of Colomaccording to the old charters. Great Britain bia is of recent date, and the causes of this did not deny to the mother country her legal existence do not go beyond the last years right. But, in pursuance of political events, of the past century. which were not well enough explained, the It was in 1781, at Socorro, in New-Gremother country was not able to exact this nada, where, in reference to the duty of right. Thus, although the feeling of recip | Alcavala, the first spark of the fire and conrocal wants — the same religion, and the flagration, which ought to have destroyed same habits, tended to unite the Spanish of for ever the dominion of the kings of Spain. the New World with the mother country, I in this part of the world, was kindled. England, stimulated by the allurement of This movement was soon suppressed; neynew outlets which were offered to her in- ertheless, the agitation among the peodustry, encouraged, by her example and ple, and the desire for independence, had

already made such progress as to warrant | under the command of Bolivar, and Caranother outbreak.

accas was again declared free. In 1794 the state of France was known. In 1814 the royalist party received nuThe fermentation was general, and the rights | merous reinforcements and had some sucof men, proclaimed by the French Repub- cesses. General Boves expelled Bolivar ; lic, were printed in Santa Fé de Bogota. but the tyranny which the Spanish chiefs But this start towards freedom was arrested. exerted against the revolters had for its Until 1806 Caraccas and Santa Fé remained only result an increase of the rebellion. subject to Spain. At this time Miranda The mass of the population took up arms. armed, partly at San Domingo, partly at Bolivar, thanks to his genius and to his New-York, an expedition for seizing them. perseverance, surmounted all obstacles. AfBut this expedition was unsuccessful, be- ter several bloody battles, the royalist troops cause the forces at the disposal of Miranda were exterminated or dispersed, and Boliwere not sufficient. The troops which he var entered triumphantly into Caraccas on had disembarked were taken prisoners, and the 26th of August, 1815, at the head of the some soldiers were sentenced to death. independents. Several diverse circumstan

In 1808, the imprisonment of the King ces and events caused the dissolution of the of Spain was a sufficient pretext for erecting Congresses established at Santa Fé and Carthe standard of revolt in all the provinces. | accas. Be that as it may, it is the same man, In 1810 the invasion of Spain by the French Simon Bolivar, who gloried in forming, on army gave to the chief inhabitants of Car the 17th of December, 1819, with Newaccas occasion to separate from the mother Grenada and with Caraccas a single State, country. New-Grenada took example from which assumed the name of the Republic Caraccas.

of Colombia, and in reuniting a Congress. All the provinces took up arms, under The General Congress of this Republic the pretext of throwing off the yoke of assembled on the 6th of May, 1821, at RoFrance and of maintaining the rights of sario de Cucuta. The old Republic of CoFerdinand. But soon after, the province lombia, founded by Bolivar, was composed of Caraccas was the first to declare that she of New-Grenada and Caraccas. It was the never should recognize any king, and that most powerful of all the States of Southern she would not adopt any other form of gov- America which had shaken off the yoke of ernment but such as should be organized Spain. In reality, vast territories, an imby her representatives. Santa Fé followed mense extent of coasts on the Atlantic and this example. The Captain General and the Pacific oceans, the harbors of La Guayra, Chiefs of Audience were confined in prison. of Puerto Cabello, of Maracaibo, of Coro, A little while sufficed, and each province of Cumana and of Chagres, on the Caribelected representatives and formed a gov- bean sea and on the Atlantic ocean; the harernment, and shortly Congresses were es- bors of Panama, of Santa Martha, of Porto tablished at Caraccas and at Santa Fé. Bello, of Magdalena, on the Pacific ocean;

The new government assumed the name of a population of about three millions of souls, the Venezuelian Confederation. The Regency a very fertile soil, and generally a very and the Cortes of Spain acted then with rigor. healthy climate. In this state of things Congress made, on the As it is seen above, this immense Repub. 5th of July, 1811, a proclamation, declaring lic possessed all the elements of power and formally the independence of the country. of prosperity. For the government of that The cause of the republicans seemed to be State, the frontiers of which were so much triumphant, and they gave to themselves a extended, only one President, one Congress, constitution. In the meanwhile, Monte- one Ministry, one army were needed. The verde, the Spanish General, in 1812, taking public revenue was composed of custom duadvantage of an earthquake which had pro ties, of the monopoly on tobacco and branduced a profound impression on the su- dies, and of post duties. perstitious minds of the inhabitants, at I repeat it again, this immense extension tacked Caraccas, and after having defeated of territories, this great number of harbors Miranda, he forced all the provinces to sub on the two oceans, constituted for this Remit to him.

public many fruitful elements of prosperity In 1813 the Confederation sent troops | and of power. But these boundaries, which

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