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should have been for the young Republic of them by the cabinet of St. James, and proColombia a fruitful element of success, did mulgated throughout Colombia. They were not suit the political views of Great Britain. so blind that they did not discover the fatal This immense Republic, flourishing and well consequences which would necessarily readministered, would have had too heavy a sult from this project of division. At least, weight in the political balance of the two said they, when Colombia will be divided in Americas, and would have been able yet several Republics, the machinery of the govto thwart and perhaps to compromise, in | ernment will work better ; the orders of the the future, the influence of Great Britain in government will be transmitted to its agents that portion of the world, by cementing a more quickly and seasonably. Undoubttreaty of offensive and defensive alliance edly, the orders of government will be forwith the United States.

warded to their destination with more celerAgain : The present and even the future ity; the circulation will be more active, interests of the immense commercial facto because the sphere in which each Republic ries and colonies which Great Britain possess will move will be more narrow and confined. ed, not only in North America but in Central | These Talleyrands and these Metternichs on and South America, put her under the neces a small scale considered this grave question sity to sap the foundations of this edifice, but on one side, and examined it not at all which was built of such vast dimensions and on the other. If they had considered that which had so many elements of strength and serious question in its double aspect, they of durability, and to build again in its place, would have been able to comprehend the with the same materials it is true, but on a bearings of that impolitic measure, and more frail and less solid basis, several small- they would have been afraid of the disaser edifices, isolated from each other, with trous results which would be the unavoidaout style and without harmony. The Brit. ble consequences of it. In effect, on one ish Government resolved then to parcel out | side, a circulation, to speak the truth, more the Republic of Colombia into several small active, a population more compacted; but, Republics, and to destroy, consequently, at on the other side, no harbors, no coasts toaný price, the admirable work of the illus- | wards the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as trious Bolivar. This new combination en- | they had before, no more, or few, very few, tered perfectly into the political views of of custom duties. Instead of one PresiGreat Britain. In fact, it became more dent, one Vice President, one Ministry, one easy to her to manage to her taste these | Congress, one army, one budget, there were small, poor, resourceless and unrevenued two Presidents, two Vice Presidents, two Republics than a rich and powerful one. Ministries, two Congresses, two armies, two For that purpose the British Govern- budgets; therefore, thanks to the Machiament credited, by her agents, throughout velian combination, the profits were diminthe country, the impression that the im- ished by half, and the influence, in both the mense territories of Colombia, the limits Americas, was lost; and the expenses of all and boundaries which she had at that kinds and descriptions were augmented by time, were of too considerable extent, the half. In fine, by the strength of these macheffect of which was great difficulty of com- | inations and intrigues, Great Britain succeedmunication; that in consequence thereof ed in getting adopted a political plan which the central government spent too much time harmonized so well with her ulterior views, in sending their orders to the several dea in effecting the division and parcelling partments; that the public affairs conse out of the Colombian territories. The parquently suffered therefrom in an inconceiv celling in several small, unextended, uninable manner; and that it was therefore highly fluential Republics of that immense Repubadvantageous to divide this vast country lic was decided upon, and therefore the into several Republics more closely com work of the immortal Bolivar, the Colompacted. The short-sighted statesmen of Co bian Republic, was destroyed. lombia, who encompassed General Bolivar, To assist us in our purpose, it will perfell head down into that specious trap which haps be necessary to take a further rapid was set for them by the policy of Great comparative glance of the policy of Great Britain. They were full of admiration for Britain and of France. this new Machiavelian measure, thrown to Great Britain and France may be considered as two immense rival manufacturers, / In the midst of wars which have deluged constantly desirous of finding customers. Europe in blood for almost seventy years, in

In respect to management, there exists a the midst of despotism which has laid her very marked difference between the policy | heavy and destructive hands on various porof Great Britain and that of France. In tions of the continent, Great Britain, shelGreat Britain commerce directs her poli tered from the storm which she had the tics. In France politics direct her com- skill to create, protected by laws which she merce. Here is the Gordian knot.

does not permit to be violated with impuBut why is it that the interior politics of nity, competitor of all the industrial world, Great Britain, sometimes magnanimous and has judiciously known how to turn to her generous, seem so often in opposition to own benefit the false systems of politics their exterior politics, and place the destiny followed by other European cabinets, and has of nations in the same balance with their been, therefore, in position to enable her to commercial interest? It is because of habits improve her manufactures, her agriculture, and an education, the tendency of which is to to extend her industry, and to develop her divert Englishmen from all that presents commercial resources. By frightening the the aspect or appearance of abstractions, fearful thrones, she has put them in a false and confines them to a sort of empiricism, position; she has known how to direct to her which incites them to consider objects but profit events in order to extend her posseson their physical side.

sions, to increase her commerce. In fine, she Decidedly, the spirit of affairs, which has has augmented her power and the power of a very great influence over the moral energy, such States as do not inspire her with fear, in holds the exterior politics in dependence, order to weaken France, the only country and produces evils which strangely con- which has always given umbrage to her. It trast with the pride and magnificence of a ' is true that Great Britain has incurred, more nation which, in some respects, has acquired and more, a large amount of debts; but at unquestionable rights to our admiration. the same time she knew that the other The British nation was the first to proscribe States would also augment their debts in a the slave-trade by branding it with the very considerable degree, and that they stamp of infamy. It is beautiful, undoubt would not have at their disposal, for paying edly, to see religious zeal propagating, in them, all the resources which she possessed. the various States of America, the princi The gradually increasing prosperity of the ples of Christianity; but why is this same zeal, British empire comes from the superiority of whose purpose it is to convert souls to the social organization, comparatively with the faith here, not acting also in Hindostan? social organization among the other contiWhy does not the British Government, at nental nations, from the ability of the British the same time that it propagates the advan cabinet, which always directs to the interest tages of its civil and political institutions, of the British nation European affairs, which for instance, the trial by jury, &c. &c., foresees events, and makes them subservient establish in the East Indies the most fun to her views of aggrandizement and of dodamental institution of all-religion? If minion. In fine, the system which was it is because the worship of Brahma and of adopted by all the European cabinets, has Mahomet renders these people more dis- created the commerce and the power of posed to obedience than this unjust, domi- Great Britain. This truth, which few persons neering disposition, fearing that a purer understand or are willing to avow, will bemorality, by elevating and purifying the come fully recognized, when the two Amerisouls of those who receive it, would not cas, penetrated and imbued with the feeling enable the people to bear the yoke of servi of their dignity and of their strength, govtude, sacrifices the most sacred rights, in erned by the general interest, will be able order to satisfy their insatiable cupidity, to reclaim the rights which belong to all nathen the spirit of their religious dogmas tions, the social advantages derived from is nothing but that inflexible "règle de their trade, from their industry, and from plomb," leaden rule of right, which the cel their activity. The niggardly system folebrated author of Anacharsis speaks of in | lowed on the continent, the prohibitions and his writings, that bows the mind at the obstacles of all kinds, the arbitrariness, the shrine of interest and policy.

| ignorance in which the continental nations live, are some of the causes which have ar- | Britain, the supreme disposer and arbitrator rested the progress of continental nations, of the Archipelago, has ceased to be adverse to and have singularly favored the riches and Greece, and suddenly the harbors of Peloponthe power of Great Britain.

nesus have found again their liberators in the These governments, agitated by the de- posterity of the Heraclides. From Corinth to sire for domination and conquest, or fright-Tenedos, the sea, which conducts to the Bosened by the principles which the French Re-phorus, is become for the children of the Arvolution has promulgated throughout the gonauts the way of victory to another golden world, have lost sight of their true interests fleece. In America the British empire conand the interests of the people committed to fines Russia to the side of the poles, and the their charge; not understanding that war, United States to temperate regions. Under the most fatal and disastrous plague that the torrid zone, Great Britain domineers in can scourge the human race, inflicts equally the middle of the Caribbean Islands, encircles its ravages on the conquerors as well as on the Gulf of Mexico, and is facing the new the conquered; that order, tranquillity and States, which she has first secured from prosperity are not solely founded on the the yoke of the mother country, in order to will of a master or on military force. put them under the dependence of her mer

The potency and stability of empires cantile industry. At the same time, in order arises chiefly from the affection of the peo- to terrify, in the two worlds, all who should ple for their governments, and in our age this attempt to take from her the flambeau of her affection cannot take place, but where it is genius and the secret of her conquests, based on a wise liberty and on laws insti- Great Britain has in her possession, between tuted for the general interests of the social Africa and America, on the way from Eubody. This fundamental truth has been rope to Asia, the rock of St. Helena, a safe very well understood by the British Govern- and very favorable stopping place, in every ment, and, on the contrary, has been mis respect, for her vessels returning from the conceived by all others. Therefore, the con- East Indies,—formidable rock, where her tinent was never ceased to be shaken by hands enchained the modern Prometheus! political convulsions. It has but little im- while from the island consecrated of old, proved, as it has remained stationary, while under the creed of the cross, to the safety of Great Britain, profiting by the faults and all Christian flags, the British empire comerrors committed by other nations, has risen mands in Africa respect for her power in the midst of the universal agitation and from the Barbary States. From the foot of troubles ; she has seized the commerce of the Hercules' Pillars, from the top of Gibraltar's globe, which has been almost abandoned rock, it spreads terror to the remotest parts to her, and has in that manner reached a of the Moorish provinces. On the shores of degree of prosperity, of riches and of power the Atlantic ocean Great Britain has built unexampled in the history of nations. Great forts on the Gold Coast and at Sierra Leone. Britain, wise as she is ambitious, holds the From thence she watches, with the eye of keys of all continents, establishes there many an eagle, the trade between the black slave advanced outposts, which, according to her merchants of the coast and the European fortune and according to circumstances, are slave traders, and seizes her opportunity to sometimes centres of refuge for retreat, and pounce down upon the captured Africans, always centres of enterprise for a trade, binding to the glebe the freed men whom which, braving all dangers, knows of no she has captured from the traders. On the repose.

same continent, beyond the tropics, and in Let us stop a moment and view a spec- the most remote part towards the austral pole, tacle unexampled in the history of nations. She has seized a shelter under the Cape of In Europe the British empire touches to the Tempests. In the countries where the wards the north Denmark, Germany, Hol- Spanish and the Portuguese had perceived land, France ; towards the south Spain, but a place to stop at, where the DutchSicily, Italy and Western Turkey. She pos- man had established but one plantation, sesses islands, at once, in the Adriatic and Great Britain colonizes a new British nation. Mediterranean seas; she commands the pas- Joining the activity of the Englishman to sage of the Black Sea as well as that of the the patience of the Dutch, she extends Baltic. Momentarily the navy of Great | around the Cape of Good Hope the limits of an establishment which is destined to colonial commodities she re-exports after grow in Southern Africa, in the same man- they have been refined and prepared, and ner as the States she has founded in North with which she supplies all European naAmerica. From that new focus of action and tions. of conquest, Great Britain casts her eye on the 1 In these same countries, almost all unacroute to the East Indies; she discovers and quainted with manufacturing industry, Great seizes the stations which are suitable for her Britain transports and sells at a very low commercial purposes. In order to establish price goods of all kinds. To these same with powerful elements of fixedness, of guar countries Great Britain transports, without antee and of regularity, her communications competition, the products of her paper-mills, with the East Indies through the Red Sea, of her foundries, of her hardware, and preshe begs with the hat in hand and with a pared leathers. very humble politeness, of the vice-King of In her diverse possessions, and merely Egypt, the privilege of making at Aden, at in the interest of her own commerce, Great Djeddah, at Moka, at Cossier, and at Suez, Britain employs on an average thirty thoudeposits for her coal.

sand ships, and two hundred and fifty thouLatterly she takes possession of Suez and sand seamen. of Aden, these two keys of the Arabian But the colossal power of Great Britain sea; she erects fortifications in these two shall last but for a time. It shall have a harbors, and renders herself the exclusive duration but essentially ephemeral, because ruler of the African sea-ports of the Levanther existence is based, not as France, on the and of another hemisphere. In fine, as much territorial and landed property of her soil, feared on the Persian Gulf and in the but on the soil and on the commerce of her Erythree Sea as on the Pacific Ocean and in colonies, which sooner or later will be lost to the Archipelago of the East Indies, the her. Great Britain is destined to submit British empire, the possessor of the finest gradually, in the future, to her epoch of decountries in the eastern world, is proud to cay. In regard to the present time, as long see her East India Company now become a as Russia continues enslaved, owing to the mighty instrument of power and gain. backward state of her civilization, her Empe

The conquests of her merchants began in ror will repulse all efforts of enfranchiseAsia, where the conquests of Alexander ment in Europe. The influence of Great ended. To-day, from the shores of the Britain is therefore necessary, according to Indus to the frontiers of China, and from the my opinion, for maintaining the equilibrium mouths of the Ganges to the apex of Thibet, in the political balance of Europe, and, in one all is subjected to the law of a mercantile respect, for the progress of the cause of Libcompany, confined in a narrow street of the erty. city of London.

L it matters little to Great Britain, when Thus, from a single centre, by the vigor of the necessity, the circumstances, and the inher institutions and by the improved state of terest of her commerce demand it, whether her civil and military arts, an island which, to establish in the countries which she inin an oceanic archipelago, would scarcely tends to put under the dependence of her occupy the third rank, impresses all the ex- mercantile industry either constitutional tremities of the four parts of the world with monarchies or republics. In order to supthe influence of her industry and with the ply proof of what I advance, it will suffice weight of her power. She, besides, peoples to exemplify by an instance. Great Britain, and civilizes at once a fifth part of the world, in order to create uneasiness among the which will adopt her laws, will speak her planters of the West Indies, to paralyze the language, and will become familiar with her production of sugar in these colonies, and to arts and with knowledge, admitting her cus- monopolize the cultivation and the fabricatoms and her commerce. That immense tion of cane sugar in the East Indies, has dispersion of colonies and of provinces, which separated from the mother country some of would cause the weakness and the ruin of all the West Indian colonies, and has therein other nations, constitutes the welfare, the life substituted the republican to the monarchic and the strength of the British nation. element. For the same purpose, she has

From these colonies and provinces, Great emancipated at once in her own colonies Britain imports her raw materials, and these leight hundred thousand slaves,

For the interest of freedom, the British ( necessity that Great Britain exist. It is power must not be destroyed, but only better that Great Britain perish." diminished.It is a dog, if I may say so But, ere the time arrives that this sovermetaphorically, formidable, even dangerous, eign master of the world undertakes to parfor strangers, but very mild to all persons of cel out, and to give to each nation the part she the household with whom it is acquainted : reserves for them in the future, if it is perto tell the truth, it is very prudent to muzzle, mitted to me to read in the book of destiny, but it must not be killed.

if it is permitted to me to speculate as to the I have not the Anglo-Saxon monomania. fortune of nations, what a majestic and conBut, above all, right must be done to every solatory spectacle presents itself to my vision ! one who deserves it. I honor as much the Notwithstanding my weak sight, I disEnglish merchant in his probity, in his pru- cover in the distance Great Britain disposdence, in his skilfulness, as I detest the British sessed of the East Indies, which, in the same policy in her Machiavelism, in her perfidy. manner as the United States, have freed

The zealous partisans of British policy themselves from the British yoke; but with will tell you: “The British policy is such which (and mark you how great is the foreas it must be. The elements of that policy cast of the British statesmen, and with what are, for Great Britain, a condition sine qua admirable sagacity they know how to profit non; it is as the to be or not to be of by the experience of the past!) with which, Shakspeare. If you change the elements I say, Great Britain, instead of making, of that policy, you bring Great Britain to without any advantage, expenses of war, her ruin.” Be it so ! let it be so! But, has been in haste to cement with this young notwithstanding the opinion which I have republic, for her benefit and to the detriment stated before concerning the existence of of the other nations, very advantageous Great Britain, I tell it with a stake in the treaties of peace and of commerce. interest of the happiness of my country, I discover in the distance the United and in the interest of the prosperity and of States, growing incessantly in their strength the tranquillity of all nations among the and in their freedom, embracing, in their world, if Great Britain should persevere in immense circumscription, Canada and Mexthe same way, if Great Britain should be ico; confined to the south and to the east for the entire universe a focus of troubles by the Atlantic ocean, confined to the west and of dissensions, it would be, indeed, an by the Pacific ocean, and to the north by opportune occasion to apply to Great Britain the Russian and Danish possessions, peopled that bitter word of the talented Fouché, by a population exceeding two hundred and minister of the general police under the fifty millions of souls; divided, at least, into reign of Napoleon. Fouché had been in-one hundred and twenty States, and having formed that a young gentleman, belonging for that immense confederative republic only to a very honorable family, and combining one WASHINGTON as seat of government, in his person, to the advantages of a very one President, one Congress, one army, one agreeable and pleasing exterior, the accom- cabinet, but millions of militia. plishments of a finished education, exercised I discover in the distance Great Britain the profession of thief in the elegant world struggling fruitlessly in the middle of the and high circles. He sent to him to come convulsive throes of an unrestrained comin his cabinet; he gave to him some coun- petition, contesting with France and the sels, and asked him if he was not indeed United States naval supremacy; giving to ashamed to exercise the profession of thief, them, in the last agony of her colossal dowhich, sooner or later, would cause him to winion, the final maritime battle in the be delivered up to the police, and of being Caribbean sea, near the shores of Central put into jail ? This young gentleman an- America; and, being conquered, depositing, swered to Fouché: “But, Sir Minister, by weary of the struggle, in the hands of these some means or other it is necessary that I two powerful rivals the sceptre of the seas, live.” To this answer Fouché replied, with unable herself to bear it any longer. that glacial accent of voice which character- I discover in the distance Russia, withized him: “At that price, I don't see the drawn from the formidable rivalry of Great necessity of it.” I, too, would say like Britain, which has lost henceforth her preFouché : “At that price, I don't see the ponderance, taking possession of ancient

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