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The appearance, instantaneously disclosed, be allowed the expression, he rather feels than
sees. The heart of the poet tells truths, as And self-withdrawn into a wondrous depth,
well as the understanding of the philosoFar sinking into splendor-without end !
pher. The latter may be more real to specl'abric it seemed of diamond and gold,
ulation, yet the former are more real to life. With alabaster domes, and silver spires,
Wordsworth, therefore, saw the real propAnd blazing terrace upon terrace, high
erty that man has in the affections, and inade plifted; bere, serene pavilions bright, In avenues disposed; there, towers begirt
himself the champion of man's right to the With battlements that on their restless fronts immunities of feeling and the treasures of Bore stars—ıllumination of all gems!
the heart. IIence, when we study him
thoroughly, we come to regard him as a Oh, 'twas an unimaginable sight! Clouds, mists, streams, watery rocks and emerald
controversialist, and can understand why he turf,
was unshaken by the scoffs of criticism, Clouds of all tincture, rocks and sapphire sky, when we learn that great principles of life Confused, commingled, mutually inflamed,
were dearer to him than his own fame. He Molten together, and composing thus, Each lost in each, that marvellous array
had faith in the laws of man's nature, reOf temple, palace, citadel, and huge
vealed to him by feeling and meditation, and Fantastic pomp of structure without name, was therefore heroic and firm. As the great In fleecy folds voluminous enwrapped.
metaphysician of the feelings, he has not Right in the midst, where interspace appeared Of open court, an object like a throne
preserved consistency, for the feelings change Beneath a shining canopy of state
with advancing experience and under the Stood fixed; and fixed resemblances were seen influence of different circumstances. We To implements of ordinary use
find in his poetry declarations of the existBut vast in size, in substance glorified ;
ence of a creating and sustaining Deity. Such as by Hebrew prophets were bebeld
We find, also, clear statements of the docIn vision-forms uncouth of mightiest power, For admiration and mysterious awe.
trine of Pantheism. Again he states the Below me was the earth; this little vale
Platonic notion of the soul's pre-existence. Lay low beneath my feet; 'twas visible In the ode entitled “ Intimations of ImmorI saw pot, but I felt that it was there,
tality," the sublimest one to be found in any That which I saw was the revealed abode Of spirits in beatitude.”
Janguage, we have the following statement
of this pre-existence :We have said that Wordsworth has been
"Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting : called the greatest of metaphysical poets.
The soul that rises with us, our life's star, He is not in the right sense of the term a
Hath elsewhere its setting, great philosophic poet. We find in his
And cometh from afar, poems but little direct reasoning. He has Not in entire forgetfulness, constructed no philosophic system. Every
Avd not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come real poet, however, is necessarily mctaphys
Fron God, who is our home.” ical. When Keats says, “the golden tongue of music flattered the old man to tears," he Each of these statements was no doubt reveals to us a fact of man's nature, at which real to hiin at the moment of utterance. the philosopher arrives only by a painful in- | Hence inconsistencies may be strung on a terrogation of consciousness. Poets, for the thread of truth, while falsehood may be most part unconsciously, have given tongue woven into the even web of consistency. to the most recondite feelings and the most Plato would not have defended in earnest evanescent thoughts. If Wordsworth is his doctrine of pre-existence. In regard to really the most metaphysical, it is because it, Wordsworth was in earnest only in a poethe is the most meditative of poets. He was ical sense. It is well known that Dante repa disciple and a teacher of the spiritual resents the soul as a little girl “weeping and philosophy, but that does not determine the laughing in its childish sport,” knowing question of his reasoning power. Readers nothing save moved by its Creator, “ willingly and critics have mistaken perhaps his severe it turns to that which gives it pleasure." introspection, bis intense meditation, for pro- Turning away from the scare-crow of Panfound argumentation. He announces, but theism, which our poet never meant to addoes not prove; he combines, but does not an- vocate, let us be contented with the followalyze. In the region of philosophy, if we may I ing beautiful and highly meditative sonnet:
“ It is a beauteous evening, calm and free; every thing but the shadows or the realities
The holy time is quiet as a nun
of a court. It would be no difficult thing Is sinking down in tranquillity;
to show glaring inconsistencies in his politiThe gentleness of heaven is on the sea.
cal views, yet they may be harmonized, Listen! the mighty Being is awake,
perhaps, by shifting the application of his And doth with his eternal motion make
ideal. Now we hear the tone of eulogy, A sound like thunder-everlastingly. Dear child! dear girl! that walkest with me here,
now the tone of denunciation; this is an If thou appear'st untouched by solemn thought,
echo of the past, that a prophecy of the Thy nature is not therefore less divine:
future. We might also refer to many pasThou liest in Abraham's bosom all the year; sages which show a redundancy of language,
And worshipp'st at the temple's inner shrine, and to some which show that he at God being with thee when we know it not.”
times invested commonplace thoughts with We are not sorry that no space is left to a drapery of expression altogether too gordwell upon positive faults. À want of ageous. From his poems we could pick quick perception of the ridiculous has ex- some that might be placed among the finest posed Wordsworth to the poisoned arrows specimens of art that have ever been written, of wit and the playful sallies of humor; an yet we could wish that upon certain passages advantage of which the Edinburgh critics more care might have been bestowed. A were not slow to avail themselves. There theory, vicious in some respects, has led him, was no affinity between the subtlety of Jef- in many places, to use unpoetic language frey's intellect and the subtlety of Words- and imagery. worth's heart. We are thankful for the We desist. Who can bear to expose wounds inflicted by Jeffrey, for we have, on the foibles of a wise and venerable friend ? account of them, a loftier example of heroic Wordsworth occupies a sacred place in our patience and unflinching purpose in Words-heart. His spirit, that hovers in the mysteworth. Again we may say that our poet is rious drapery of words a living presence on deficient in constructive power. None of the earth, shall remain to greet and bless his poems have a pleasingly entangled plot. millions that shall come hither in future None of his narratives have a winding thread ages from the unknown, and to pronounce, that begets expectation and awakens inter- as one of the sacred ministers of the Word, est. Also, while dwelling upon sentiments benediction on them at their departure. he loses sight of individual life: hence his From him may all devout poets take enpoetry is deficient in dramatic effect. Again, couragement, and all profane ones take while he has
warning, for the Eternal will permit the
stamp of immortality to be put only upon "sympathies Aloft, ascending and sinking down,
that which accords with his atributes of Even to inferior kinds,"
justice and mercy, wisdom and love. He
Thas revealed to us new powers and susceptiwe must believe that he has wasted the bilities of the heart, and the heart responds treasures of affection and the sweets of love to his gentle touch with a deep feeling of upon many an unworthy object; that, in a sympathy and blessing. As long as English holy endeavor to shield every living thing literature has a place for the wise Spenser, from contempt, he has gone into the oppo- l it will have one for the good Wordsworth. site extreme from those poets who exclude
0. W. w.
NATURE AND EFFECTS OF A PROTECTIVE TARIFF.
It is obvious to all reflecting minds, that ry advantage derived through the operation under the present tariff we are importing of the tariff. This can be easily stated and foreigu goods to an excessive extent. The illustrated. It is, that foreign States, in drain of specie from the vaults of our banks, some degree, actually and substantially pay which is now going on in consequence, our revenue. But how is this effected ? It is would most certainly produce a financial | thus : Suppose the revenue necessary for the crisis, bringing ruin upon thousands, were it support of the Federal Government equal to not for the supply of gold from California. $25,000,000, (costs of collection, &c., incluThis is putting off the evil day, but for how ded:) this sum must be raised in either one or long no one can predict. As it is, others the other of two ways, viz., by direct taxaare taking from us by this system nearly all tion, or by duties on foreign commerce : if the advantages we so eagerly expected from by the former, then it is certain the governour rich Pacific possessions. We are merely ment costs the people that sum, precisely ; becoming the shippers of the treasures of but if by the latter, then the question is, that region for our more sagacious European Have not foreign countries paid a part of rivals.
the amount ? Doubtless they have; and Under these circumstances we will be let us see by what process. Keeping in excused for again presenting in the simplest inind that twenty-five millions are to be form another argument for protection to our raised-suppose we were at any time withown industry in all its forms.
out a tariff, and that foreign goods could be A tariff founded on constitutional author- bought in our markets at certain rates--any ity, and at the same time wisely modified you please : for the time being the people by all the necessities of the country to pay the whole twenty-five millions, and buy which it can apply, is a measure that cannot their goods at the rates that may be : supbe successfully assailed. Some system of pose now that subsequently it is thought fit taxation must exist for the support of gov- by government to levy a tariff of twenty per ernment; and none has ever been devised cent. on all foreign goods sold in our marso faultless or so fit as this. Under its ope- kets, and which duty would precisely meet ration taxes are levied upon the people by the expenses of government, to the entire their own voluntary action, and thus, as it relief of the people from direct taxation: in were, by an invisible and unfelt agency; this case, and by the operation of a settled and the costs of collection have been esti- law of trade, the duty of twenty per cent. mated by high authority at one fifth only | levied upon the foreign goods would not be of the costs that would be incurred under a added to the price which our citizens would system of direct taxation. Thus, whatever be required to pay for them, but some is paid, is paid with the greatest possible smaller amount. The sum of twenty per convenience to the citizen; and the amount cent. above the previous cost would be dipaid is less than it would be under a system / vided between the seller and the purchaser, of direct taxation by four fifths of the costs the seller losing (it may be) five, and the of the collection of the revenue under that purchaser fifteen of the twenty per cent. system.
Now, each party losing in his respective These premises are beyond the reach of proportion, the purchaser three fourths and material objection, and if true, there can the seller one fourth of the twenty per cento, be but one rational opinion as to the expe- which in the aggregate make up the twendiency of the tariff system.
ty-five millions, it is obvious that the citiBut there is a further and direct pecunia- zens of the country pay only eighteen VOL. VIII. NO. I. NEW SERIES.
and three quarter millions, and the foreign it. By the operation of the law the GovStates the remaining six and a quarter mil-ernment has lost nothing—the citizen has lions, which are made to the country by the made twenty-five cents, and the foreigner transaction.
has lost as much ; and all has been done Perhaps some would say that, notwith- without the smallest injustice to any one. standing the apparent advantage to the Neither can it be said that the restraint country which this estimate exhibits, there of the tariff on commerce curtails the enis ultimately and substantially no advan-joyments of the people by effectually curtailtage; since the gain of six and a quarter ing the means of enjoyment in raising primillions on the one hand is rebutted by the ces: because the means of enjoyment are restraint inflicted on commerce on the other. equally as great as (even greater than) beBut is the objection sound! Let us exam- fore; inasmuch as the people gain somewhat ine and see. The facts are these : Duties from the foreign States by the transaction, are laid on imported goods at twenty per after both supporting government and buycent. to the amount of twenty-five millions : / ing the same amount of goods as before. to obtain this revenue the country pays fif- Again, it may be said, if, (according to the teen per cent. more on the price for its foregoing hypothesis,) while the price of goods-an increase equal to eighteen and foreign goods is raised by the operation of three quarter millions. Now, the eighteen the tariff, the rise in price is more than comand three quarter millions are the measure of pensated by releasing a greater amount in the restraint on commerce: strike the balance, the form of direct tax; why is it that the and the country stands benefited by the trans- foreigner has been forced to receive less for action six and a quarter millions of dollars: the his goods? The ability of the country to restraint on commerce answers to only three pay for them being undiminished, and the quarters of the relief from direct taxation ; supply remaining the same, why should the the remainder of that relief is so much clear goods be sold lower? The following explagain. To illustrate more familiarly : Sup- nation may suffice: When the citizen is dispose that without a tariff an individual were charged from direct taxation, the amount to pay the Federal Government $1 revenue that he would otherwise pay to the Governper annum, and at the same time paid for ment remains in his own coffers, at his own hats of a certain description at the rate of absolute control and disposal. He is not $5 each: now, suppose a tariff of twenty obliged to invest it in one commodity more per cent, levied on foreign goods ; this on than another. It retains the general charthe foregoing hypothesis would remove the acter of his private property, and he regards direct tax, and would raise the price of the it only in that light. Suppose him now to hat seventy-five cents only. How, then, go to a merchant to buy goods : suppose would the parties stand ? They would stand the merchant to inform him that the goods thus : The Government would receive the which he wants have risen fifteen per cent.; same revenue as before, and the citizen as would he be influenced in his purchase before would wear his hat; but the tariff by the consideration that the tax which he would have the effect of compelling the before paid was in his pocket? Not one foreigner to pay twenty-five cents of the cent more than if he had made the amount dollar which the citizen paid before. of his tax-bill by a bargain on the road; No tarif.
and that would have no appreciable effect. Hat, - - $5 Hat - . $5 75
Men are not governed in their purchases by Direct tax, - 1 Direct tax, · 000 such motives ; but they look to the relative
value of commodities in general, and if an Total, - - $6 Total, - - $575
article rises in relation to other articles in From this statement it is obvious that general, (whether from natural or political the Government receives the same income causes,) they will buy in some degree the with or without the tariff, (supposing costs less of it. If corn, bacon, &c., remain at a of collection , &c., equal in each case, while fixed price, and the price of flour is doubled, it is equally obvious that the tariff has it needs no demonstration to prove that less saved the citizen twenry-five cents, which flour will be used than before, and this he paid before, by making the foreigner pay | whether the rise is the effect of a tariff or
other cause. Here, then, is the inducement importation from England bears to its whole and necessity for the foreign merchant to previous amount, but by the diminution of lessen his profits (under the tariff) as strong England's total demand for the articles which as in any other case-notwithstanding the we produce and exchange for her fabrics. fact that in this case something from the Here seems to be a principal, if not the only very nature of trade is made to the country ground of error on the subject. ' by the action of the system.
Still, supposing there is more in this Let us now examine its effect on the value abstract objection than has been allowed, is and amount of home production, for this is there not great reason to suppose that it is an important department of inquiry on the more than neutralized by the consequential subject, and should be well considered. advantages which flow from the system in How can it affect us in that quarter ? In other directions ? Must we not allow it to the following manner: Suppose England to be a matter of much moment that this sysbring goods to the United States, during tem, by transferring a large body of our any year, to the amount of twenty-five mil- population from the field to the loom, diminlions, for which she finds a market by taking ishes the amount and augments the price of in return the raw material, &c., which are our agricultural products, while at the same produced here : suppose, also, that the next time the condition of the new manufactuyear a tariff of twenty per cent. is levied rers is improved ? Is it a small matter, that upon her merchandise by the Government of by encouraging and extending domestic the United States : it cannot be denied that manufactories, and thus increasing competithe tendency, at least, of such increase of tion, the prices of goods are lowered ? Is duty is to diminish importation. The im- the augmentation of our national independportation being diminished, and the foreigner ence and security, by manufacturing within less able to buy, the demand for our domestic our own borders all articles of prime necesproduce is diminished, and, cæteris paribus, sity, a matter to be despised? These adits price must fall. Here an evil result seems vantages are manifest results of this system to be fairly made out, though very indefinite results promised by reason and exhibited in its character. But is it not very manifest, by experience—and (leaving wholly out of that though an evil, it must be extremely, view the estimated national gain of six and if not insensibly small ?. Say that one a quarter millions by its operation) these thirtieth part of the exports of England is advantages must, in the eye of reason and absorbed in our markets; that the imposi- true policy, far, very far outweigh an objection of the tariff diminishes their importation tion which exists almost, if not wholly, in one twentieth of that amount, (which is per- abstraction. But, again, take it for granted haps much more than facts warrant us to that our exports are lessened by the operasuppose:) then the total demand will be tion of the tariff, and that therefore the diminished by the one-six hundredth part of price of domestic productions is reduced : its original amount, only. Now, if such a what is the tendency of such a state of diminution of demand will affect the price things? Why, the very ground on which of an article, (as by the principle laid down foreign commerce is reduced, is that on which we must allow,) how much will it affect it? pari passu domestic manufacture is augSuppose a farmer, who in 1849 bought six mented. And what is the effect of the hundred yards of osnaburgs for negro cloth-extension of manufactures, if it is not to ing, finds himself in 1850 in need of only increase the demand for and raise the price five hundred and ninety-nine yards: how of the raw materials, the productions of much would he expect the merchant to fall the country, whose price had fallen from the in price for the decrease of the demand ? check given to foreign demand by the tariff The principle could not apply practically in (according to the hypothesis)! It is obvious such a case, while as a mere abstraction we that if the demand for our productions is must admit it. And similar is the case diminished abroad, the very reason of that between the United States and England. diminution will increase the demand at We must not estimate the decrease of de-home; and, cæteris paribus, the demand mand in England for our cotton, &c., by the being increased, the price is increased, (surely proportion which the diminution of our in this case, if in the other.) The whole