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country, moral as well as physical, are to be are gradually and insensibly made by each to found in the pursuits of agriculture, and in each; that each class respects its own doctrines those mechanical and commercial occupa
less, and becomes more and more indifferent to
occupa those of others; and that all religious doctrines tions which naturally grow up from the cir lose their influence, until the community becomes cumstances of the people. If we are to dispossessed of that beneficent efficacy which is believe the advocates of free trade, the mor- ever to be expected from the gospel, wherever it als and general condition of the people of
is cordially believed by an undivided body of men.
"The inhabitants of this State, in opposition to this country were in a better state before the the rest of their New-England brethren, have uniintroduction of extensive manufactures in formly refused to support the public worship of the Northern and Eastern States, than those God by law, or, in other words, to make a legal which now exist in the manufacturing dis- provision for the support of ministers and churches.
A contract between a minister and his congregation tricts. Although this subject has frequently for
for his maintenance they have placed on the same attracted the attention of writers and speak-footing as contracts made at the gaming table. ers in favor of protection, and the advanta- Hence, except in their large towns, a minister liberges of manufactures with regard to their in- ally educated cannot often be found. Hence, the Auence on the morals and circumstances of
a of places of such ministers are filled by plain, ignorant
| individuals. They pervert the meaning of the the people in their vicinity shown; we do not
Scriptures, and murder arguments and language. think it has been sufficiently considered and they are destitute of dignity, propriety, and candisplayed to the people. We propose to de- dor; coarse and clownish in their anners; uncouth vote a short space to a comparison of the .
comparison of the in their elocution; and in their discourses clumsy
and ridiculous. Next to a wicked ministry, the present, with the former condition of the
greatest evil which can befall the Church is a weak people in one of the most important man- ministry. The churches in Providence and Newufacturing localities.
port I have described. Those which I have seen The State of Rhode Island exhibits, in the in the country towns appear like badly-built and most striking form, the vast advantages to
decayed bams. be derived from a multiplicity of industrial is merely a day of visiting and sport. Many of the
| "'The Sabbath, with a great part of this people, pursuits, and is entitled to the credit of hav- inhabitants have customarily devoted it to labor. ing been the first to introduce into the United A considerable number of persons in the trading States the immense advantages derived from towns, Providence excepted, have been deeply en
gaged in the slave-trade. Some of the missionary labor-saving machinery. Before noticing the
societies have in their proceedings considered Rhodepresent prosperous condition of the State, it Island as missionary ground. will be interesting to inquire what were its “Schools usually go parallel with ministers and circumstances and character in the early part churches. Here, certainly, they move in the same of the present century, and before the exten
course. Exclusive of a few attempts which have
lately been made to establish academies (of which, sive introduction of labor-saving machinery.
I believe, one, two, or three bave succeeded,) and The population of the State, according to some efforts which are made in the principal the three first enumerations taken by the towns, schools in this State can hardly be said to United States, was as follows: In 1790. exist. The gentlemen with whom I conversed on
this subject expressed their mortification, and their 68,825; in 1800,69,122; in 1810, 76,931.
reprobation of the conduct of the State, in strong The late Dr. Timothy Dwight, President of| terms, but they seemed to be hopeless concerning Yale College, in his "Travels in New-Eng- a reformation. Without churches, men will be land,” in the year 1800, has the following | vicious of course; without schools, they will be igobservations :
norant; and ignorance and vice are sufficiently
melancholy characteristics of the people in whom “From the circumstances of its early settlement, they are united. Rhode Island became naturally the resort, not only “It is not impossible, perhaps not improbable, of such adventurers as barmonized with them that the energy awakened in this State by the dif(the original colonists) in religious opinions, but of fusion of manufactures, may be productive of some most of those who were discontented and restless beneficial consequences both to learning and reliA general aggregation, originated by a great gion. The wealth of the inbabitants is visibly invariety of incidental causes, spread over the Štate, creasing with rapidity, and will probably continue and occupied the whole of its territory. No single to increase through an indefinite period." Wealth, or regular scheme of colonization was pursued. wherever it is spread, generates, of course, the No common object united the immigrants; and no desire of character; and this passion regularly common character could be traced through the stimulates mankind to the use of those means by mass. In such casual collections of mankind, it is which it may be gratified. The first step towards an almost necessary consequence of their junction giving character to children is to give them at least in society, that their peculiar religious opinions are a decent education; and this step is always taken held with less and less tenacity; that concessions whenever wealth begins to be diffused. The next is not uncommonly the building of churches; and had a great, and in most respects an injurious the next the settlement and support of ministers, - effect upon the trade of this state. The slavesuch, I mean, as are qualified to discharge the trade, which was a source of wealth to many of duties of the sacred office. Should this be the the people, has happily been abolished. The course of events in Rhode Island, it is hardly pos Legislature have passed a law prohibiting ships sible that the character of the inhabitants at large from going to Africa for slaves, and selling thein should not be essentially meliorated.”
in the West India islands. The town of Bristol
carries on a considerable trade to Africa, the West To these remarks of Dr. Dwight, the Indies, and to different parts of the United States. editor of his work, published in 1822, adds
But by far the greater part of the commerce of
the State is at present carried on by the inhabithe following :
tants of the flourishing town of Providence. In “These observations were made in the year
June, 1791, there were belonging to this port 129 1800. Since that time, the prediction of the
sail of vessels, measuring 11,942 tons. The tonnage
of the whole State amounts to between 26,000 writer has, to a considerable extent, been fulfilled.
and 27,000 tons. The exports from the State are The manufacturing establishments of this State have been enlarged and multiplied, and the wealth
flax-seed, lumber, horses, cattle, beef, pork, fish, of the inhabitants increased in a more rapid man
poultry, onions, butter, cheese, barley and other ner than in any other part of New-England. With
grain, spirits, and cotton and linen manufactures.
The inhabitants are advancing in the manufacturing the acquisition of property, the people, particularly in the large towns, appear to have acquired more
branch of business. A cotton manufactory has liberal views concerning the importance of learning
been erected at Providence, which from present to the community.”
prospects will answer the expectations of the pro
prietors. Jeans, fustians, denims, thick-sets, velvets, The following extract from Morse's Ge
&c., are here manufactured and sent to the South
ern States. Linen and tow cloths are made in ography, published in 1805, confirms Dr. different parts of this State for exportation. Other Dwight's account of the state of society in manufactures are those of iron, spirits, paper, wool Rhode Island, in the early part of this cen- and cotton cards, &c. Newport, famed for the tury :
beauty of its situation and the salubrity of its
climate, not wears the gloomy aspect of decay. « The literature of this State is confined princi-Circumstance · strongly mark out this place as a pally to the towns of Newport and Providence. convenient and proper situation for extensive There are men of learning and abilities scattered manufactures. Should the gentlemen of fortune throughout the State, but they are rare. The bulk turn heir capital into this channel, they would be of the inhabitants in other parts of the State are instrumental in giving employment and bread to involved in greater ignorance perhaps than in most thousands of now unbappy people, and of reviving other parts of New-England. A law a few years the former importance of their beautiful town." since was made, establishing town schools through the State, but was found unpopular and repealed. These extracts are sufficient to show the There are few clergymen in the State, excepting condition of Rhode Island under the comin Providence and Newport. * * * In the
mercial system which formerly prevailed in whole region west of Providence river, a schoolhouse or meeting-house is rarely found; not a
the colony and State, and before the attenquarter part have a Bible in their houses, and a tion of the people was particularly turned great portion of the people are unable to read or to manufactures, as tho main source of write.
occupation and prosperity which they have With regard to the trade and commerce
since found it, and which is now the main of the State, Morse remarks :
dependence of the people for support. The
former moral and religious character of the " Before the war of the Revolution, the mer people, as described by Doctors Dwight and chants in Rhode-Island imported from Great | Morse, is probably somewhat exaggerated Britain, dry goods; from Africa, slaves; from the West Indies, sugars, coffee and molasses; and
| by the prejudices of those writers, but there from the neighboring colonies, lumber and pro can be no doubt of the low state of educavisions. With the bills which they obtained in tion, religion and morals in the State, comSurinam and the Dutch West Indies they paid pared with other parts of New England; their merchants in England. Tbeir sugars they carried to Holland; the slaves from Africa they
and it is curious to notice that Dr. Dwight rried to the West Indies together with the looked to the establishment of manufactures lumber and provisions procured from their neigh- as a means by which the moral condition of bors; the rum distilled from the molasses was the people might be improved. The gradual carried to Africa to purchase negroes; with their improvement of the condition and the present dry goods from England they trafficked with the neigħboring colonies. By this kind of circuitous
elevated character of the population of Rhodecommerce they subsisted and grew rich. But the Island, in every point of view, are remarkRevolutionary War and some other events bave | able proofs of the sagacity of Dr. Dwight,
and of the accuracy of his prediction on the the mills of Arkwright and Strutt, when subject.
Mr. Slater left England. These schools, the Before comparing the present condition first of the kind in America, are still conof the State with that of the same half a tinued at Pawtucket. They have been copcentury since, it will be interesting to notice ied and extended with the extension of the the introduction of the cotton manufacture cotton manufacture in this country and they into Rhode Island, and its gradual progress have prompted the establishment of similar for a series of years. The commencement of schools in our seaport towns and in foreign cotton spinning in the State dates as early countries. It was from Pawtucket that they as the year 1788, when Daniel Anthony and were introduced into Providence in 1815, others, of Providence established the business by the young men of the latter place, one in a small way. This enterprise was followed of whom had been a clerk with Mr. Slater. by a few others, but every attempt to spin In addition to these schools for Sunday in. cotton by water power previous to 1790 struction, the establishment and support of proved abortive. In that year the Arkwright common day schools was promoted at machinery was introduced by Samuel Slater, all the manufactories in which Mr. Slater who had recently arrived from England. It was interested ; and in some cases the teachwas first put in operation at Pawtucket, and crs were wholly paid by himself. Regular the manufactory is referred to by Hamilton, and stated public worship also was liberally in his report on manufactures in December, supported at those points where the people 1791, as having “the merit of being the could be most conveniently assembled. first in introducing into the United States “The introduction of manufacturing was the celebrated cotton mill,” (meaning Ark- thus," says Mr. White, in his Life of Slater, wright's patent.) Some of Mr. Slater's first in every place a harbinger of moral and inyarn, and some of the first cotton cloth made tellectual improvement to the inhabitants of in America, from the same warp, was sent the vicinage, and the numerous operatives to the Secretary of the Treasury, (Hamilton) from remote and secluded parts of the counin October, 1791. As to the impediments try, attracted to the manufacturing villages under which this business labored, Mr. Moses by the employment, comforts, and convenBrown, a partner of Slater, observes: “No iences which they afforded. Hundreds of encouragement has been given by any laws families of the latter description, originally of this State, nor by any donations of any from places where the general poverty had society or individuals, but wholly begun, precluded schools and public worship, carried on, and thus far perfected, at private brought up illiterate, and without religious expense.” The biographer of Slater says he instruction, and disorderly and vicious, in had never heard of any pecuniary advan- consequence of their lack of regular emtage conferred on Mr. Slater, for his intro-ployment, have been transplanted to these ducing the cotton manufacture, or for his new creations of skill and enterprise; and establishing it on a permanent basis ; but by the ameliorating effects of study, indushis own money and time were pledged to the try, and instruction, have been reclaimed, object. It is stated on good authority that civilized, Christianized. Not a few of them nearly all the cotton manufactories in the have accumulated and saved, by close apUnited States, from 1791 to 1805, were plication and moderate economy, very handbuilt under the direction of men who had some estates. Indeed, such have been the acquired their art or skill in building ma- blessed results of concentrating and giving chinery in Mr. Slater's employ.
employment to a population formerly conOn the establishment of his first cotton sidered almost useless to the community, mill, Mr. Slater introduced among the labor- that there is among our manufacturing popers therein, such regulations as his previous ulation, at this moment, a greater number of observations of establishments in Derbyshire, males, of from twenty to thirty years old, England, had shown to be useful and appli- who are worth from $300 to $1,000 each, cable to the circumstances of an American and of marriageable females worth from $100 population. Among these was the system to $800 each, than can be found in any of Sunday-school instruction, which had population out of the manufacturing villabeen for some time in full operation at all. ges." (This was in 1836.)
The same writer further remarks :- also at the same time located in Massachu
setts, within 30 miles of Providence, 20 cote “ The impulse given to industry and production ton mills, with 17,371 spindles in operation, by the cotton manufacture has not been confined to one branch of business alone, but has been felt and a capacity for 45,438 spindles. Each in every sort of employment useful to the com- spindle would then produce yarn enough munity. We need not, in this place, enlarge upon weekly to make two and a half yards of the close affinity and mutual dependence of these cloth, of the value of 30 cents per yard, the various employments; they are obvious to every
average price at that time. The number of mind which has acquired the habit of tracing results to their causes in the endless relations of
spindles then in operation in the vicinity of society. As a general fact it is undoubtedly true, Providence produced, therefore, sufficient that the advance of our country in the production yarn, when wove, to make in each week and manufacture of wool and iron has been greatly 128 635 vards of cloth worth $38.590_or accelerated by the cotton manufacture; and that those branches of industry have always been
over two millions of dollars annually. This deeply affected by the temporary reverses which shows the immense importance of the cotton this branch has experienced. Mr. Slater was for manufacture, even in its infancy, previous to many years and at the time of his death concerned the war of 1812. in woollen and iron, as well as cotton manufacto
The war found the American people desries; and his observation and sagacity never suffered him to question the identity of their inter
titute of the means of supplying themselves, ests. He always maintained that legi-lative pronot merely with blankets for their soldiers, tection would be beneficial to himself as well as but a vast variety of other articles of necesothers—to those already established in business sity and comfort.
ness sity and comfort. Our citizens entered on and having ample capital, as to those who were just beginning and with little or no capital.
the business of manufactures with great Events have fully sustained these views. The energy and enterprise; invested in them fostering protection of the government, up to the many millions of capital ; and having, durelection of President Jackson, brought forward | ing the two and a half years while the war and established many adventurers who had begun
continued, the domestic market secured to without money or skill, but have since acquired both; whilst those who preceded them in busi them, they succeeded beyond expectation. ners are, generally, as far in advance of them as Never was there a prouder display of the they were before. In the measures adopted by power of industry than was afforded on this the manufacturing districts of our country to ob
occasion. Unaided by the expenditure of tain this protection, Mr. Slater was ever prominent and efficient."
money by Government, except in the way of
necessary contracts, they attained in two or Small manufactories spread in Rhode-Is- three years a degree of maturity in some land about the year 1807, and improve- branches of manufactures which required ments began to be introduced. Manufac- centuries in England, France, and Prussia, turing enterprise was greatly promoted by and cost their governments large sums, in the non-importation and other restrictive the shape of bounties, premiums, and drawacts of Congress during Jefferson's and Mad-backs, with the fostering aid of privileges ison's administrations, which contributed, of and immunities bestowed on the manufaccourse, to the scarcity and high prices of turers. In the language of the report of a British goods. The war of 1812 taught the society of the friends of manufactures, made Americans to rely upon their own resources in 1817:for support, and the results of the lesson then learned were the erection of manufacturing
“In a short three years the produce of our looms
" I rivalled foreign productions, and the nation with establishments in almost every nook and which we were contending felt more alarm from corner of the settled parts of the Eastern the produce of our manufactures than she did from and Middle States-affording sure markets the success of our arms. But peace came. While for the produce of the flocks and fields of we were at war, the warehouses of England were
filled with the produce of the labor which a loss the Northern farmer, and increasing the ne Northern farmer, and moreasing. me of market had enabled her to purchase at a depredemand for the staple of the Southern ciated price. The moment intercourse between planter. At the beginning of the war in the two countries was opened, her hoarded stores 1812, there were in operation in Rhode- were thrown upon us, and we were delnged with Island, within 30 miles of Providence, 33
the manufactures which had been waiting the
event. They could be sold without profit, because cotton mills, with 30,663 spindles, and a the foreign manufacturer thought himself fortunate capacity for 56,246 spindles. There were l if he could realize the capital which he had been
obliged to expend, to support bis establishment | able auspices. The country was generally while there was no sale for his wares. But he was
prosperous where the influence of manufaccontent to bear a loss, because, in the words of an English statesman, .It was well worth while to
tures could be felt. It was estimated that incur a loss upon the first exportation, in order, by sixty millions of dollars had been invested the glut, to stifle in the cradle those rising manu- in manufacturing establishments, which were, factures in the United States which the war had spread over the face of the land diffusing forced into existence.' It would have been surprising, indeed, if our infant manufactures, the establish
or employment and comforts among thousands ment of which had generally exhausted the capi
of industrious people. Peace, with all its tals of those who embarked in them, could have blessings, was, however, fraught with desustained themselves under such circumstances, struction to the hopes of a considerable without any aid or support from the Government,
portion of the manufacturers. The double without any means of countervailing the effects of the sacrifices which foreigners were willing to
duties on imports had been imposed with a make for their destruction. How were they to limitation to one year after the close of the maintain themselves ? It was in possible,-many war. They were repealed, and a new tariff of them sunk. The attention of the Government enacted in 1816. Although it recognized the was too ardently directed, during the war, to other
doctrine of protection, that tariff was insuffiobjects, to perceive the policy or necessity of that protection which the manufacturing interest did cient to sustain the manufacturing interest not appear to want."
generally. From year to year after that time,
ruin spread among the manufacturers, and a A very favorable impression, in favor of large proportion of them were reduced to bankdomestic manufactures, was every where ruptcy. The progress of the State of Rhodemanifested at the conclusion of the war of Island was of course slow during a series 1812. Mr. Jefferson had changed his views of years, and until the revival of industry by on the subject, and expressed himsef as the tariff of 1824, followed by that of 1828. follows:
Since the permanent establishment of manu
factures by the protective system, Rhode“ To be independent for the comforts of life, we Island has steadily advanced in population must fabricate them ourselves. We must now and wealth
must now and wealth; its prosperity, of course, checked
its prosperity of course check place the manufacturer by the side of the agricul turist. Experience has taught me that manufac
by every advance towards free trade in the tures are as necessary to our independence as our legislation of Congress, adverse to national comfort."
industry. The following shows the progres
sive movement of the population of the State Presidents Madison and Monroe, in their since the first United States' census, in messages to Congress, and on other occa | 1790:sions, recommended the encouragement of
Population. manufactures by adequate protection. The
68.825 tour of President Monroe to New-England
297 00.4 made a very favorable impression on his 1810,...... 77,031 7,909 11.4 mind with regard to the resources of the 1820,...... 83,059 6,028 7.8 country, and its adaptation to manufacturing
1830,...... 97,199 14,140 17.
1840,...... 108,830 11,631 11.9 operations. He was received at Pawtucket
1850,...... 147,543 38,713 85.6 by Mr. Slater, who showed and explained to him the frames by which he had spun The valuation of taxable property in the his first cotton, and stated the progress of State in 1849 was $70,289,990 – viz.: the business, which had raised that oiscure real estate, $48,956,829; personal ditto, hamlet to the condition of a flourishing $21,333,161. The increase of taxable proptown. The change was remarkable that had erty from 1796 to 1832 was $17,140,000, taken place during the contest with Great and from 1833 to 1849 the increase was Britain. Providence, and Rhode Island in $37,650,000. The amount of banking capgeneral, had received an impetus which con-ital in 1849 was $11,300,000. In the savtributed, more than any other cause, to buildings banks, the same year, the deposits up a large and populous city, and to raise a amounted to $1,054,263. The amount of comparatively small State to wealth and capital invested in manufactures in 1840 was importance.
$10,696,136. The war of 1812 was closed under favor- ! The most remarkable improvement has
Decennial Increase Numeral. Per cent.