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heights of a clerk in the St. Catharine Docks. the coach. The high mettle of Pegasus reBecoming tired of that employ, so unconge- quires an Apollo, and not a Phæton. nial to a man strongly inclined to “ penny
Bell's Life in London is a sporting paper, a-lining," he entered the service of Whit- and has no political or literary influence. takers of Paternoster Row, the well-known Bell's Weekly Messenger is a favorite publishers. Becoming connected with the with the old-fashioned, half-educated Whigs, press, he engaged as dramatic critic to a and is a good family paper. It is twaddling Sunday paper, where his natural shrewdness in its opinions, and may be called a slowand independence of opinion found fitting paced, half-asleep chronicle. We are not employ. He then purchased the old Monthly aware that any man of intellectual mark is Magazine, which expired in his editorial or has been connected with it. It has a large hands after an existence of nearly a century. circulation among the pudding-headed counWe may mention, as a proof of his defective try squires and farmers. education, that when he published his play During the last two years a new paper Garcia, he put every
upon the Procrus- called the Leader has appeared, under the tean bed of ten syllables, and printed it editorial care of Thornton Hunt. This is with a stoical indifference to the sufferings of understood to be the organ of the Unitarians metre and sense. The consequent result was, and liberals, and if continued with the same that many a line commenced with the con- tact, energy and ability that have charactercluding word of the previous sentence. Jer ized its present management, cannot fail rold likened it to a disciplinarian who cuts to supersede the Examiner. Southwood all his regiment to the same stature; taking Smith, Fox, Horne, Leigh Hunt, and several the tall man's head off to place upon the of that "school,” are its chief contributors. short man's shoulders; presenting the strange We observe that it is frequently quoted by appearance of, here a leg cut off at the ankle, our own publications, more especially by and so on, thrown in like odds and ends to Griswold in that judicious melange of literamake up so many distinct homogeneities. ture, the International.
The failure of Jerrold and Dickens, two The best of the cheap papers is the men of such undoubted talent, to make even Weekly Times, the cost of which is three decent editors, is by no means surprising. pence English. This is really a very well An editor's life is one of sustained effort; conducted publication, containing all the there are no fits and starts in his duties. news, chit-chat, and a few tolerably well Now, men of quick and lively parts are the written editorials. It is printed, however, slaves of their inclinations; all routine is on an inferior paper, and is only circulated distasteful; and when the first excitement of among the poorer classes. a novel position has died away, apathy soon Although the Illustrated London News ripens into disgust, and the public are was first commenced merely to puff a quick ainazed to find that the most brilliant con- medicine, it has grown up to a circulation tributors are the worst possible conductors and reputation which confer considerable of a journal or review. It may be taken as influence upon it. Its principal editors are a settled fact, that a man of genius is pre- Charles Mackay and R. H. Horne. It is cluded by nature from being an efficient so well known on this side the Atlantic, that editor. The same applies to all superin- it is needless to call attention to the exceltending positions, such as managers, and lence of its pictorial embellishments. The may possibly account for Brougham's com- only approach to it here is the New York parative failure at the Lyceum.
Illustrated News, published by Strong. Still Jerrold has originated some score of pe- this is very inferior to its London and Paris riodicals. They have begun brilliantly, and prototypes. died miserably. The Illuminated Maga The Ladies' Paper is also another London zine, the Shilling Magazine, and the paper pictorial periodical, deserving of high praise above named, are the last three instances of for the spirit and finish of its designs. The his inability to lead such undertakings to a Pictorial Times, commenced by Spottiswood, successful issue. It seems that men of ge- the great printer, as a rival to the London nius are admirable horses when properly Illustrated News, some ten years since, is harnessed, but they are incapable of driving now incorporated with it. Spottiswood sunk
the enormous sum of sixty thousand pounds | In some cases the intimacy of an author before he abandoned the Pictorial Times. with a critic is positively injurious. We
We shall not recapitulate the cheaper know of several instances in which Oxenford, Sunday publications, as they belong to a the dramatic critic of the Times, was comvicious school, both of politics and morals. pelled (owing to the jealous supervision of They are rather the mental and moral filth De Lane, the editor) to be more severe than of English literature than wholesome food, he was really justified in, owing to his intithe offal of the public mind. They are un- macy with Marston and Traughton, whose fortunately very numerous, and have a wide plays had been recently produced. circulation. After the Sunday Times possi- Another point of contrast is in the care bly Lloyd's is the best; but they are all bad, with which the Reviews preserve the incogand are sad evidences of the depraved taste nito of their contributors. Mr. Herand lost of the inferior classes of the British people. his engagement on the Quarterly Review
A calm review of the London Press leads entirely on account of informing some friends us to this conclusion: that although not so in a party that he had written an article in immediately and locally influential as either the forthcoming number. of those of New York or Paris, it is practically! We must not omit to notice another differfreer than either. It is true, that many ob- ence in the press of London and New-York: stacles to the establishment of a newspaper it is in libel. Nothing is more difficult in exist there, which do not here; but this may London than to get an attack upon personal be an advantage.
character inserted in any paper; even the - Another marked difference between our most abandoned, such as the Age and Satirpress and that of France and England, is ist, require strong proof and heavy bribing. the emolument. The editor of the Times Few things surprise foreigners more than has from $6,000 to $8,000 per annum. the facility afforded here for the attack on Lockhart of the Quarterly has $8,000,- private character. This eagerness for scannearly $2,000 for each number of the dal is attended with the bad effect of an Review he issues. Contrast these emolu- indifference to public opinion; thus curing ments with the miserable stipend paid to one evil by establishing a greater. The our editors and contributors, (the result of punishment in England for libel is very the want of an international copyright law,) severe, and almost immediate. No legal and you have at once the secret of our infe- subterfuges can defer the evil day if the riority.
offense is proved. It matters not how unThe wonder is that we do so well, when popular the abused man may be, the judge we are obliged to compete with the pirated invariably charges without fear or favor. editions of these costly journals.
There was a case of this some years ago in An article in one of the leading papers of the matter of the Duke of Brunswick versus London, being well paid for, is elaborately Gregory. The former, although almost an written. Every available authority is consid- outlaw, got heavy damages, which consigned ered; and at all events, whatever may be the his libeller to Newgate. party bias of the writer, the data are correct. In presenting this brief sketch of English The proprietors and editors watch very jeal- Journalism to our readers, it is not our inously any personal influence an actor, mana- tention to compare it with our own. One ger, singer or author may wish to exert upon or two strong contrasts bave been noticed ; their columns. A solitary instance may now but they were so self-evident as to suggest and then occur, as in that of the Examiner, themselves to all. It would be unjust to where Forster's intimacy with Dickens and expect from our young press the refinement, Macready renders his critiques upon either of depth, finish and scholarship of a nation those mere laudations; but even here it is whose literature is the greatest existing; cautiously done, and is partly owing to the whose dramatists surpass Æschylus, Sophoproprietor Fonblanque himself being also a cles, Aristophanes and Euripides; whose friend to those “ favored ones.” Generally philosophers throw Aristotle, Plato and speaking, intriguing with the press in Lon- Xenophon in the shade; whose poets equal don is playing with edge tools, the chances Homer; and whose historians surpass Hebeing more than equal that you will cut rodotus and Thucydides. This is a task we your own fingers in the experiment. I prefer leaving to our journalists themselves,
that they may see where they fall short, and pirations, or possess passions stronger than supply the deficiency.
truth, avarice, pleasure or fear; but what is Journalism is well worthy of being made true of one man being true of all, does not as perfect as possible. Its importance is apply to men except in questions of probecoming more apparent every day. It gress. There is no modern Joshua to bid is not too much to assert, that the welfare the sun of knowledge stand still; for one of mankind materially rests in its hands. single day, even the apparent rest of the We all know the important results of giant is merely to gird his loins for a noone earnest preacher; empires have been bler fight; a pause for a bolder spring. shaken, creeds destroyed, and crusades un- Nature has implanted in all of us a love of dertaken. It took years, then, to accom- novelty. Hope is the pillar of fire by night, plish these great ends, because the preachers the cloud by day. However happy we may were few; still the objects, however great, have been with the flesh-pots of Egypt, the were achieved. Now, instead of one man, promised land, with all the uncertainties of the laborers are legion. The newspaper the mysterious future, leads us on. This alone dispatches an army of preachers every demand for a greater sphere is most intense morning, and public opinion, the great in the class now called upon to govern. motor of the age, is thus more powerfully Every year we behold younger and fresher affected in one day than in a generation of men guiding public affairs. The age
of the olden times. When it is borne in mind, precedents, anti-impulse, selfishness and that on an average five persons read each Machiavellism is rapidly passing away; the paper it is not stating too much, that nearly sceptre is taken already from palsy and father a quarter of a million of people are canvassed confessors, and grasped by the vigorous hands every day on this or that side of the great of men whose beards are not gray with the questions that agitate the public mind. We cold blooded iniquities of an official routine, all know the influence of a personal canvass, which has long annihilated every generous that in short it determines the success of feeling. We have an evidence in the proan election. Now, the mind is so consti- gress of the age of what journalism has tuted as to give greater credence to the done in the recent reception of Kossuth in silent, unimpassioned advocacy of a well- England. We say nothing of his release written article, than to the obsequious or from captivity, chiefly through the means pompous argument of a man who may say of Lord Palmerston, a man whose “ poetical that one word too much, which destroys feelings ” have long been destroyed by thirall that has gone before; that overproving ty-five years of political service. This, howso fatal to conviction. It also avoids those ever, only makes our case the stronger, for chances of personal antipathies which belong the public voice compelled him to be the by nature to all of us. A newspaper has a zealous instrument of its will. In saying still more powerful advantage over a per- this, we do not mean to detract from the sonal advocate, in its facility of reiteration, merit justly due to that distinguished statestill the man is convinced by insensible de- man, but merely quote it as an instance of grees, and his old prejudices worn away. popular progress. An additional sign of If a verbal applicant fails in the first instance, the times is found in Gladstone's exposé of: common courtesy precludes a repetition, Neapolitan villainies; in Palmerston's giving while a newspaper returns every morning to his official sanction to the exposure, and the charge, and wearies a man into the sur- bis manly rebuke to Prince Castelcicala's render of his opinion. What is true of one, jesuitical vindication of his royal master. affects all; and thus, by almost imperceptible We do not think our press has given this proselytism, political questions are carried, spirited letter the credit it deserves. It frequently by the very men who had till strikes us as heing the boldest manifesto then followed an adverse creed.
ever issued in Europe, coming, as it does, The
press has this great virtue: its ten- from the minister of one sovereign to andency is progress; its watchword, like other with whom there is no previous quarNapoleon's, is ever "forward;" it cannot rel. retrace its steps. A man, however great his We repeat, all this has been done by the devotion to liberty, may turn traitor; he press. The
press released Kossuth, sustainmay outgrow his youthful and glorious as- led Turkey, and will, in time, abolish
abuse. With this glorious mission before sibilities; much is required of those to whom it, how lamentable is it to see the miserable much is given. Every man is the journalist personal animosities existing among so many of his own houshold; there he is bound, as of the leading journalists. Surely the very much as any other editor, to take care that prominence of their position ought to counsel nothing offensive to morals, freedom, reliforbearance. They should remember they gion or taste, finds entrance. We will not squabble on the house-tops. These exhibitons go so far as a celebrated English poet, that are, however, becoming less frequent, and every man is a prophet; but we will adopt will, as a matter of course, gradually soon be his other doctrine, that he has a mission to altogether extinct. It will be seen that we perform, the complete fulfilment of which have merely considered journalism as a polit will constitute the perfect happiness of manical power. This, although the most prom- kind. How greatly the press of the world inent, and eventually the most important, can further this “consummation most deas producing the most massive, visible re-voutly to be wished," is apparent, and needs sults, does not so immediately come home no argument on our part. We have the to the million as its function of universal most unquestionable evidence of the rapid informer and confidential adviser.
improvement of this Fourth Estate, and The dweller in the nineteenth century, in a every day increases its utility and power. free country, with a free press, has much to be In our next we shall treat of the Parisian thankful for— to be proud of; and much, too, press, now or lately one of the most immeto be ashamed of. These all imply respon- ' diate political agents in the world.
THEORIES OF EVIL,
FROM THE POETS “FESTUS”_"FAUST"_"MANFRED"_“PARADISE LOST”- BOOK OF JOB.
The impenetrable mystery involved in the cuss it anywhere. But if the origin of evil question of the origin of evil seems in all is a mystery, its continued existence is equally ages to have been a fruitful cause of that so. It causes the first step—which “counts" excitation of the imaginative faculty from more than all after-in the genuine thought which has flowed the profoundest poetical of every lifetime; it is the initiative of thoughts which, upon the pages of literature, doubt—the Shadow on the Threshold of stir the souls of men.
manhood. It is symbolized in every creed “Festus," the last of the productions of and mythology. Jupiter, Pluto - Orogenius having this origin, has been con- maedes, Arimines—God, Lucifer; good and demned by an able writer in our pages for evil were always divinities and demons for its false theology, its evil tendency, and its humanity. Man finds himself to be a comwant of artistic merit.
posite creature. His nature is dual. ConIt has, however, merits which cannot be science and the flesh are in eternal antagdenied. Some of these have suggested the onism, and he has invested the opposing present paper; and, although we give the principles with form and power, and given work a prominent position for our present them supermundane attributes. But, withal, purpose, we will not be considered as allow- he never ceases to inquire whence it is that, ing it a precedence of, or equality with those in a creation of good, he is made half evil; immortal works with which we bring it into why the light has a companion shadow ; comparison.
why he is not able to reach the ideal perfecThe origin of evil was and is the great tion which exists in every mind, as a pure difficulty and stumbling-block of all theolo- statue in a dark niche; why he is gies. We cannot discuss the subject here, “A love in desolation masqued; a power and are not qualified (“ Open confession is ! Girt round with weakness :" good for the soul,” says the adage) to dis- and his inquiries conclude as they com
menced, in doubt and vexation of spirit. the bold will and ready expedients of a great Every mind which can think, thinks over captain. We gaze upon him as upon a this question. It analyzes until analysis has defeated enemy; but there is a terrible fasreached nothings. It faces the sun until cination even in his misery. We see him blindness comes, and it is compelled at last first in the fiery pit, surrounded by his unforto fall back upon faith, as a certain reserve tunate brethren, immediately after the great behind which it can entrench itself. When final battle in which he was overthrown. it is beaten back and planted in its old position, the necessary ordeal is passed ; it has
“ Round he throws his baleful eyes,
That witnessed huge affliction and dismay, gone through the furnace, like Abed-nego,
Mixed with obdurate pride and stedfast hate ;" and happiness becomes possible.
The greatest minds of all time have grap- and when our minds are filled by the fearpled with this difficulty. They have always ful picture, which is dashed by huge shadows, retreated
upon humility, and a belief in a like one of Martin's engravings, the “ dunMediator, a Saviour, a Messiah. All creeds
geon horrible," the flames which give no have the Redeemer. Prometheus was the Christ' of the Greeks; and invariably the light, “ but rather darkness visible,” the synonyme of the Redeemer is—Love. All
Sights of woe, philosophy leads us to this. Man must love,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace
And rest can never dwell;" or he cannot be redeemed. Man, without love, is lost; the curse is upon him; he be the fiery deluge, longs to Hell, and not Heaven. We find this
“Fed moral in “ Faust,” in “Paradise Lost," in With ever burning sulphur unconsumed," “Sartor Resartus,” in “ Festus.” We discover that this is the ultimate conclusion of through the ghastly midnight around, we all great thinkers. Earth is God's or the hear that muttered half-soliloquy which is Devil's
. Man is a fiend or an angel; there intended for the ear of Beëlzebub, but which is the fearful alternative ; and it is consoling will outlast all time.
Satan compares his to the rear and main array of mankind, that present with his past. He indulges in a the avante garde has hope, and marches on brief reminiscence of Heaven, but soon turns the road of time with an assured and trusting to the affairs of the moment, and endeavors spirit.
to revive the sinking energies of his followers. But our greatest men have been occupied He knows not repentance-he will not con
He leaves tears, not only with the existence and origin of descend to lamentation. evil, but also with its nature and develop- vain regrets, and useless gnashing of teeth, ment. They have always personified it, and to inferior natures, and for him we can read their beliefs in the personifica
“ All is not lost ; th’ unconquerable will tions. The Lucifer of Milton is not the
And study of revenge, immortal hate, Lucifer of Goethe. Evil, as personified by
And courage never to submit or yield, Mrs. Browning, is very different from that And what is else, not to be overcome.” of “ Festus." It is, therefore, worth while to glance at their several creations. It is He does not supplicate or threaten. He has wholly impossible, though, to give the char- no weakness. His pride is Titanic as his acteristics of each in a brief notice, for each form, which lies floating many a rood upon would require an exclusive essay; and we the burning lake. Though"racked by can merely note down our impressions, with- deep despair," he shuts his hopelessness in out proof or comment.
his heart, and rises to renew the battle. His The evil of our universe, according to future is pain; but he resolves that it shall John Milton, is pride. Lucifer is to him the be defiant pain. He can endure an eternity proudest of the proud. He invests the fallen of torment better than a moment of submisspirit with fierce strength, fierce beauty, pride sion. He can retain his predominance over above all mortal pride, and its necessary his lost compeers only by a superiority in consequence—hate. We shudder while we endurance; and in lofty words of scorn and admire his creation. We have an involun- strength he rouses the seared hearts around tary respect for the Defeated One, who re-him, and endeavors to make them partakers tains, amid the tumult and ruin of retreat, I of his desperate pride. They start into re