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"We are as full of people as the place can hold; and if any one can tell where the coming crowd are to stow themselves, I, for one, would like to know. Everything in the shape of a house is completely crammed. Tents are pitched in all directions; in fact, the place looks more like a military encampment than anything else. People are flocking to the gold regions by hundreds, as this is the beginning of the season, the rainy weather being over. Nothing but launches laden with goods and passengers, can be seen in the bay, all bound for the gold regions, with the full intention of making their eternal fortunes.
"In the coming season nothing but continual rows of all sorts will be the consequence of the assemblage of so many of different nations at the diggins. A circular has this day been issued by General Smith, prohibiting all foreigners going to the mines. What the result will be I can hardly say, but would venture an opinion this much, to say, that it would take all the armed force of America to prevent the people, whether they be Americans or foreigners.
"In the way of merchandise, there are so many goods coming and arriving here that before long they will be cheaper here than in the United States."
By the arrival of the Crescent City from Chagres at New Orleans, we learn that Colonel Mason, late Governor of California, had returned in that steamer.
General Smith appears to be somewhat in an uncertain position as to the collection of duties in San Francisco, and has issued a circular, which we suppose from the concluding clause, to be addressed to the various governments on the Pacific.
"Head Quarters, Pacific Division, San Francisco, Upper California, April 1st, 1849. "The treaty concluded with Mexico, on the 20th of May last, brought Upper California within the United States, and of course within the operation of all its laws, but the means of enforcing some of these laws have not been provided by Congress. Thus, as the Secretary of the Treasury, in his circular of the 30th of October last, observes: Although Congress have recognized California as part of the Union, and legislated for it as such; yet it is not brought by law within the limits of any collection district, nor has Congress authorized the appointment of any officers to collect the revenue.' The laws of the United States are in force here, and consequently the revenue and navigation laws are; though at this moment some part of the machinery necessary to their complete action, is wanting.
"Now the law declares that certain goods shall only enter upon having paid the duties prescribed by the tariff; and when the Secretary says that the department is unable to col
lect duties on such, the proper inference is not, as many seem to think, that the goods can enter without paying duties, but that, being unable to pay the duties here, as required by law, they cannot be admitted at all.
"As many cargoes have been shipped under the wrong impression, that they could enter, and there was no American port of entry in the Pacific to which they could resort, to comply with the law, a case of extreme hardship was presented, which appeared to authorize such a modification as would allow the cargoes to be entered, on depositing the duties to await the action of Congress upon the subject; and so far from the want of American vessels on the coast, and from the unwillingness of the few in this ocean to frequent these ports, where the men desert to the gold mines, an absolute necessity of some means of transportation existed, which could only be supplied by using foreign vessels that came from the neighboring coasts.
"But both of these modifications of the law can be but temporary. There can be no hardship in enforcing the law on those who are fully aware of all its provisions and their effect, and time will doubtless do away with the scarcity of American vessels of small class here. There will then be no reason for indulgence, and the suspension of the strict enforcement of the law will cease. Even before that time, the government at Washington, thinking itself not empowered to allow of any such suspension, may revoke the indulgence granted, and require a strict adherence to the law, whatever may be the inconvenience to individuals. I think it would be proper, then, to notify all persons designing to come here from your port or its neighborhood, that they can have no right to count upon any other than the strictest construction of the law, as in all other ports of the United States, both as regards cargoes and vessels, and particularly, that dutiable goods cannot be entered here at all, unless Congress shall have made provision for appointing the necessary officers.
"It would be well, also, to inform all adventurers coming here to search for gold, that trespassing upon the public lands is punishable by fine and imprisonment; that although the position of affairs here, incident to the change of government, has hitherto prevented action under these laws, yet they will be enforced as soon as the means are organized.
"I should like to be informed of the date of your receipt of this communication, to be enabled to judge of the degree of indulgence proper to award to those claiming it." (Signed)
PERSIFER F. SMITH, Brevet Major-General Commanding Division. By the Lexington_store-ship, which vessel arrived here a few days ago, three hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of California gold
dust was received in this port, and from the Crescent City arrived at New Orleans, we have a telegraphic despatch announcing that she has a million of dollars in gold on board also, destined for this city. These arrivals will no doubt give a fresh impetus to emigration to the Pacific, and this is beginning to be apparent in the increased number of vessels advertised during the last week. Still we think that far the greater number of emigrants will proceed by way of the Isthmus of Panama, now that Messrs. Howland and Aspinwall's line of steamers appear to be regularly organized, and that there will no longer be any apprehension of a recurrence of the ruinous delays which have taken place at Panama. The system of sending ships round Cape Horn to San Francisco, to lie rolling in that harbor without any chance of their return, cannot be long pursued, and it will be months, perhaps years, before a system of government can be organized in California which shall effectually prevent the desertion of ships' crews on their arrival at San Francisco. We readily comprehend that from the enormous rate of freight and passage-money ship-owners have realized, they could easily afford to abandon their vessels at the voyage end, and by so doing have made a profitable sale of them; but these freights will no longer be attainable; California must at the moment we are writing be overstocked with almost every description of merchandise, and there will soon be a dead pause with regard to shipments. With corn and the more immediate necessaries of life, California will, until the gold-fever is allayed and her population shall turn to agricultural pursuits, always look to Chili, the granary of the Pacific.
The affairs of Hungary have assumed such vast importance in the politics of Europe, particularly since the armed intervention of Russia in aid of the Austrians, that we think it necessary to devote some space to a relation of the affairs which have taken place in that country. There is full confirmation of the re ports lately received of their having obtained a decisive victory over the Russians, and of their having taken the city of Buda, and it appears certain that their gallant exertions have met with no decided check.
It appears that on the 14th April last the Representatives of Hungary assembled in the Protestant church at Debreczin, when the illustrious Dictator Kossuth, after reporting the glorious victories obtained by the Hungarian army, submitted the following resolutions:
"1st. That Hungary with all its provinces and counties should be proclaimed as a free, independent, and self-subsistent State, whose integrity and unity can never be attacked.
"2d. That the dynasty of Hapsburg-Lorraine, whose treachery and perfidy took up arms against the Hungarian nation, which tried to divide the country, to annihilate the holy constitution, to produce hatred between the different races, and which was even so shameless as to make use of a foreign power (Russia,) to butcher a whole nation, which in this way has torn in pieces the Pragmatic sanction, which has violated every treaty, this faithless dynasty of Hapsburg-Lorraine should be deposed forever as ruler in Hungary and all its legal provinces and countries; should be exiled and banished forever from all the territories of Hungary, and should never be allowed the privilege of Hungarian citizenship. This banishment should be proclaimed in the name of the whole Hungarian nation.
"3d. The Hungarian nation being by a holy unalienable right self-subsistent, free and independent, may proclaim its decided will to keep peace and friendship with all nations of the world for so long as its rights are not violated; to maintain peace and friendship particularly with those people who were before united with Hungary, under the same ruler, then with the neighboring Turkish and Italian countries, and to make treaties and alliances with them, founded on mutual interests.
"4th. The future system of government, with its particularities, shall be deliberated and decided by the National Assembly. Until the new principles of government are deliberated upon and accepted, a President, with responsible ministers, should be elected and invested with the executive power.
"5th. A committee of three members should be authorized to publish a manifest of these resolutions and their principles."
The representatives of the people unanimously adopted the propositions of the Dictachurch resounded with enthusiastic shouts; tor and gave them their sanction, and the and thousands. tears of joy gleamed in the eyes of thousands
When the fourth proposition came under discussion, all the representatives, with unanimous feelings and decision, proclaimed Louis Kossuth President, in consequence of his unshaken patriotism, and the undivided confidence of the whole Hungarian nation. He was then entrusted with the formation of a ministry.
On the same day, the (Magnatenbefehl) Senate, on the proposition of their President, Poreny, unanimously and solemnly accepted the above resolutions of the House of Representatives, without farther discussion.
An administration was subsequently formed, consisting of the following persons: Louis Kossuth, President. Casimir Battheany, Minister of War. Szemere, Minister of the Interior.
S. Poreny, Minister of Justice.
The whole government of Hungary is so little understood in this country, for years past, there has been so little known of its position with regard to Austria, that we shall, we trust, be excused for giving a slight outline of the history of that country, the nursery of nations, which tried the skill of the most active German Emperors, and more than once made the Imperial city tremble.
the rest are named by the king; below the comes is the vicecomes ordinarius, and the vicecomes substitutus, and two or four judices nobilium, besides several other officers. These administrative councils are also tribunals of justice, from which the last appeal is to the septemviral board. Hungary has its own code of civil and criminal law. It was finally delivered from the Turkish yoke about the beginning of the eighteenth century; but though united to Austria, it still considers itself as an independent kingdom, having a constitution which the Hungarians regard with jealous attachment, and laws and privileges, the operation of which has been and still continues, a source of great trouble and offense to the Austrian court.
The fundamental laws are, the golden bull of King Andras II., of the year 1222, the magna charta of the Magyars; the privileges of the nobility as acknowledged by law in 1741; the treaty of Vienna in 1606, and that of Lintz When the revolution drove away the Empein 1647, by which the free exercise of religion ror Ferdinand from Vienna, the partisans of is guarantied to the Protestants; the act of the monarchy turned to Hungary and sought the Diet at Presburg in 1687, and the inaugu- to find amongst the Magyars a bulwark against ral diplomas of 1790 and 1791. The king has popular fury and outrage. Kossuth was then very extensive powers. He exercises the courted and encouraged, and when the Vienwhole of the executive power; he nominates nese extorted from the Emperor a democratic the Bishops and Prelates, independent of the constitution, the Magyars were induced to dePope's confirmation, which only regards their clare themselves beyond its control, or to rest spiritual functions; he confers all civil and on the legal basis of the pragmatic sanction. military dignities, except that of the Palatine Thus the Magyars were pitted against the Gerand the two keepers of the crown; he is the mans, in order that, in due time, advantage President of all the tribunals of justice, and might be taken of both. Meanwhile, the third can order the Insurrection, as it is called, or national element in Austria, the Czechish, had general levy of the nation. But in the legis- risen and been put down again at Prague; and lation and taxation the States have an impor- the fourth national element, the Croatian, was tant vote, and laws and taxes can only be im- held in leashes to act as executioner on the posed with the consent of the Diet. The king rest. And when reaction commenced at Vimust swear to the constitution in the presence enna, and democracy féll to a discount; when of the people in the open air, when he receives Ferdinand had abdicated, and his nephew was from the hand of the primate the crown of St. set up in his place; when all uneasiness on Stephen. The Diet, or comitia regni, is, ac- the side of Bohemia ceased; when Germany cording to law, summoned every three years. was taken up with the Danish war and its own Three months after the summons is issued, affairs; when Russia had given assurances of they appear in two chambers; the first con- armed support, which have now been fulfilled, sisting of the Magnates and Prelates, under then the mask was thrown off, Kossuth was the Presidency of the Palatine; the second denounced as a traitor, Jellachich (who had consisting of the deputies of the nobility. The narrowly escaped the same fate,) was ordered king appears in person, or is represented by a to advance upon Pesth, and the ancient Huncommissioner. He announces, after the open-garian constitution was declared to be susing of the Diet, his postulata to the States. When the king and States have agreed upon a postulatum it becomes a law, or decretum regni. The king assembles and prorogues the Diet at pleasure. The whole Hungarian constitution is imprinted with the stamp of the middle ages. The administration of Hungary differs from that of the other Austrian States. The person of the king is represented by the Palatine, who is assisted by a Council of State, of which the members are named by the king. But the whole is subordinate to the Hungarian Chancery at Vienna, through which the king decides every matter constitutionally depending on his will. Each comitatus is governed by a special council, of which the first officer is the comes cr obergespacin, of whom thirteen are hereditary,
pended. Thus the present struggle began ;
In Moldavia there are 60,000 Magyar families who will join heart and hand with their Hungarian brethren to relieve them from Austrian oppression. The word Magyar implies wanderer from the early nomad tribes of the Hungarians, who wandered from the shores of the Adriatic to the Turkish provinces, and back again, as the seasons suited.
Accounts received by the Cambria, since the foregoing article was written, repeat the assertion that the Magyars have taken Buda
by assault, and that the Croatians who formed its garrison were put to the sword. It is also stated that the Magyars have taken possession of Fiume, the principal Hungarian port on the Adriatic.
The emperors of Russia and Austria had an interview at Warsaw, which lasted twelve hours, but the determination which they came to, has not transpired.
FRANCE AND ROME.
A singular state of circumstances has arisen between these two republics. It having been represented that the armies of Austria and Naples were about to enter the Roman territory for the purpose of overthrowing the republic, the French government determined upon sending a large force under General Oudinot, to prevent these powers from dictating a form of government to the Romans, as France herself wished to take the initiative in
such a measure, and the National Assembly voted the supplies necessary for the undertaking of the expedition.
Accordingly a large fleet of war steamers was dispatched from the South of France to convey the expedition, which arrived off Civita Vecchia, and the troops were allowed to land without resistance, when General Oudinot published the following order of the day:
Civita Vecchia, 25th April, 1849. Soldiers! the French flag floats on the forts of Civita Vecchia. We had expected that we should be compelled to effect a landing by force, and every measure had been adopted to insure its success; but we were inspired with the idea of our government, which, associated with the generous feelings of Pius IX., wished to avoid, as much as possible, the effusion of blood. The authorities of Civita Vecchia, yielding to the wishes of the inhabitants, opened the gates of the town to us at the first summons. This reception, you will feel, adds to our duties. It would aggravate any breach of discipline; it commands us, not only to respect the people, but to keep up the most friendly relations with them. The fleet will, in a few days, bring us considerable reinforcements. Soldiers of the land forces, I am your organ in thanking our brethren in arms of the navy. It is to their powerful cooperation that we owe our first success.
OUDINOT DE REGGIO.
self the right to regulate interests which are, before all, those of the Roman people, and which extend themselves to the whole of Europe, and to all the Christian world: she has only considered that, by her position, she was particularly called on to interfere to facilitate the establishment of a regime, equally removed from the abuses which have been forever destroyed by the generosity of the illustrious Pius IX., and from the anarchy of late days. The flag which I have just hoisted on your shores is that of peace, of order, of conciliation, and of true liberty. Round it rally all those who wish to co-operate in the accomplishment of the patriotic and sacred work.
OUDINOT DE REGGIO.
having been apprised of these proclamations, which clearly proved to them that it was the intention of the French to reinstate the Pope in his temporal power, convoked the Assembly on the 26th, when the following decree was adopted:
The members of the government at Rome
"The Assembly, after seeing the communication made by their committee, confides to the Triumviri the care of saving the republic; and of repelling force by force."
On the 27th of March General Oudinot commenced his march for Rome, after having sent a deputation of three officers to the Triumviri to declare to them that the occupation of Civita Vecchia, by the French forces, had a double purpose: first, to secure the Roman States from the invasion of the Austrians, who were preparing to enter them, and secondly, to ascertain precisely what were the feelings of the population as to the form of government, and to assist in a reconciliation between Pope Pius IX. and the Roman people.
As soon as the Romans had resolved to defend themselves, they with ardor prepared to prevent the entrance of the French troops into the city. Barricades were raised on the roads and in the streets leading to Civita Vecchia, and the walls were countermined. To procure materials for the barricades the subterranean gallery built by Pope Borgia, and leading from the Vatican to the castle of Saint Angelo, was blown up.
At the same time a deputation was sent to General Oudinot, to protest against the invasion, and to warn the commander of the French troops that Rome was prepared to resist, and that if necessary the Quirinal, the Vatican, and
On the same day he published the following Saint Peter's, which had already been mined, proclamation to the Romans:
Inhabitants of the Roman States! In presence of the events which agitate Italy, the French republic resolved to send a corps d'armée on your territory, not to defend the present government, which it has not recognized, but to avert great misfortunes from your country. France does not arrogate to her
would be blown up. The General replied that his instructions were imperative, and that he would enter Rome by force, should he not be received willingly.
After such a reply there was no receding, and soon the attack commenced. An eye-witness gives the following details:
"A company of the first battalion of sharp
shooters was led towards the gates of Rome; | day the brave soldiers of the sister repub
The Triumvirs, CARLO ARMELLINI,
Rome, May 7, 1849.
General Oudinot, not wishing to be outdone in generosity, ordered the release of a battalion of light troops which had until then been detained by his order at Civita Vecchia.
it was received by discharges of musketry, and | lic.
It is said that the French lost 1,200 men, killed and wounded and prisoners. Among the former was M. Harris, an aide-de-camp of General Oudinot, and in the latter Captain Oudinot, his relation. The General himself was surrounded, and would have been taken prisoner but for the gallant exertions of his troops.
A Neapolitan army, said to consist of from 15,000 to 20,000 troops, had invaded the Roman territory, and was advancing towards the capital. Garribaldi, the Roman general, went out to meet them, and on the 3d of May, in the neighborhood of La Torre di Mezza Via, about eight miles from Rome, he met a detachment of 1,200 of this new enemy, and defeated them, taking one hundred and fifty prisoners, and two pieces of cannon. Having received orders from the government to act only for the defense of the city, Garribaldi returned to Rome on the 8th of May.
On the 7th the Triumviri, wishing to give a convincing proof that there was no feeling of enmity towards the French nation, issued the following decree, and sent back the prisoners they had made to the camp at Palo:
In the name of God and the people: Considering that between the French people and Rome, the state of war does not and can not exist:
It is stated that the French prisoners were treated with the greatest hospitality during their stay at Rome. The citizens vied with each other in paying them attention, conducting them to see the monuments and galleries of art of the Eternal City. They were saluted everywhere with cries of Viven les Français, and on their release conducted them in triumph to the camp at Palo. One account says, that on the prisoners passing by Saint Peter's they rushed into the cathedral and unanimously vowed not again to draw their swords against the inhabitants of Rome.
The government being informed that it was the intention of the French general again to attack Rome, issued the following proclamation, which was placarded on all the walls and gates of Rome:
Soldiers of the French Republic! For the second time you are forced to appear as enemies under the walls of Rome, of the republican city which was once the cradle of liberty and military glory. It is an act of fratricide, which is imposed upon you; and this fratricide, if ever it could be consummated, would strike a mortal blow against the liberty of France. The two people are bound by mutual ties. The republic extinguished amongst us, would be an eternal stain on your flag, one ally the less for France in Europe, one step the more on the road to monarchical restoration, towards which a deceitful and deceived government impels your beautiful and great country.
Rome, therefore, will combat as she has already combated. She knows that she fights That Rome defends, by right and duty, its for her own liberty and for yours. Soldiers of own inviolability, but deprecates as an offense the French Republic! Whilst you are marchagainst the common creed every collision being against our tri-colored flag, the Russians, tween the two republics :
That the Roman people does not hold responsible for the acts of a misguided government the soldiers who obey its orders by fighting:
the men of 1815, are marching into Hungary, and dreaming of a march into France. At some miles distance from you, a Neapolitan banner of despotism and intolerance unfurled. corps, which we have attacked, holds the At some leagues from you on your left, a republican city, Leghorn, resists at this moment an Austrian invasion. There is your place. Tell your leaders to keep their word. Remind them that at Marseilles and at Toulon they promised you a battle against the Croats. ReArt. 2. The Roman people will salute with mind them that the French soldier holds at the applause and fraternal demonstrations at mid-end of his bayonet the honor and liberty of
The Triumvirate decrees:
Art. 1. The Frenchmen taken prisoners on the day of the 30th of April are free, and will be sent to the French camp.