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and of the accuracy of his prediction on the the mills of Arkwright and Strutt, when subject.
Mr. Slater left England. These schools, the Before comparing the present condition first of the kind in America, are still conof the State with that of the same half a tinued at Pawtucket. They have been copcentury since, it will be interesting to notice ied and extended with the extension of the the introduction of the cotton manufacture cotton manufacture in this country, and they into Rhode Island, and its gradual progress have prompted the establishment of similar for a series of years. The commencement of schools in our seaport towns and in foreign cotton spinning in the State dates as early countries. It was from Pawtucket that they as the year 1788, when Daniel Anthony and were introduced into Providence in 1815, others, of Providence established the business by the young men of the latter place, one in a small way. This enterprise was followed of whom had been a clerk with Mr. Slater. by a few others, but every attempt to spin In addition to these schools for Sunday in. cotton by water power previous to 1790 struction, the establishment and support of proved abortive. In that year the Arkwright common day schools was promoted at machinery was introduced by Samuel Slater, all the manufactories in which Mr. Slater who had recently arrived from England. It was interested; and in some cases the teachwas first put in operation at Pawtucket, anders were wholly paid by himself. Regular the manufactory is referred to by Hamilton, and stated public worship also was liberally in his report on manufactures in December, supported at those points where the people 1791, as having "the merit of being the could be most conveniently assembled. first in introducing into the United States " The introduction of manufacturing was the celebrated cotton mill,” (meaning Ark- thus," says Mr. White, in his Life of Slater, wright's patent.) Some of Mr. Slater's first in every place a harbinger of moral and inyarn, and some of the first cotton cloth made tellectual improvement to the inhabitants of in America, from the same warp, was sent the vicinage, and the numerous operatives to the Secretary of the Treasury, (Hamilton,) from remote and secluded parts of the counin October, 1791. As to the impediments try, attracted to the manufacturing villages under which this business labored, Mr. Moses by the employment, comforts, and convenBrown, a partner of Slater, observes: “No iences which they afforded. Hundreds of encouragement has been given by any laws families of the latter description, originally of this State, nor by any donations of any from places where the general poverty had society or individuals
, but wholly begun, precluded schools and public worship, carried on, and thus far perfected, at private brought up illiterate, and without religious expense." The biographer of Slater says he instruction, and disorderly and vicious, in had never heard of any pecuniary advan- consequence of their lack of regular emtage conferred on Mr. Slater, for his intro- ployment, have been transplanted to these ducing the cotton manufacture, or for his new creations of skill and enterprise; and establishing it on a permanent basis ; but by the ameliorating effects of study, indushis own money and time were pledged to the try, and instruction, have been reclaimed, object. It is stated on good authority that civilized, Christianized. Not a few of them nearly all the cotton manufactories in the have accumulated and saved, by close apUnited States, from 1791 to 1805, were plication and moderate economy, very handbuilt under the direction of men who had some estates. Indeed, such have been the acquired their art or skill in building ma- blessed results of concentrating and giving chinery in Mr. Slater's employ.
employment to a population formerly conOn the establishment of his first cotton sidered almost useless to the community, mill, Mr. Slater introduced among the labor- that there is among our manufacturing popers therein, such regulations as his previous ulation, at this moment, a greater number of observations of establishments in Derbyshire, males, of from twenty to thirty years old, England, had shown to be useful and appli- who are worth from $300 to $1,000 each, cable to the circumstances of an American and of marriageable females worth from $100 population. Among these was the system to $800 each, than can be found in any of Sunday-school instruction, which had population out of the manufacturing villabeen for some time in full operation at all l ges.” (This was in 1836.)
The same writer further remarks :- also at the same time located in Massachu
setts, within 30 miles of Providence, 20 cot« The impulse given to industry and production ton mills
, with 17,371 spindles in operation, by the cotton manufacture has not been confined to one branch of business alone, but has been felt and a capacity for 45,438 spindles. Each in every sort of employment useful to the com- spindle would then produce yarn enough munity. We need not, in this place, enlarge upon weekly to make two and a half yards of the close affinity and mutual dependence of these cloth, of the value of 30 cents per yard, the various employments; they are obvious to every mind which has acquired the habit of tracing average price at that time. The number of results to their causes in the endless relations of spindles then in operation in the vicinity of society. As a general fact it is undoubtedly true, Providence produced, therefore, sufficient that the advance of our country in the production yarn, when wove, to make in each week and manufacture of wool and iron has been greatly 128,635 yards of cloth, worth $38,590—or accelerated by the cotton manufacture; and that those branches of industry have always been over two millions of dollars annually. This deeply affected by the temporary reverses which shows the immense importance of the cotton this branch has experienced. Mr. Slater was for manufacture, even in its infancy, previous to many years and at the time of his death concerned the war of 1812. in woollen and iron, as well as cotton manufactories; and his observation and sagacity never suf
The war found the American people desfered him to question the identity of their inter-titute of the means of supplying themselves, ests. He always maintained that legi-lative pro- not merely with blankets for their soldiers, tection would be beneficial to himself as well as but a vast variety of other articles of necesothers—to those already established in business sity and comfort. Our citizens entered on and having ample capital, as to those who were the business of manufactures with great just beginning and with little or no capital. Events have fully sustained these views. The energy and enterprise ; invested in them fostering protection of the government, up to the many millions of capital; and having, durelection of President Jackson, brought forward ing the two and a half years while the war and established many adventurers who had begun continued, the domestic market secured to without money or skill
, but have since acquired both; whilst those who preceded them in busi- them, they succeeded beyond expectation. ness are, generally, as far in advance of them as Never was there a prouder display of the they were before. In the measures adopted by power of industry than was afforded on this the manufacturing districts of our country to ob- occasion. Unaided by the expenditure of tain this protection, Mr. Slater was ever prominent and efficient."
money by Government, except in the way of
necessary contracts, they attained in two or Small manufactories spread in Rhode-Is- three years a degree of maturity in some land about the year 1807, and improve- branches of manufactures which required ments began to be introduced. Manufac- centuries in England, France, and Prussia, turing enterprise was greatly promoted by and cost their governments large sums, in the non-importation and other restrictive the shape of bounties, premiums, and drawacts of Congress during Jefferson's and Mad-backs, with the fostering aid of privileges ison's administrations, which contributed, of and immunities bestowed on the manufaccourse, to the scarcity and high prices of turers. In the language of the report of a British goods. The war of 1812 taught the society of the friends of manufactures, made Americans to rely upon their own resources in 1817:for support, and the results of the lesson then learned were the erection of manufacturing rivalled foreign productions, and the nation with
“In a short three years the produce of our looms establishments in almost every nook and which we were contending felt more alarm from corner of the settled parts of the Eastern the produce of our manufactures than she did from and Middle States-affording sure markets the success of our arms. But peace came. While for the produce of the flocks and fields of we were at war, the warehouses of gland were the Northern farmer, and increasing the
filled with the produce of the labor which a loss
of market had enabled her to purchase at a depredemand for the staple of the Southern ciated price. The moment intercourse between planter. At the beginning of the war in the two countries was opened, her hoarded stores 1812, there were in operation in Rhode were thrown upon us, and we were deluged with Island, within 30 miles of Providence, 33 the manufactures which had been waiting the cotton mills, with 30,663 spindles, and a the foreign manufacturer thought himself fortunate
event. They could be sold without profit, because capacity for 56,246 spindles. There were lif he could realize the capital which he had been
obliged to expend, to support his establishment | able auspices. The country was generally while there was no sale for his wares. But he was content to bear a loss, because, in the words of an
prosperous where the influence of manufacEnglish statesman, 'It was well worth while to tures could be felt. It was estimated that incur a loss upon the first exportation, in order, by sixty millions of dollars had been invested the glut, to stifle in the cradle those rising manu- in manufacturing establishments, which were, factures in the United States which the war had spread over the face of the land, diffusing indeed, if our infant manufactures, the establish: employment and comforts among thousands ment of which had generally exhausted the capi- of industrious people. Peace, with all its tals of those who embarked in them, could have blessings, was, however, fraught with desustained themselves under such circumstances, struction to the hopes of a considerable without any aid or support from the Government, portion of the manufacturers. The double the sacrifices which foreigners were willing to duties on imports had been imposed with a make for their destruction. How were they to limitation to one year after the close of the maintain themselves ? It was impossible,-many war. They were repealed, and a new tariff of them sunk. The attention of the Government enacted in 1816. Although it recognized the was too ardently directed, during the war, to other doctrine of protection, that tariff was insuffiobjects, to perceive the policy or necessity of that protection which the manufacturing interest did cient to sustain the manufacturing interest not appear to want.”
generally. From year to year after that time,
ruin spread among the manufacturers, and a A very favorable impression, in favor of large proportion of them were reduced to bankdomestic manufactures, was every where ruptcy. The progress of the State of Rhodemanifested at the conclusion of the war of Island was of course slow during a series 1812. Mr. Jefferson had changed his views of years, and until the revival of industry by on the subject, and expressed himself as the tariff of 1824, followed by that of 1828. follows:
Since the permanent establishment of manu
factures by the protective system, Rhode"To be independent for the comforts of life, we Island has steadily advanced in population must fabricate them ourselves. We must now and wealth ; its prosperity, of course, checked turist. Experience has taught me that manufac by every advance towards free trade in the tures are as necessary to our independence as our legislation of Congress, adverse to national comfort."
industry. The following shows the progres
sive movement of the population of the State Presidents Madison and Monroe, in their since the first United States' census, in messages to Congress, and on other occa- 1790 :sions, recommended the encouragement of
Population. manufactures by adequate protection. The
1790, 68.825 tour of President Monroe to New-England 1800,
297 00.4 made a very favorable impression on his 1810, 77,031 7,909 11.4 mind with regard to the resources of the 1820, 83,059 6,028 7.8
1830,country, and its adaptation to manufacturing
97,199 14,140 17.
1840, . 108,830 11,631 operations. He was received at Pawtucket
. 147,543 38,713
85.6 by Mr. Slater, who showed and explained to him the frames by which he had spun The valuation of taxable property in the his first cotton, and stated the progress of State in 1849 was $70,289,990 — viz.: the business, which had raised that ouscure real estate, $48,956,829; personal ditto, hamlet to the condition of a flourishing $21,333,161. The increase of taxable proptown. The change was remarkable that had erty from 1796 to 1832 was $17,140,000, taken place during the contest with Great and from 1833 to 1849 the increase was Britain. Providence, and Rhode Island in $37,650,000. The amount of banking capgeneral, had received an impetus which con- ital in 1849 was $11,300,000. In the savtributed, more than any other cause, to buildings banks, the same year, the deposits up a large and populous city, and to raise a amounted to $1,054,263. The amount of comparatively small State to wealth and capital invested in manufactures in 1840 was importance.
$10,696,136. The war of 1812 was closed under favor- The most remarkable improvement has
Decennial increase. Numeral. Per cent.
taken place in the State, within the last | and intelligence. Sufficient testimony has been twenty-five years, in the attention paid to adduced to prove that the present state of Ameri
can manufactures is superior to any in the world, education. By an act of the Legislature,
as it respects the rate of wages, the means of inpassed in 1828, a permanent school fund tellectual improvement, and their moral condiwas commenced, which was invested, and tion." has since received many additions. The
The hostility of the Democratic party, so sum of $25,000 per annum is paid from called, to the establishment and support of the State Treasury to the several towns for manufactures, has been shown on various the support of public schools. The interest occasions for the last twenty years, not only of the portion of the State of the United in their legislation in Congress, but in the States' surplus revenue, divided in 1836, sentiments of their leaders expressed in apand moneys arising from several other peals to popular prejudice. When the sources, are also applied to the support of administration of Mr. Polk adopted the freepublic schools.
In 1844, the number of trade doctrines of the Secretary of the Treathese schools in the State was 428, and the number of scholars attending them was Democratic party creed, and that President
sury, Robert J. Walker, as a portion of the 22,156. The amount paid by the State for
recommended those doctrines as the true the support of free or public schools in that policy of the nation, the Democratic Convenyear was $25,095, and by the towns for the tion of Hamilton county, Ohio, addressed & same $27,918; total, $53,013. In 1840, letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, in there were in Brown University and in a Oct.
, 1845, avowing the following views :high school, 324 students. There were then in the State 52 academies and grammar desire to a free people, or of favor for a free
" Manufactures are not of themselves objects of schools, with 3,664 students. The elevation of the religious character of the people, which crowded population, subject to a very arbitrary
government. They involve the necessity of a we have seen was formerly so much behind control over their comfort by a few wealthy perthe other New-England States, has been sons, and devoted to unwholesome employment, similar to the favorable change in public Surely such establishments do not deserve political sentiment with regard to education, and it is favor, where land is abundant and the people believed that Dr. Dwight and other philanthropists of the last generation would not now The falsity of these sentiments is shown have cause to complain of the state of religion by the experience of this country, wherever and morals among the people of Rhode- manufactures have been established ; and Island, or to contrast the state in that re- nowhere can they be more fully disproved spect with its neighbors. It should be here than in the industrial history of Rhodementioned that the first Sunday - school Island. We have chosen the example of taught in New-England was at the manufac- that State, as one exhibiting the greatest turing village of Pawtucket.
contrast in the condition of the people under We will here again quote Mr. White, agricultural and commercial pursuits, with the biographer of Slater, on this subject :
-only slight attention to manufactures; with
its wonderful improvement since the intro“ It cannot be concealed that there have been duction of manufactures and labor-saving apprehensions of the evil effects of manufacturing machinery. establishments in this country. But these forebodings have been chiefly prospective. It is not pre
It would be difficult, in the history of tended that they have been productive of evil; mankind, to exhibit a more striking picture indeed, the evidence is positive, that much good of moral and physical improvement; and has been produced. With regard to the State f this change has been effected by the system Rhode Island, I had an opportunity of knowing its moral condition previous to 1812; and I have in the moral and physical condition of the
we advocate, in a comparatively short period, since travelled in nearly every part of the State, and the change for the better, especially in the people of the whole State. In other parts of manufacturing districts, is incredible. No one but the country, where the population and teran eye-witness could believe that such a favorable ritory are less compact, the contrast and imshort period of twenty-five
years. I am persuaded provement have been less marked. But we that wherever a village is under good regulations, are not unmindful of the great benefits that the tendency is altogether favorable to morals I wrought by the manufacturing system in
Annual value manufactured.
other States, wherever industrial pursuits of these manufactures eleven years since, by the this class have been introduced by capital census of 1840 :and enterprise. The great moral and successful example of Lowell, that wonderful
$46,350,453 creation of the genius, capital, and industry
20,696,999 of our own times, is familiar to all. It has
16,034,225 been often described, and never fails to in- Hardware, &c.,
6,451,967 terest the friends of manufactures who have Precious Metals,
Leather and Manufactures of, .. 48,785,332 an opportunity of visiting it, by its admira
6,135,092 ble establishments, conducted on a system Cordage,
4,078,306 unsurpassed in the world, and its highly Hats, Caps, &c.,.
10,180,847 intellectual industrial population. But the States of Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
$168,492,663 Maine, Vermont, and Connecticut, with the The increase of these manufactures, under Middle States, afford abundant instances of the tariff of 1842, probably raised the anthe prosperity and moral i aprovement nual value to two hundred millions of dollars. which have been caused in those States by This immense interest, with all its attendthe introduction of manufactures.
ant benefits, some of which we have endeaIn an evil hour, the passage of the tariff vored to exhibit in this essay, it is proposed of 1846 checked the march of improvement by the advocates of free trade to destroy; or then in progress under the benign influence to reduce the wages of labor to the standard of the Whig protective tariff of 1842. How of that of Europe. But we cannot believe far the effect of foreign competition may the people will long continue to countenance arrest the increase and extension of manu- such doctrines. In the language of Henry factures in those States where they have Clay, in 1824: “The cause of protection is the been established or commenced, time only cause of the country, and it must and will can determine. But it may be well to look prevail. It is founded in the interests and at the amount of the principal manufactures affections of the people; it is as native as of the United States which may be placed the granite deeply imbedded in our mounin danger by free trade or importations of tains. And I would pray God, in his infithe same articles from foreign countries. We nite mercy, by enlightening our councils, to have not the returns of the census of last conduct us into that path which leads to year, but the following shows the value of riches, to greatness, to glory."
AD TURBATOREM PLEBIS.
BY RUFUS HENRY BACON.
All earthly things are subject to decay:
The fairest temple and the proudest State
Crumble at last to ruin. But the great
Have perennial life; and, soon or late,
Burst the rude soil wherein they germinate.
If thy base arts shall cause the State to fall,
Thy hideous name will cover with a pall
With TRAITOR carved on thy unholy tomb!