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matter is then reduced to this one point, viz., senue. He has not ordinary perception who whether the increase of demand at home is cannot see this. Now the Federal Legislaequivalent to the decrease of foreign demand; ture in 1842 did--what? For the purpose and who can show that it is not ? Say the of raising revenue, they, in their discretion check on our importation is an evil, and that as to both the subjects and the rates of duty, the stimulus which it communicates to home laid a tariff on foreign merchandise. Did industry and the price of home productions they not then act in most implicit obedience is, on the other hand, an advantage: do not to the Constitution ? The Constitution did the evil and the good appear upon mere not require that the Legislature should or inspection to be correspondent? Do they should not have other objects associated not appear, so far as things so indefinite in with that of revenue ; but it it legalized an their nature can be scanned, to be proxi- object by the execution of which another mately, if not exactly equal ? Such is very might be attained, (no other law prohibiting) strongly the appearance; and if true, then all then it legalized the latter also: and this the other advantages before enumerated are conclusion is inevitable; for the Constituso much clear gain—the ill effect of the tion, leaving the Legislature at large as to system on home production in one way, both rates and dutiable articles, gave them being counteracted by a corresponding ad- power to establish any: the Legislature vantage in another.
choosing the protective rates, &c., are thereBut the feature of this system which, in fore within the Constitutional power. Take its present modification, is most odious to its an illustration : Suppose the Federal Govopponents, is the protective policy which it ernment should determine to enlarge our embodies. While on the one hand it is navy by the addition of twelve ships of the admitted that the Government may consti- line, and should authorize its agents to emtutionally levy such duties on foreign com- ploy mechanics to build them: now supmerce as may be necessary for its support, pose these agents who have this authority it is wholly denied on the other that such (the sole assigned object of which is the duties may be so laid as to afford protection building of the ships) should, in contracting to our own domestic manufactures. Let us with builders, associate with the leading fairly consider this objection, and see whe-object (the building of the ships) the addither it is founded in wisdom or in sophistry. tional and humane object of letting the Upon what is it based! Upon the assump- work to certain applicants, who, while equally tion that the Federal Constitution author- as skilful as others, had the misfortune to be izes a tariff for revenue, and for revenue extremely poor; and suppose they should only; and that the present tariff, being as act under this motive: will any man say certainly a protective as it is a revenue that this would be transcending authority? tariff, (protection and revenue both being ob- Surely not; and still this is a parallel case jects of the measure,) it is therefore, quoad with the other. Suppose also (as we reasonthe protective feature, without constitution-ably may) that the tariff of 1842 was laid al authority. It would be unreasonable to precisely as it was, but that the object of suppose that an objection so popular would protection was not in the mind of the Lefail to be specious; and specious this is; gislature when it was laid ; or that it was laid but it is only specious. It is certain that with an eye to revenue only, and otherwise the Legislature can lay duties for revenue. wholly at random: would not the effects All admit it. And is it not certain that the have been precisely as they were ? and would Constitution does not impose upou it a single it not be constitutional on the very ground restriction, making any article of commerce of its opponents ? Most unquestionably; more or less dutiable than another, or limit- and if so, what should we think of the Coning in any manner the rates of duties? All stitution in reprobating a cause without any this is certain. And what does this grant reference to its practical effects? This may of power, thus unrestricted as to both the not be political abstraction in the eyes of subjects and the rates of duty, amount to ? some; but that it is a distinction practically Why, most palpably to a discretionary power immaterial, no man can doubt. to lay any duties on any articles of foreign It has been objected that a protective commerce whatever, in order to raise rev- tariff is of unequal operation; that it fills
the pockets of the Northern manufacturer, and defense; and these articles are ever and empties those of the planter of the varying with times and circumstances. The South. But though it must in candor be enlightened wisdom of the Federal Legislaadmitted to be unequal in its indirect effects, ture, then, is probably a sufficient guarantee yet who would have the temerity to con- that such modifications of the tariff will be demn a measure for an imperfection no successively adopted as the condition of the greater than this, when compared with the country shall from time to time indicate to great extent and variety of its advantages ? be proper. It protects the agriculturist and the manu it has been alleged in objection to the facturer, the whole country over; and these tariff
, that in encouraging the establishment are the principal departments of industry. of large manufacturing communities, its efThat its protection should be precisely equal fect is demoralizing and mobocratic. But to all, could not be expected; it is not in the how can that be? The answer would nature of things that it should be so. Nor probably be this. That'the laborers in such would the operation of a tariff, however establishments are collected from the lowest modified, be precisely and universally equal. walks of life, and are, therefore, the most And why is it that the common experience ignorant and the most vicious members of of men does not teach them this? If a society; that, being brought into contact in bridge is to be built, or a road to be opened large bodies, their vicious propensities by in one of the counties of Virginia, (a matter union (like alloyed metals) acquire a power of familiar occurrence,) though the bridge greater than the sum of their individual or the road may be of use to only a small powers when separate; and that riots, mobs, portion of that county, yet do all the tax- and gross immoralities are the consequences. paying citizens contribute alike to its con There is certainly an apparent force in struction. Now, what is this inequality in the objection, for it must be acknowledged the operation of the tariff but a complete that (cæteris paribus) vice concentrated is analogy to that manifested in the case of mightier and more mischievous than when the bridge or the road? Yet men speak of generally diffuused. But is it just to dethe one as iniquitous, and the other goes nounce such associations, simply because unblamed.
they are found to be connected with an evil Touching the attention that should be tendency ? or would it be the wiser way to paid to the description of foreign goods in inquire whether or not such tendency is adjusting the duties upon them, it is proper rebutted by equivalent or greater advanto observe generally, that the higher the tages from the same source? The answer comparative necessity of an article to the is obvious. The laborers that yesterday public security, the higher comparatively lounged in idleness along the streets
, withshould be the duty upon it, if the manufuc- out the means of life, or strolled over the ture of the article is practicable at home. country to procure by plunder the bread of Anti-restrictive writers on political economy subsistence, are to-day sent to a factory agree that the necessity of an article to the where they are put to regular employment, public security is, as to that article, good under the superintendence of men eminent ground of exception to the anti-restrictive for their integrity and business capacity. rule. To define exactly what is meant by Here they are paid for their services, and articles necessary to public security would are at the same time incidentally restrained be extremely difficult. Perhaps a definition from the thousand misdeeds of which idlewhich would be true at one time would not ness and want are the certain progenitors. be so at another. The condition, habits, and Yesterday they were without the restraint manners of a people are ever varying, and which rational control imposes; to-day they with them vary their necessities. Now, the are under its influences: yesterday they necessities of a nation being changed, the were in want, under temptations to falsearticles which supply these necessities are hood, robbery and murder; to-day their changed also; and these articles are neces- wants are removed, and they are delivered sary to the public security: for the public from their temptations. They cannot insecurity consists, in part, in the possession of dulge vicious propensities during the day, the necessary articles of ordinary comfort | because they are employed, and at night
fatigue inclines them to sleep. Now, in gradually falls, and it falls under the operacandor and sound reason, is not the evil tion of a continually accumulating cause. tendency, which has been suggested, far At this juncture appears the manufacturing more than rebutted? That mobs may some- system: the laboring population is divided; times occur in such . establishments, is not some go to the factories, some to the fields. denied; but the history of nations (and even The supply of agricultural labor of course of England and our own country) shows diminishes, and the demand remaining the that a factory laborer is not a necessary same, the price must rise. Again, the facconstituent of a mob. And even if it were tory laborer must get as high wages as the so, still the good seems to preponderate agricultural, or he will naturally seek emover the evil in the moral effect of the in-ployment elsewhere. Thus the condition of stitution. Nor does there appear any good both classes is improved, and the indefinite reason to suppose that manufacturing insti- expansibility of the manufacturing system tutions impoverish their operatives. Men enables the country by successive enlargewill naturally take employment where they ments to keep pace with the growth of can obtain the highest wages. Now, if the her wants, resulting from the growth of laborer (who has no land of his own) pro- her population. In this point of view, the cures higher wages from the manufacturer system appears to be actually necessary to than the farmer, do the higher wages make the well-being, if not to the very existence him poor? The poverty of the civilized of the nation. Her people remain at home, world has diminished with the extension of and, within the small compass of her factory manufacturing institutions. Without such in- walls, indirectly cultivate millions of acres stitutions, what would be the poverty and the of every soil and climate on the globe. suffering of Great Britain, with her millions of Such, briefly, are the nature and effects of population? The wretchedness of her people the tariff system; and it would be difficult is great now, but if these institutions should to believe that a measure fraught with so be suppressed, it would be immeasurable. many advantages can fail to command the Suppose her population annually increasing, earnest attention of the country at large, while the extent of her soil is fixed: the that we may be saved by it from the disasters demand for agricultural labor thus remains to which we are so evidently hastening unstationary, while the supply continually in- der the present over-importation of foreign creases. In this way the price of labor goods.
We beg to say to our friends, with the commencement of a new volume, that we have made, and are making, arrangements for great improvements in the various departments of the Review. Without varying from the well-established principles which have guided the past years of its existence, greater care shall be exercised in the supervision of the articles admitted. We have made arrangements for a monthly article on European events and politics, to be written in Paris, by a gentleman who will possess peculiar facilities for information. We hope to make this a very acceptable feature in the Review. We will take the liberty of sending to each of our subscribers during the present month a circular, defining more particularly our position and intentions, which we will take as a great favor if all will read, and communicate to us any suggestions that may occur. In view of the coming Presidential contest we wish to have all our armor ready, and to feel the sustaining countenance of our friends. The calm at present in the political atmosphere allows us to nearly suspend the subject for the present, but our friends will be, we think, amply compensated by the rich historical and literary matter we present in the present number. We trust next month to be able to take a survey of the field of the coming fight.
Eastbury: A Tale. By AnnA HARRIET DRURY, executes his task, is increased by each addition to
authoress of “Friends and Fortune." New- the series. We are glad to learn that no works of York: Harper & Brothers.
the kind have ever been more highly appreciated,
| as evinced by the extent of the sales. We dipped into the first chapter of this delightful volume as we were borne along the Hudson by the rushing engine that has invaded the soli- | Caleb Field: A Tale of the Puritans. By the tudes of its highlands. As the book opens in a Author of "Passages in the Life of Mrs. Margarail-car, the appropriateness of the place to the ret Maitland,” &c. New-York: Harper & Bro reading of said chapter will be apparent; but thers. when the scenery outside, and the short time which A quaintly but exquisitely written story, which the “arrowy flight" through it you are taking we can heartily commend to the lovers of the allows the pent-up mind to expand to its grandeurs, are considered, it will not be surprising that our investigations into the merits of the book proceeded no further than the railroad chapter in
Fresh Gleanings ; or, a New Sheaf from the Old
Fields of Continental Europe. By IK MARVEL question. Some books, however, there are, whose quality
New-York: Charles Scribner. one has no more hesitation in judging of by a bite It may be that our opinions are influenced by than one would have in deciding about a peach in the fact of the appearance originally of some porthe same way; or to be more seasonable in our tions of this book in our own columns, (which our illustration, than we had when, after reaching our readers will pleasantly remember under the title destination, we hesitated not, from the first spoonful, of “Notes by the Road,") but it is with us the to express an emphatic approbation touching the favorite book of this elegant writer. There has wild strawberries and pure cream put before us by been no book among the multitude of travels, our friend-gathered from his own hills and fields. that, to our taste, approaches this in certain qualiReader, you will find this to be such a book, or our ties. Its freshness of feeling, its quiet observation theory, so pleasantly illustrated, is false.
and characteristic touches of pathos and humor, make altogether the most charming of all recent
books. Cosmos : A Sketch of a Physical Description of The more popular subject which Mr. Mitchell hit
the Universe. By ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. / in his last most successful work, “The Reveries," Translated from the German by E. C. OTTE. suddenly awakened the public to the existence of Vol. III. Harper & Brothers.
a rare genius that they had neglected, and now
these new editions of former works are demanded. In a mere notice we can only apnounce the fact Nor will they, we venture to say, disappoint the of the appearance of this third volume of the great l appreciative. work of Humboldt. We shall endeavor to recur to it more particularly in an extended review. It will undoubtedly be referred to hereafter as one of
fl Land and Lee in the Bosphorus and Ægean ; or the enduring works of this age, a prominent land
Views of Athens and Constantinople. By Rev. mark in its progress.
WALTER COLTON, late of the United States
of the Author, by Rev. HENRY T. CHEEVER, The Heir of Wast-Wayland: A Tale. By MARY
New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 51 John street Howitt. New-York: D. Appleton & Co. Another delightful volume by the author of This is one of those charming stories of Mrs.
“Ship and Shore.” It is full of the peculiar Howitt that it is only necessary to announce, so
grace, wit, and spirit that characterize all the well known are the purposes of all her works, and
writings of the lamented chaplain. We know of so admirable her method of executing them.
no more joyous and pleasant companion into the regions he describes, and we shall contribute to the enjoyment of all whom our notice may attract to
the book should they conclude to put it among Hislory of Cleopatra, Queen af Egypt. By JACOB I their collection for their summer vacation.
ABBOTT. With Engravings. New-York: Har-
raha hie | Para; or Scenes and Adventures on the Banks of torico-biographical books, to which we have so
the Amazon. By John Esaias WARREN, Newoften called the attention of our readers. Our
York: G. P. Putnam, 155 Broadway. admiration for the manner in which Mr. Abbott! The style of this book is too ambitious and
florid; obscuring by too great a verbiage rather | The Book of Oratory: A new collection of extracts than increasing to the mind of the reader the in Prose, Poetry, and Dialogve, containing vividness of the scenes described. Amid scenes selections from distinguished American and of such natural grandeur apd such luxuriance of English Orators, Divines, and Poets ; of which tropical verdure, it is to be sure hardly possible many are spesimens of the Eloquence of Statesto restrain the pen within the limits of strict men of the present day. For the use of Colletaste; and it may therefore be that our readers ges, Academies and Schools. By EDWARD C. will not agree with our criticism. The intrinsic MARSHALL, M.A., late Instructor in the Military interest of the subject of the volume is so great School at West Point, in Geneva College, and in that we can safely commend it.
the New-York University. New-York: D. Ap
pleton & Co. The Religion of Geology and its connected Sci- only add, that the names of the compiler and
In giving the above title-page in full, we need By EDWARD HITCHCOCK, D.D., LL.D. publishers are a sufficient guarantee for the manPresident of Amherst College, and Professor of ner in which the work is executed. Natural Theology and Geology. Boston. Phillips, Sampson & Co. After the various works which have been pub Guide to the White Mountains and Lakes of Newlished of late upon the subject of Geology and
Hampshire. Concord, N. H.: Tripp & Osgood. kindred sciences, one was particularly required
New-York: C. H. Tripp, 262 Greenwich street. directly to the point aimed at in the above work.
An admirable pocket-guide to those favorite It required also that a professed theologian and a places of summer resort. profound naturalist, combined in the one individual, should undertake the task. As this work answers in all respects this desideratum, we may congratu- The American Cotton Spinner, and Manager's and late the public, both theological and lay, on its op
Carder's Guide. A Treatise on Cotton Spinning, portune appearance.
The Moulder's and Founder's Pocket Guide, A Practical Mercantile Correspondence. A collection Treatise on Moulding and Founding, &c., &c.
of Modern Letters of Business, with Notes criti Philadelphia: A. Hart & Co. cal and explanatory, an Analytical Index, and
These two volumes will be found of great value an Appendix, containing pro forma invoices, to all those engaged in the two extensive and imaccount sales, bills of lading, and bills of ex. change. Also, an cxplanation of the German portant branches of art to which they refer. They
are an evidence of the progress of artistic and scienchain rule, as applicable to the calculation of tific skill among us, notwithstanding its struggle exchanges. BY WILLIAM ANDERSON. New-York: with foreign competition. D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway.
It is only necessary for us to give the title of this A School Dictionary of the Latin Language. By book, as every one interested in the subject will perceive from it, that if properly executed, a great de
Dr. J. KALTSCHMIDT. Philadelphia: Blanchard
& Lea, sideratum has been supplied for the wants of the rising mercantile generation. And as to the merits This volume is one of the celebrated classical of the book itself, what they are may be infer series of Schmitz & Zumpt, so highly recommended from the fact that it has received the compliment of by the various professors and teachers throughout translation into several of the Europeap languages. the country.