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say : “ I should not survive a discovery | striking in a multitnde of passages from his three days.” Junius in the Cabinet ! and pamphlets and speeches. It is not worth Junius, by proxy, in the Palace! The idea while to dwell on these ; no amount of them certainly carries a fascination along with it; could ever make Francis the real Nominis and we do not wonder the veiled assaulter | Umbra. There is another view of Sir of King, Lords and Commons should employ Philip's feeble likenesses which strikes us. every effort of power and ingenuity to carry Even putting any design on his part out of his secret to the gave with him. None but the question, it may not be improbable that a man in the predicament of Chatham would the peculiar shape of his sentences, the tone have taken such a world of pains to remain of his sentiments, and the character of his hidden. To a secretary or any other hire- figures are owing to a bona fide sympathy ling, what would discovery signify? What with Junius, whose identity we believe he would it signify to Sir Philip Francis ? suspected, if he did not know it. Francis Celebrity; an imperishable name. To seems to have formed his style on that of Chatham it signified odium which would him, whose Latin secretary he was, who, he weigh down the honor or prosperity of his says, fascinated his young enthusiasm by house ; deprive his family of their pen- his imposing qualities, and to whom he prosion; hinder the fortunes of the future Prime fessed himself under an endless weight of Minister—the future Commander-in-Chief; gratitude. And, indeed, perhaps Sir Philip, tarnish the dignity of his fame with the seeing the wish of Lord Chatham to remain unworthy stains of truculent passion. As for ever unknown, may have thought he for the renown-he could do without it; could show that gratitude in no better way his column was high enough already. What than by helping a deception which should would build up an enduring name for any bring suspicion to his own door, and away other man, Chatham flung by. No small from the right one! We sometimes think man would ever have done this. The pride there may have been some understanding, of assuming such an authorship must have by which the young man, for some powerful been balanced by powerful considerations, considerations of emolument, as well as such as we assert could belong to none but friendship, was bound to discourage the a man of lofty mark and likelihood truth by every means in his power. How
As for Sir Philip Francis, the idea that con- ever this may be, we find that Sir Philip's siderations of the kind could belong to him is resemblances to Junius cannot be admitted absurd. He did his best to look like Junius, as any valid proof. A few facts as unshakwe are convinced. We perceive this preten- | able as pyramids settle that question. sion in a hundred passages and traces. In Mr. Wade, in the edition of Junius referred his paper on the Regency published in 1811, to in the beginning of this article, takes up he employs the words spoken by Chatham Taylor's hypothesis and attempts to corrob(in a speech of 1770) as an epigraph: orate it. He argues for Sir Philip through “ There is one ambition at least which I a series of what must be considered very will not renounce, but with my life. It is lame and impotent conclusions. But one the ambition of delivering to my posterity thing is very remarkable both in Taylor's those rights of freedom which I have derived and Wade's views of the case: they bring from my ancestors." Sir Philip then says : Chatham into the foreground; they cannot “ After the noble speaker of these words, no get on without him-a fact full of suggesman has so good a right to make use of tion. The grave and gouty figure is always them as I have." He wishes to make the “ 'to the fore." Mr. Taylor believes Junius world think that when he reported Chatham's reported Chatham's speeches, and Mr. Wade speech, he made him a present of some of believes Junius received most of his Parliathe sentiments—which is also found in ment, Court, and Club news from Lord Junius. The mere reporting the speech Chatham, also from Lord Holland. He could scarcely give him any right to it. In also thinks that Lord Chatham only became another place he says Chatham made a intimate with this terrible young man of certain assertion, or, “it is recorded for him.” twenty-seven or twenty-eight after his letters A wish to confound himself with Junius is had made him popularly known; but that palpable in Sir Philip. His imitations of thereafter his Lordship contributed to them Junius's phrases or his plagiarisms are very and encouraged them ; so that Chatham
must be considered as only a piece of Junius! | nations. Lady Francis is sure her husband With reference to his Lordship's speeches, was Junius, because he gave her, on her marknown to be reported by Francis in 1770, riage, a copy of Junius's Letters, and was Mr. Wade says: “ It is not improbable always interested in every thing that conthat Francis composed these speeches for cerned them. Lord Chatham : he certainly composed Mr. Wade admits, not being able to help many of his Lordship's speeches!" "Our it, that the object of Junius was the rereaders are beginning now to understand the placing of Chatham at the head of the govvalue of Mr. Wade's disquisition to the ernment; and that the mighty juvenile new edition of Junius. He states, in sup- ceased his letters because the cause was port of his assertion, that, in a copy of “given up,” and Lord North came into Belsham's History of Great Britain which power. He also argues that Francis was belonged to Sir Philip Francis, he (Sir Philip) known to be Junius by the King, Lord North, had made the following manuscript note : and the government who gave him a place “ I wrote this speech for Lord Mansfield, as in India worth ten thousand a year, to be well as all those of Lord Chatham on the rid of him. But he says Francis had no Middlesex Election." Surely the word understanding with the Court that he should wrote means reported. To show that Francis be silent in return for the place. No; he could employ himself in making speeches took it like a virtuous Roman, as his due, for Lord Mansfield is not the happiest mode for other considerations. Now it must strike of proving Sir Philip to have been Junius. every body as very curious that Francis never Mr. Wade supposes that Junius, as Lord thought of telling his wife what he commuChatham's auxiliary, tried along with him nicated to the King, Lord North, and the to pull down the Grafton Ministry; and he government. Poor Lady Francis would give adopts a very clumsy explanation to account any thing to be able to state the fact, yet for the coincidences between Chatham and she cannot say, and she says all she can, Junius. He says Mr. Calcraft, the army that her husband ever confided the secret in agent, usually sent information of all sorts any way to her. Mr. Wade's elucidation of from London to Lord Chatham at Hayes; Junius is wonderfully unique. With referand he tries to show by very desperate ence to the pretensions urged for Chatham, inference, that young Francis the auxiliary he says decisively, that this nobleman, communicated with Calcraft, and, through “ though most effective in oratory, was carehim, with Chatham. It would have been less in literary composition, inexact, loose and much easier for the young man to go to repetitionary.” It is well known that all Hayes in a post-chaise and do his business great orators have been, and are, in the habit directly! Mr. Wade quotes Justice Hard- of writing their speeches, or the salient and inge to show that Junius mentioned a matter telling points of them, before speaking them. known only to Chatham, Temple and Cam- It is also known that at college Pitt was in den, and concludes it was Temple, as it could the habit of translating the orations of Thunot be any body else, who betrayed the mat- cydides and Cicero, with the most sedulous ter to the pages of Junius. A letter of the attention. Besides this, the general truth widowed Lady Francis to Lord Campbell is lies the other way. A man's written comalso quoted, in which she makes some very positions are usually closer and more correct rambling and contradictory statements, say than his spoken eloquence. Pitt always ing in the first place, that Sir Philip never thought earnestly and forcibly, and his said he was Junius, and yet going on to speeches are well-knit and full of close arstate, (as if the thing was an admitted mat- gument. Such a man could not write inter of course,) that in his (Francis's) contro- exactly and loosely. versy with Sir William Draper, “ a new and Mr. Wade speaks much of the Chatham powerful ally came to his assistance," mean- correspondence recently published by the ing by the latter, William Pitt, Earl of grandsons of the great Earl. It is by means Chatham! Whatever may be thought of of this correspondence that the attempt is Mr. Wade and his witnesses, it is plain Lord made to connect young Francis, or Junius, Chatham stands very much in the midst of with Chatham, by means of Calcraft. The them; his great shadow is always crossing family of Chatham would dread nothing so the net-work of their hypotheses and expla- much as the identification of the truculent
Junius with their founder, their decus et tuta- | Tories, with that sounding, simulated assault men. They would do every thing to hinder upon the Earl of Chatham. it. This correspondence contains two letters There seems to be but two competitors purporting to be from Junius to Chatham! now left upon this stage, Sir Philip Francis But they are eminently suspicious, if not and the Earl of Chatham; and posterity will forgeries; just such things as Chatham him. have to make its decision between the young self, or his descendants, planning an eternal clerk in the War Office, and the Titan of concealment, would provide. They weigh English statesmanship and politics. Those less than a feather, such as they are, against who object against Lord Chatham for Juthe massive proofs that lie in the other scale. nius's appearance of early hostility toward To explain the fact that Francis, who, he that nobleman, must be incapable of underasserts, loved and respected Chatham, abuses standing how a mind fertile in resources the Earl under the signatures “ Poplicola,” could carry on such a deception. They allow Anti-Sejanus,” &c., in the first series of the Junius wonderful powers
many sorts; but Letters, Mr. Wade courageously abolishes as they do not allow him the power of manag. many as tell against him; he calls them ing his mystery. Whereas, Chatham, like spurious, with the decision of Alexander Ulysses, had a subtle, close-contriving intelcutting the Gordian difficulty. All Mr. lect; and the ability of Junius is as plainly Wade's arguments have only the effect of seen in the strategy which has left the world bringing Chatham more suggestively for- so long in the dark, as in the literary merit ward. Unable to ignore the palpable like- of the Letters themselves. All minor ob ness between Junius and Chatham, he still jections must go for nothing in this quesargues for Sir Philip, saying that the Earl tion; such as that he did not know George had given him (Sir Philip) the first impres-Grenville, &c. It is too great a fault with sion of greatness by his noble eloquence and those looking for Junius to accept implicitly the lofty independence of his character. He what that shrewd masquer says. That is a stoutly contends that this undeniable simi- stupid mode of coping with any one so cunlarity was filtered through young Francis ning of fence. A man once ran, with his into Junius ; he does not believe in a direct neighbors, to drag the river for his drowned transmission. He admits that Francis shows wife; they searched down along the stream, himself inferior to Junius in every thing but but he who knew the dear departed better, the Letters. He says, “ With the fire of a went to look for her the other way, against Chatham in his bosom to electrify the sen- it, and found her, they say, in a strong eddy. ate, and with the acumen, knowledge of In the same manner, if we would come at human nature, and mastery of language of Junius, we must go against the drift of many a Hume, a Robertson, and a Gibbon, to of his sayings and sentiments. adorn and invigorate history, Sir Philip We think there appears on the face of Francis was destined to leave, as his avowed this controversy an evident reluctance of productions, only a pile of well-nigh forgot- English writers to recognize Junius in Lord ten speeches, protests, pamphlets, manuscript Chatham. Woodfall, who certainly suspected notes on book-margins, and fugitive verses." the truth, if he did not know it, seems willBut he gets over this obstacle; he swallows ing to lead us away from the Earl. Robert the chokepear thus : " I reply that Francis Heron in 1801 set the curious to run after was unquestionably a person of precocious Dunning. Taylor and Wade, though the gifts.” He flowered too soon; he faded pre- stern apparition of Chatham stands in their maturely, harassed and worn out by the path, turn aside to young Francis. In the stern duties of his lucrative place in India ! Chatham correspondence any recognition of Jam satis est. We shall not follow Mr. the Earl is discountenanced, which perhaps Wade any longer.
is only natural to expect from his grandWe hold up our hands and bless critical sons. The general idea of Lord Chatham, Wade ; but we cannot put the slightest faith a name synonymous with every thing great in his conclusions. He has left Francis as and venerable, would naturally be opposed he was, a young man of twenty-seven, when to the belief that he was Junius ; and it is Poplicola's powerful letter, breathing of the difficult to argue away those convictions matured and masterly Junius in every sen- that come without any argument at all
. tence, opened the five years' war against the Dr. Waterhouse, our countryman, was the
first who put forward Lord Chatham in a him. These, in our opinion, are not equivoproper manner. Mr. Swinden, in England, cal. They point to Lord Chatham, the only rather offered a mild suggestion than stated man who could write Junius's Letters — the what he believed to be a truth, and others only man who had the motives to write also had their suspicions. But a Yankee them. The solid weight of proof is all on was the first to speak out loud and bold,” his side ; the quillets and quiddities of special like a staunch beagle who finds himself upon pleading, some of them imposing enough, a strong scent.
belong to Francis and the rest. It now reThe writer of Junius went to the grave, mains to be seen whether the real Nominis hoping and believing he should never be Umbra can be thought able to appropriate discovered ; and his family, for the strongest the boast of Isis, in the temple at Sais, that reasons, have obliterated, and will do all in no mortal had lifted her veil. But the semitheir power to obliterate, every trace which recognized truth seems to be, that the porcould bring that charge home to him. trait of Junius, done by an American artist, There are certainly no letters, nor any other is to be seen, full in the middle of a great token left to indicate him, save the printed historic painting, now hanging upon the epistles. He will remain a mystery for ever, walls of the British House of Lords. W.D. if the evidences of these will not discover | Chelsea, Mass.
Tom CARLYLE, in some Anglico-Teutonic
Book, says the gift for which most often he longs
Called (Gallice) un talent pour le silence,
Fair form in flowers, the thoughts are out of tune,
Are silent in this merry month of June.
The birds refute you: every feathered chorister
Is singing to the world a gay Evangel,
Since God sent down his joyous Summer Angel:
Whose Wisdomship will neither dance nor sing,
The bridge which joins the Summer to the Spring.
Ye Canters of the cant of Kant and Fichte, all
Grim Teufeldröcksh, go listen to that stream:
The voice of Seraphs singing in a dream!
“And read in them the lesson of the Spring :
Of Poet hearts prefer to laugh and sing.
The month of glowing days and starry nights;
Will parch the current of its fresh delights;
of German systems and prosaic rules; •
The study of even inexplicable problems their applications to life and conduct to le is by no means altogether useless, if they exert sure, but essentially the same. the effect of sharpening the critical faculties, Two or three of the ablest works of this The reasoning employed is generally incon- class, with an accurate and succinct historiclusive; the evidence is apt to be unsatisfac- cal survey of the doctrines and characters of tory or insufficient; yet the powers of the the leading philosophers, will be of more mind are braced by the exercise of inge- real service to the honest student than a nuity, of patient thought, of careful anal small library read and collated after the old ysis. Mental activity, the habit of cautious fashions. Most of these works, as Bacon investigation, self-knowledge, and candor, advises, may be merely “tasted,” (read in ought to result from these pursuits. part or hastily,) others by deputy, (in re
It is well to ascertain the fruits of human views, commentaries, critical dictionaries,) inquiry, to know the unknowable, to speak and a very few thoroughly studied—the after the German fashion, or as Locke has master minds, as infrequent here as in every happily stated this position: “When we department. know our own strength, we shall the better Of the great mass of ethical and metaknow what to undertake with hopes of suc- physical writers, the style is extremely pocr, cess; and when we shall have well surveyed mean, bald, and tedious. They seek to be so the powers of our own minds, and made distinct, and are so copious, as to become some estimate what we may expect from tiresome, and that too in the discussion of them, we shall not be inclined either to sit conceded truths. They reverse the self-censtill and not set our thoughts on work at all
, sure of Horace on his concise obscurity, and in despair of knowing any thing, or on the overwhelm a few commonplace ideas in a other side question and disclaim all knowl- copia verborum. But this waste of the syledge, because some things are not to be logism is as great an error as a maiter of understood. It is of great use to the sailor | taste as the most verbose declamation. to know the length of his line, though he Diffuse logic is even worse than diffuse rhetcannot with it fathom all the depths of the oric, as well as inimical to the very spirit of ocean."
reasoning. Rhetorie admits copiousness; On some of the most important of these logic is close; beauty is strength here, as topics, (considered as speculative dogmas,) the well the essence of wisdom as of wit. proper state of mind appears to be that of philosophic doubt. Indifference promotes After the piles of controversial tracts, serclearness; a clear thinker can distinctly ex- mons, and philosophical treatises on the press his doubts ; liberal views beget a tole- subjects of liberty, freedom of the will, moral rant temper in others, and imply the pos- necessity, &c., the sum of the matter, it apsession of it in the theorist.
pears, may be thus briefly stated. Moral
necessity appears to be a fair logical inferBeattie, himself a writer on these subjects ence from the premises, but freedom is safest and a Professor of Moral Philosophy, ex- to assume as a ground of practice; as a pressly admits, “ All the practical, and most question, it is still open to the metaphysiof the speculative parts of moral science cians. have been frequently and fully explained by Philosophical necessity, practical freethe ablest authors.' any thirty or forty dom—to reconcile History and Providence, volumes of ethical discussion, you will find freedom of the will and the foreknowledge here a new term, there a nove illustration; of Omniscience, (wholly a mystery,)- is for the most part, a constant recurrence logically impossible. to admitted principles and facts, varied in Systems are invariably one-sided and ex