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In this manner passed the year 1823. the first of May, 1825. The following are The year 1824 found him in this condition, two letters which I found on my arrival:sometimes of discouragenent, sometimes of exaltation, which by turns filled him with
" NOTTINGHAM, August 26, 1824. energy of soul and the misery of his posi- “ If I have not written to you until this moment,
I dared not appear
before tion. In the first months of 1824, his let- you know the reason. ters became successively rarer, shorter, and haps—I tremble in writing it to you, but I must
you. You are a sort of conscience to me; permore sad; he was struggling against a pov- tell the truth—perhaps I never would have written erty continually increasing, reproaching him to you again, and would have renounced the friendself for asking aid of his embarrassed family, ship of the man whom I love most on earth, and vainly seeking to satisfy his wants by the not been relieved from the sad condition in which
of whom I think every hour of my life, if I had labors of a journalist, for which occupation I have lived since my arrival in England. I have he was not at all adapted. His situation be- not been relieved by a resolution, but by an act, came such that it was necessary for him to the consequence of which does not depend upon take a decisive resolution. He determined myself. But although it should result in nothing, to quit London and retire to Nottingham, and I shall find the moral energy which I have
my heart will be discharged of a great burthen, where under another name he earned his lost. As soon as I shall ascertain the result of my livelihood by giving French and Italian les- proceeding, I will write to you. Every thing con. sons. Adieu to his projects of great works, it will not be of light wounds. My heart had been his dreams of honor and of happiness! The cruelly torn before the period of our revolution. I unfortunate man at the age of forty years do not know what would have become of me if the found that his life was wasting away in an Italian fever had not seized me. I will do myself occupation, honorable doubtless, but without the justice to say that I have not for a single mo end and without aim. He was so much dis- ment been influenced by interest, fear, or any decouraged as to doubt of the future and grading passion. I have been the creature of cir
cumstances. In proportion as time removes these of himself. For some time he wrote no events from me, memory presents my faults with more to me. I was obliged to inquire of greater vivacity to my imagination. It is always others what had become of him. But soon with trembling that I recall that unfortunate affair
of Novarre, when the constitutional army was so I was hurried away myself into adventures suddenly routed. That, O my friend I was the the most unexpected and most extraordinary. second wound; it will always bleed; I am lanCircumstances having rendered it impossible guishing miserably on account of it. I know what for the Duchess of Montebello to accompany replies you will make to these self-reproaches. I her eldest son into Germany, she besought and
glorious duties remain for me to perform; but me to take her place. The noble widow of if the strength to fulfil them fails mē, if the will, Marshal Lannes could not address herself in which is the whole man, vacillates continually, vain to my friendship, and in the month of what can I do? If my soul is diseased, can its September I set out with M. de Montebello acts be expected to be those of a being full of vigor? for Carlsbad. What happened is well
known. I have tried the last remedy. If success attends
my undertaking, I shall become myself again, I Arrested at Dresden, delivered up by Saxony shall have a return of youth; if otherwise, reinto Prussia, cast into prison at Berlin, my stated in my own eyes, I shall at least lift up my refusal to reply to any question coming from head, I shall recover consciousness of myself. a foreign Government, before the French learned that I had become a teacher of languages Government had interfered, prolonged my at Nottingham! What would you have wished captivity, and I did not return to Paris until me to do! I found myself nearly destitute of VOL. VIII, NO. VI. NEW SERIES.
money. Fecling that my expenses even for a week
"LONDON, October 31, 1824. in London were imposing sacrifices for whole "To-morrow, my friend, I set out for Greece months upon my family, ashamed to ask new sums with Collegno. If you have received the letter of money, having an insurmountable repugnance which I wrote to you about two weeks since, and to writing for the journals, I determined to have which Count Prosasco was to have delivered to bread which should cost me neither shame nor dis- you on his arrival at Paris, you will not be astontasteful labor. What a wretched business it is to ished at my resolution. Extraordinary means write articles for the public journals! I have had alone could bring me out of my torpor. My disinexperience in it. Mr. Bowring asked me to fur clination to labor arose from the consciousness nish an article for his Westminster Review. I which I possessed of having a duty still to perform wrote it. 'Good, very good,' said he, “but too in active life. I do not know whether I shall be long.' I cut it down. "Now it will answer.' Then, useful. I am prepared for every kind of difficulty, at the end of a month: “The editor finds it writ- resigned to every thing that is disagreeable. It ten in a spirit which does not suit him; it must be must be so. Bowring has told me that the Eng. remodelled. I request that it may be returned to lish Committee, or at least several of their number, me. The demand is pleasantly denied. I leave disapproved of my journey. I wish to believe it, then, to be treated as he pleases. Not long that their motives are right. I do not know as to after I receive the proof-sheets; I find in them this, but, in any case, could I, should I retract my misconstructions, ridiculous omissions; I correct and word! The Greek deputies alone had the right arrange every thing, and return the packet to Lon to retain me, to whom I had offered my services don. Months pass without hearing any thing of it. without any condition. They have not done so, How fatiguing are all these vicissitudes! Away and I am about to set out. with articles! I feel the strength to write some- “My friend, I had no sympathy with Spain, and thing else. As soon as I shall receive an answer I did not go there, since by so doing I should have from London, I will arrange my mode of life. I been good for nothing. On the contrary, I feel for will go and shut myself up in a garret in London, Greece a love which has something solemn in it; near a public library; I shall have about forty-five the country of Socrates, do you understand! The louis d'or, and I shall labor with assiduity. Greek people are brave, they are good, and many
" I seldom write to Piedmont. The news which centuries of slavery have not been able to destroy I receive from there are excellent in regard to the their fine character. I regard them, too, as brethhealth of my wife and children, and of the affec-ren. In every age the destinies of Italy and tion preserved for me by all my friends. As to Greece have been mingled, and not being able to fortune, my wife had almost prevailed upon Gov- do any thing for my own country, I consider it ernment to restore to her my effects; every thing almost as a duty to devote to Greece the few indeed was concluded; the signature of the King years of strength that still remain to me. I repeat was alone wanting; he has refused it. There is to you that it is very possible that my hope of dostill bope, notwithstanding this first refusal. I suf- ing some good may not be realized. But even fer things to take their own course, believing that supposing this to be the case, why should I not I ought neither to encourage nor hinder these pro- live in some corner of Greece, and there labor for ceedings. I fear, however, that if the King restores myself! The thought of making a new sacrifice my property to my wife and children, he may wish to the object of my worship, of that worship which to take charge of the education of my offspring, alone is worthy of Divinity, will have restored to and I shudder at the idea of my sons being brought me that moral energy without which life is but an up by Jesuits. See, my friend, how many subjects insipid dream. of pain for ту. heart!
"You have not answered the letter of which I “I learn with fear that you have from time to spoke. God forbid that you should have wished time returns your old disorder of the chest. O to punish my silence by imitating it. Write my
friend! I conjure you to live long enough to to me now, I conjure you. Send your letter to give me the sweetest recompense for my sacrifices, Napoli de Romanie, the seat of the Greek Governyour esteem, your approbation, a word of eulo- ment in the Peloponnesus. Lose no time in doing gium. If you die before I take the first step in this. my noble career, I shall stop; I shall no longer "I carry your Plato with me. I shall write my have the strength to advance; I shall allow myself first letter at Athens. Give me your commands to fall. Live, I implore you. You are responsi- for the native land of your masters and mine. ble for us both, for if I suffer the fire which is still
"Speak to me particularly of your health ; tell in my bosom to be extinguished, shall I live? Is me that you continue to love me, that you recog. it living, to rise each morning only to fly from our nize your friend in the feeling which inspires this selves until evening ? Adieu! I embrace you with journey. Adieu, adieu! No one under heaven a heart full of hope. I am sure that you will par: loves you more than I do." don me my long silence. God is my witness that I think of you every day. I write to you in my
When I received these two letters on my head, I see you, I am listening to you. What return from Berlin, and on learning at the With what pleasure I call to mind our walks about same time that Santa-Rosa had accomplished Alençon, and that adieu of ten minutes at Paris. his resolution, that the Egyptian army had Adieu once more. Love me always, for I am al- landed in the Morea, and that Santa Rosa ways the same."
was before it, I said simply these words to
the friend who placed the letters in my who has the least knowledge of the charachand: “He will kill himself; God grant ter and mind of M. de Collegno. that at this moment he may still be living !" Santa-Rosa left London the 1st of NovemAnd at the same instant I did every thing in ber, 1824, and the coast of England the 5th. my power to save him. I wrote immediately The principal reason for his leaving Nottingto M. Orlando, the Greek envoy at London, ham appeared to have been the forced state who was charged by his Government with of nullity to which he saw himself reduced. the business of sending European officers to Santa Rosa wrote at this time to one of his Greece, and besought him to dispatch a let-friends: "Quando si ha un animo forte, conter from me to Santa-Rosa wherever he might viene operare, scrivere, o morire." be found. In this letter I spoke to Santa- He had offered to the deputies of the Rosa with the authority of a tried friend, Greek Government at London to go to and I gave him a formal order not to expose Greece as a military man. He asked the himself uselessly, to do his duty and noth- command of a battalion. He was told in ing more. I am certain that if this letter reply that the Greek Government would be had reached him in time, it would have happy to employ him in a more important calmed the exaltation of his feelings and his position. It was suggested that the admincourage. I sent duplicates of this letter by istration of war or the administration of eight or ten different opportunities. I am finances should be intrusted to him. Santaconscious of having neglected no means of Rosa set out, bearing open French and Italsaving him, but I had returned too late. ian letters, full of the most flattering expres
Soon the saddest news reached us from sions, besides sealed letters in Greek. Of the Peloponnesus. The advantages of the the three Greek deputies who were at LonEgyptian army were certain, the resistance don, two only favored the voyage of Santaof the Greeks badly concerted. All the Rosa. The third, brother-in-law of the Presijournals agreed in applauding the efforts of dent Conduriotti, had always appeared opSanta-Rosa ; one of them announced his posed to it. However it may be, Santa-Rosa death. This news, for some time disbelieved, was received coldly by the executive body on was confirmed little by little, and by the end his arrival at Napoli de Romanie, the ioth of July I acquired the certainy that Santa- of December. At the end of two weeks he Rosa' was no more. The Friend of Law, a presented himself anew to the Secretaryjournal of Napoli de Romanie, after giving an General of the Government, Rodhios, to account of the battle which had taken place ascertain whether, taking into consideration before ancient Navarino, thus speaks of the the letters of the Greek deputies at London, death of Santa-Rosa: “The zealous friend of they wished to employ him in any manner the Greeks, Count Santa Rosa, fell bravely in whatever. They replied to him that they this battle. Greece loses in him a sincere would see. friend of its independence and an experienced The 2d of January, 1825, he left Napoli officer, whose knowledge and activity would de Romanie, notifying the Government that have been of great service in the present he would await their orders at Athens. He struggle.” I received almost at the same visited Epidaurus, the island of Egina, and time from M. Orlando, a letter of the 21st the temple of the Panhellenic Jupiter, landed July, 1825, which confirmed this sad intelli- on the evening of the 5th at Piræus, and gence.
arrived at Athens the 6th. He devoted a Thus all doubt was impossible ; I was no few days to visiting the monuments of this more to see Santa-Rosa, and the romance of city. Having found, on one of the columns his life and of our friendship was for ever at of the temple of Theseus, the name of the an end. When the first transports of grief Count of Vidua, he wrote his own by the were over, I occupied myself in searching out side of his friend's, who had visited Athens with care all the details of his conduct and some years before. The 14th of January, of his death. I could do no better than ad- he undertook an excursion into Attica, to dress myself to M. de Collegno, his compa- visit Marathon and Cape Sunium. triot and his friend, who had accompanied column of the temple of Minerva he wrote him into Greece. From him I obtained the his name and that of his two friends Provano following account, the scrupulous exactness and Ornato, of Turin, as a monument of of which cannot be contested by any one their triple friendship. On his return to
Athens, he had an attack of fever which don : " Tu me riderai, ma sento dopo di cio weakened him very much, and determined ch'io non devo piu rivedere i miei figli.” him to fix his abode at Athens rather than Remaining in Navarino, where the weakness to return to Napoli de Romanie, whose un- of the garrison forbade an offensive part, he healthy atmosphere would have aggravated passed two weeks in reading, thinking, and or at least prolonged his malady.
awaiting the decision of events. The last Odysseus, who seemed to have an under- works that engaged his attention were those standing with the Turks, having threatened of Shakspeare, Davanzati, and the songs of to take possession of Athens, Santa Rosa Tyrtæus and of his friend Provano. engaged in organizing its defense. The In the mean time the Greek army
desEphemerides of Athens spoke of his enthu- tined to raise the siege had disbanded; the siasm and of his activity ; but his importance Greek fleet had not been able to prevent the ceased with the threatenings of Odysseus, Turkish fleet from landing at Modon. The and Santa Rosa left Athens to rejoin his siege, which seemed to relax during the first friends at Napoli de Romanie.
days of April, was renewed with greater At this period, preparations were made ardor; the breach was open and practicable; for the siege of Patras. Santa Rosa, never the enemy lodged at a hundred paces from having had any reply from the executive the walls. The two fleets were fighting body to his first offers of service, insisted every day before the port, which was still again on taking part in this expedition. He occupied by a Greek squadron. On the was told in reply that his name, too well evening of the 7th, the wind having driven known, would compromise the Greek Gov- the Greeks to the north, it was feared that ernment with the Holy Alliance, and that if the Turks might endeavor to take possession he wished to remain in Greece, it would be of the island of Sphacteria, which covers the desirable that he should take some other port. It was occupied by a thousand men, name than his own; otherwise he could re- and armed with fifteen cannon. A hundred ceive no employment either civil or military. men were sent to reënforce it. Santa Rosa It was in vain that his friends tried to repre- went with them. On the 8th, at nine o'clock sent to him that he had more than fulfilled all in the morning, he wrote to Collegno: “ Uno his obligations to the deputies of the Greek sbarco non mi pare impraticabile sul punto Government at London, to his friends, and to alle difesa del quale io mi trovo.” At eleven himself; that he owed nothing and could owe o'clock, the island was attacked, and at midnothing to a nation that dared not openly avow day the Turks were in peaceable possession his services. Santa Rosa set out from Napoli of it. Of the eleven or twelve hundred men the 10th of April, dressed and armed as a who were in the island, some saved themGreek soldier, and under the name of De selves by gaining the squadron which was at Rossi. He joined the head-quarters at Tri- anchor in the port, and which, cutting the politza, and the army destined to besiege cables at the moment of attack, passed Patras having been carried to the support of through the Turkish fleet. Two swam from Navarino, he followed the President to Leon- the island to the fortress. They said that dari. Then, the Prince Maurocordato having the greater part had crossed a ford north of been sent in advance to reconnoitre the posi- the island, and had cast themselves into tion of the armies and the state of Navarino, Paleo-Castro. This heap of ruins was taken Santa Rosa asked to follow him. He took by the Turks on the 10th. The fate of the part in the engagement of the 19th of April Greeks who remained in the place was unagainst the troops of Ibrahim Pacha, and known. entered Navarino the 21st.
At this time Navarino was nearly destiHe carried constantly with him the por- tute of water. For some time each man trait of his children. Having perceived on had been on an allowance of two glasses a the 20th that some drops of water had found day. The munitions of war were exhausted. way under the glass of the miniature, he Ibrahim proposed a capitulation, and deopened it, and in wiping it partly effaced the manded that ambassadors should be sent to figure of Theodore. This accident afflicted him. Collegno left the place with them on him bitterly. He confessed to Collegno that the 16th of May to try to discover the fate he could not but consider it as an evil omen; of his friend, which he but too well foresaw. and on the 21st he wrote to a friend at Lon-1 Soliman-Bey was pointed out to him as hav
ing commanded the attack of the island. | otoki. Some remarks were made in regard to the He found him in the tent of the Lieutenant coldness with which the Government had received of Ibrahim, under the walls of Modon. Sol- the foreigners sent by the Greek deputies at Loniman assured him that he had examined all Count Theotoki said: What do you wish It is
don, and who simply demanded employment. the prisoners, and that he had found but not men, nor arms, nor munition that we need: it is one European, a German, who had been money.' Next day, the 1st of January, Mr. Mason, immediately set at liberty, and was then on Rosa, said to him that a Greek friend of Count
& Scotchman, who was in the friendship of Santaboard an Austrian vessel. Moreover, Soli- Theotoki had counselled him, Mason, not to assoman sent for his Lieutenant-Colonel, gave ciate with Santa-Rosa, nor with Collegno, as they him in Arabic the description of Santa Rosa, were suspected by the Government. "Santa-Rosa which Collegno dictated to him in French, | left Napoli on the morrow. and ordered him to give him next day the 3d of January, a priest of venerable aspect, but
“On leaving Epidaurus in the evening of the most exact information in regard to the fate covered with rags, asked a passage to Egina in of the man of whom they were in search. the bark which we had hired. Being interrogated The name of Santa Rosa was not unknown by our interpreter, he replied that he had left to the Turks. Their countenances seemed Thessaly, his native land, in order to escape the sad when it was known that there were fears | dren took refuge in one of the islands of the Ar
persecution of the Turks. His wife and five chilthat he had been killed. They regarded with chipelago. They had no other means of subsistence sorrow the friend who came to claim him. than the alms which the father procured in his On the 18th, Soliman-Bey sent for Collegno, walks, in showing relics to the faithful. The simand said to him that a soldier of his regi- duced to misery, moved Santa-Rosa. He gave to
ilarity of position, the wife and five children rement had seen among the dead the man the priest all the money he had about him. Two whom he had described.
days after, as we were setting out for Athens, the On the 24th the garrison of Navarino priest came down from the city, as the priests of landed at Calamata, where it was transport- the temple of this god once stood, he blessed our
Neptune formerly did, and from the spot where ed on neutral vessels after the capitulation. bark. It is known that the greatest part of the “At the beginning of March, Santa Rosa apGreeks who were on the island of Sphacteria peared to have renounced all thought of estabon the 8th, retired to Paleo-Castro; that lishing himself with his family in Greece. At they capitulated on the 10th, and went away out at least seeing the enemy. About this time,
the same time he did not wish to leave it withwithout arms, but free. Santa Rosa was
an envoy from the Philhellenic Committee of Lon. not with them. Neither did he escape on don (Mr. Whitcombe) arrived at Napoli de Roboard the Greek vessels that were in the manie, the bearer of the complaints of this Comport. Collegno saw at Smyrna the Ger- mittee against the deputies Luriotti and Orlando, man who had been taken at Sphacteria, and of Greece, by sending men there known for their
who, they said, were compromising the destiny of whom Soliman-Bey had spoken to him; constant opposition to the Holy Alliance. It was he had not seen Santa Rosa among the perhaps owing to the arrival of Mr. Whitcombe prisoners.
that Santa-Rosa was reduced to the necessity of At a later period, having asked M. de Col-making the campaign as a simple soldier.
“ On the 16th of May, when Collegno said in the legno whether he could not bring to mind tent of the Lieutenant of Ibrahim Pacha, at Modon, any exact and certain details to add to the that Santa-Rosa was in the island of Sphacteria preceding note, he sent me the following:— when the Egyptians attacked it, at the moment
when Soliman-Bey replied to him that Santa-Rosa “ The 4th of December, 1824, we discovered the was not among the prisoners, an old Turk with a mountains of Peloponnesus. of the six passengers to him in French : How, was Santa-Rosa in the
long silvery beard approached Collegno and said who were on board of the Little Sally, five experienced the joy natural to every man who ap- island of Sphacteria, and did I not know it, that I proaches the close of a long sea voyage; three, might save his life a second time! This was especially, were impatient to touch the sacred soil. Schultz, a Pole, colonel in the French army at Santa-Rosa alone, leaning upon a cannon, sadly Naples, afterwards in Piedmont in March, 1821, gazed upon the country which presented itselt then in Spain under the Cortes, then in Egypt. more and more distinctly to our view. In the He arrived at Savone at the moment when the
At the evening he said to Collegno: 'I cannot tell why I royal carabineers arrested Santa-Rosa. regret that the voyage is already ended. Greece head of thirty armed students, he delivered bim will not answer the idea which I had formed of it. from his prison, that is, from the scaffold, and Who knows how we shall be received? Who four years afterwards directed in part the attack knows what destiny awaits us ?'
in which Santa-Rosa died." “The 31st of December Santa Rosa arrived at the house of the Minister of Justice, Count The- What a tragedy is here related! What