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DAGUERREOTYPE PORTRAITS AND FAMILY GROUPS.

EIGHT FIRST PREMIUMS—SILVER MEDALSAwarded at the Great Fairs in Boston, New-York, and Philadelphia,

CAN BE İSEEN AT

M. A. & S. ROOT'S GALLERIES,

363 Broadway, cor. Franklin st., N. Y., & 140 Chestnut st., Phila.

ADMISSION FREE TO ALL.

The MESSRS. Roor having yielded to the many urgent solicitations of their numerous friends to establish a branch of their

CILIBRATED DAGUIRRIOTYPE GALLERY

in this city, have been engaged for some time past in fitting up an E ILEGANT SUITE OF ROOMS

363 BROADWAY, COR. FRANKLIN ST., where they shall be most happy to see all their numerous friends, as also strangers and citizens generally. The acknowledged high character this celebrated establishment has acquired for its pictures, and the progressive improvements made in the art, we trust, will be fully sustained, as each department at this branch is conducted by some of the same experienced and skilful artists that have been connected with it from the commencement.

The pictures taken at this establishment are pronounced by artists and scientific men unrivalled for depth of tone and softness of light and shade, while they display all the artistic arrangement of the highest effort of the Painter.

Citizens and strangers visiting the Gallery can have their miniatures or portraits taken in this unique style, and neatly set in Morocco Cases, Gold Lockets or Breastpins, Rings, &c., in a few minutes.

Heretofore an almost insurmountable obstacle has presented itself to the production of family likenesses, in regard to children. The Messrs. Root are happy to state that through an entirely new discovery of theirs, this difficulty has been overcome, as the time of sitting will not exceed two or three seconds in fair, or ten to fifteen seconds in cloudy weather.

N.B.-LADIES are recommended to dress in figured or dark materials, avoiding whites or light blues. A shawl or scarf gives a pleasing effect to the picture.

FOR GENTLEMEN.—A black or figured vest; also figured scarf or cravat, so that the bosom be not too much exposed.

FOR CHILDREN.—Plaid, striped or figured dresses, lace work. Ringlets add much to the beauty of the picture. The best hour for Children is from 11 a. M. to 2 P. M. All others from 8 A. M. to 6 P. M.

Jan., '51, 12t.

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AMERICAN REVIEW.

No. LXXXII.

FOR OCTOBER, 1851.

THE INFLUENCE OF MANUFACTURES, AND THE PROTECTIVE

SYSTEM, The most important branch of public | It was then made a party measure, being policy advocated by the Whig party, is supported by the Whigs generally in both doubtless that of the Protective System, or Houses of Congress, and opposed by the the encouragement of American Industry by Democrats as a party, with few exceptions, the enactment of well-arranged revenue laws. principally from Pennsylvania. The wants Without protection, we hold that it is im- of the Treasury, and perhaps other reasons, possible for a full development of the resources obtained for the bill the signature of of the country to be made. The real wealth John Tyler, then President of the United of a nation consists in its industry; in its States, who had previously returned with availing itself of its capital, skill, and labor, his veto, to the same Congress, two tariff to the full development of all its natural en- bills which recognized the principle of prodowments, and its general moral and physi- tection. Under the tariff of 1842, all the cal advantages, resulting as well from the varied interests of agriculture, manufactures genius of its people, as from its peculiar po and commerce were wisely protected; and sition and institutions.

it is believed that no period in the annals of The tariff of 1828, notwithstanding its this country exhibits greater evidences and defects, introduced for political effect, was proofs of prosperity than the four years eminently protective in its character, and while that great Whig measure was in full under its auspices the country enjoyed seve- force and effect. ral years of prosperity; which were however During the term of the first Congress uninterrupted, and many industrial interests der Mr. Polk's administration, the evil genius finally prostrated, by the operation of the of the country prevailed, and after a severe compromise tariff of 1833. But it was re- party struggle the tariff of 1846, at present served for the Wbig majority in the Con- in operation, and the emanation of the mind gress of 1842 to devise and enact what may of Robert J. Walker, then Secretary of the be considered, beyond all question, the best Treasury, was enacted. Party triumphed tariff law we have ever had. That tariff was over the real interests of the country, and comprised in a bill brought into the House the effects which were predicted by the of Representatives by the present President friends of protection have been already exof the United States, who was then Chair-perienced. The war with Mexico, the disman of the Committee of Ways and Means. (covery and product of gold in California,

19

VOL. VIII.

NO. IV.

NEW SERIES.

and the famine in Ireland which created an | portion of the industrial interests of the extraordinary demand for our breadstuffs, country. have checked the progress of the evil effects. It would be easy for us to show, as inevitably resulting from the partial with-indeed has been frequently done by others, drawal of protection by the tariff of 1846; that the agricultural interests of the country but it cannot be denied that a paralysis bas are more benefited by the operations of the taken place in many branches of industry. protective system than those of any other But slow progress has been made in cotton class. An inquiry into the average profits manufactures and other branches of indus- of the large cotton manufacturing establishtry, which were flourishing under the tariff ments, for instance, for the last twenty years, of 1842; indeed, many of them have been satisfies us that not inore than six or seven per since conducted, as is well known, with loss cent. per annum, or equal to simple interest, to the proprietors, and those infantile manu- has been derived from the investments therefactures which, under the Whig tariff laws, in, even including those most skilfully manwere springing into existence, bave been sup- aged. The same remark, we believe, will pressed. The withdrawal of adequate pro- I apply to manufactories of wool and iron; and tection from railroad iron has caused the it is well known that the business of these general suspension of the domestic mapu-three staple manufactures is now very genefacture of that important article, and millions rally attended with loss to the proprietors. of dollars have been and are still being paid And many establishments are now carried to Great Britain, for the iron for the exten- on with the hope that an improvement may sive lines of railroads in this country, many soon take place in prices, in consequence of of which pass in the immediate vicinity of a future diminution of importations of foreign iron mines, awaiting the hand of labor to be merchandise. worked, for the benefit of various branches The question of anti-protection or free trade of industry.

appears to us to involve that of the reducThe immense importations of foreign mer- tion of wages of the laboring classes in our chandise into this country, in consequence of manufactories to the standard of Europe, the encouragement held out by the present which is fifty per cent. lower than the prestariff, are now beginning to be severely feltent prices paid in this country; or the deby the commercial and trading interests, struction of a large portion of the manufacwhich cannot fail to result in the most ruin- turing establishments in the United States. ous consequences to the country at large; The amount of capital employed in those and the low prices to which the staple arti- manufactures in this country, with which cles of agriculture have fallen, must convince come directly in competition the importaour farmers and planters that increased im- tions from Europe, considerably exceeds one portations are not counterbalanced by expor- hundred and fifty millions of dollars, and tations of produce, notwithstanding the pre- the annual product of the same as much dictions of the late Secretary of the Treasury, more; and it is a matter of serious considMr. Walker. What, then, is to be the rem- eration whether a market can be found for edy for this downward state of things ? | produce sufficient to pay for an augmented We confess that we see none, except in a importation of one hundred and fifty milreturn to the protective system under which lions of dollars, besides the present heavy the nation has always prospered, while every amount of our imports. approach towards free trade has invariably The opponents of manufactures, and the been disastrous to the best interests of the friends of free trade, when compelled to country. Notwithstanding the forbidding admit the pecuniary benefits sometimes reaspect of the next Congress, in which there sulting to agriculture and other interests, will be a decided Democratic majority, it from the introduction of manufactures, conmay be hoped that the great agricultural tinue to revive the oft-refuted objection to interest of the West will join with the the establishment of a class among us for friends of protection in the Atlantic and the purpose of working up our own staples, Middle States, and adopt at least such revi- that a manufacturing population is necessions of the tariff as may have a tendency sarily a vicious and degraded one, and to restore the waning prosperity of a great I therefore that the true interests of this

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