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purchased by American merchants in any part | production of cotton and woollen fabrics and of the world, by their own captains or super- manufactures of iron, that forces this extracargoes, and carried, in their own vessels, di ordinary repeal through the House of Comrectly to any part of Great Britain. If, however, any foreign nation shall refuse to reci- The Navigation Act of our own country, procate with England in this measure, the March 1st, 1817, provides that no other naexecutive power of the British empire can im- tion shall engage in a carrying trade between pose such equalizing restrictions as may seem any foreign country and the United States, necessary. British ship-owners can purchase but that goods brought from any foreign naAmerican built vessels in America.

tion to the United States, shall be brought in Lord Brougham, in the discussion on the vessels of that nation or of the United States. repeal, insisted that, under the new law, But this regulation extends only to the vessels ships could not hereafter be built in England of foreign nations which have adopted a with profit to the builder. He adduced similar regulation. The fourth clause of the the evidence of a ship-owner of Leith, con- Navigation law of England enforced the same firmed also by that of others, that a vessel, regulation for Great Britain ; and the consebuilt with the greatest economy at that port, quence has been an almost complete exclusion cost him $97 the ton; that if the duty of $9 of English ships from the trade between Eng75 cents the ton on timber were abolished, the land and America. Of course there would be cost of the vessel would be $87 25 the ton; no disposition on the part of our government while at Dantzic, in the Baltic, the same ship to repeal the Navigation act of 1817, wbile could be built for $58 the ton.

that of England remained in force; for it is The ship-building interest in England em- generally understood that statesmen never ploys $30,000,000 of capital ; the annual out- proceed on theory, but if they advocate free lay in the building of ships is $15,000,000 ; trade or its contrary, they do it for the supthe outfit and repairs, $10,000,000; the num- port of that interest which they conceive to be ber of shipwrights employed, 80,000 at $1 most important to be sustained in their own the day-a class of men among the most in- country. The free trade controversy is a dustrious, sober, and skillsul of mechanics. A war of logical maneuvring on the part of shipmaster in the Baltic received about $24 England, between her own manufacturing inthe month; in Belgium and Holland only $20; terest and her landholders. while in England the same man would re- Mr. Gladstone, (Sir R. Peel's secretary for ceive $t1 the month. The men, in the Baltic, the colonies,) was of opinion that the relaxHolland, and Belgium, received from $7 50 to ation of the old severe Navigation laws had $9 the month; bul that the price of food in Eng- helped the mercantile navy. He said in 1818, land was thirty cents a day, and in the other in the House of Commons, that from 1791 to countries named but fifteen cents.

1824, the increase had been at the rate of the statistics given to show that foreign com- 20,000 tons a year. From 1824 to 1817, it petition would destroy the merchant service of had been 40,000 tons a year, which was a England. Now, as it is very certain that ships more rapid increase than that of the United can be built much cheaper in the United States States. He said that the shipping of the than in England, we may expect a very great British colonies had grown with still greater increase in the amount of capital to be embarko rapidity. ed hereafter in the shipping interest in Amer- This increase may be attributed, not to any ica. The advocates of the bill have not yet relaxation of the Navigation laws, but to discovered the real motives which actuate them two principal causes, viz: the increased interin forcing the repeal; there is little doubt, course with the colonies, and the want, so however, that the measure is carried entirely severely felt in England, of a profitable place by the manufacturing interest, aided by the of investment for unemployed capital; espegeneral theory of free trade, which at present cially as Mr. Richmond, before the House of occupies the minds of the public. That the Lords, states that for many years past, fully class of ship-builders will suffer materially in one-half the capital einployed in shipping has England is not to be expected, as the greater been sunk and irretrievably lost; and that part of them will probably emigrate to the only a few individuals here and there have United States. The policy of the manufactur- been fortunate enough to save themselves ing interest in England is, at present, to facil from the universal ruin. itate, by the sacrifice of every inserior interest, Dr. Bowring, arguing for the repeal, lets the freest intercommunication, and to estab-out the secret. Freights, said he, (bearing lish reciprocity, if possible, with all other testimony against ship-owners,) in the case of nations; the only course left to her to save her coal, iron, ores, and other articles, cost more manufacturers from total ruin, and her opera- than the materials themselves. Why, he tives from the extremest poverty, and even would ask, were we not to lessen the cost of from famine. It is the poverty of England, conveyance? We should no more, he adds, exasperated by American competition in the be taxed by high freights than by the increase

Such were

of any other taxes. The British ship-owner | Delaware, where the proportion of the may buy his ships where he can get them slave population is extremely small; in Marycheapest; ships can be built for $40 the ton, land, where it is also comparatively small; in America, and completely fitted for sea, in Virginia, the central portions of which (a piece of information taken by him from are now being rapidly colonized by Gerthe Courier and Enquirer of New York,) while mans who employ free labor ; in Tenin England they are costing $97 the ton. nessee, where a considerable and powerIt is very evident from these, and abundant ful portion of the citizens are independent other details, that the Navigation law repeal is of slave labor; in Kentucky, a state resimply an effort on the part of English manu- markable for the intellectual power and courfacturers and producers to cheapen their own age of its people, and who are beginning now manufactures and produce in America and to understand better why their own advances elsewhere, without loss to themselves. They in wealth and population are not equal or suare willing that their 80,000 ship-builders perior to those of other western states; in should go and build ships in America as Missouri, where the proportion of the white American citizens.

population is rapidly increasing, and where inThe time must soon come when, under vestments in slave property are beginning althe influence of a judicious tariff, American ready to be esteemed unprotitable; in New manufactures of cotton, woollen, and iron, will | Mexico, where the introduction of slave labor be cheaper, even in England, than English would throw out of employment the entire products of the same quality; let us see then Mexican population, and effectually check the what the policy of England will be. She has immigration of capital and free labor; in Calgiven up to us the navigation of the seas; she ifornia, where the negro could be employed has given us the carrying trade of the world. only as a gold-seeker, and where, if so emWhen to this navigation, this carrying trade, ployed, he would extinguish at once the golden we add a cheaper material than can be sup- hopes of the present adventurous populationplied by England, what will become of her in all these states and territories, the bad econmanufacturing interests? It is not improbable omy and injuriousness of investments in slave that the greatest mercantile revolution the world property is understood ; and the popular feelhas ever seen will follow upon this turn in ing against the legal establishment of slavery affairs. Already manufactories are established, is gaining every day in intensity. It may and are in successful operation in Georgia safely be predicted, that the new territories, toand South Carolina ; already the anthracite gether with the northern tiers of slave States, furnaces of Pennsylvania are beginning to

will refuse to receive, or will soon shake off turn out a valuable and abundant yield of the burthen which Mr. Calhoun and his friends iron A Whig majority in Congress have wish to lay upon their backs. only to provide a judicious, discriminating tariff , fair and moderate in its provisions, and

Annexation of the Canadas. keep this tariff in operation for twenty years, and the qnestion of commercial superiority and The papers are largely occupied at present of relative wealth and power, is settled for- with minute and almost unreadable descriptions ever and for aye, between England and of party contests in the Canadas. From all America.

that can be gathered from these accounts, we do not discover any settled intention to effect

an immediate annexation of those provinces to The General Aspect of Politics in Missouri and the United States. The French population kentucky.

are perhaps more inclined to annexation than The movements in Missouri and Kentucky the British. A great deal of alarm has been for the gradual disuse of slaves, and for the manifested in some quarters in the South, lest gradual abolition of slavery by the only powers the addition of several free States, bringing which can abolish it, that is the state sove- each two additional votes into the Senate of reignties themselves, which are favored by Mr. the United States, and increasing largely the Clay and his friends directly, and by Mr. Ben present anti-slavery majority in the House of ton indirectly, however agreeable to the hopes Representatives, might endanger the southern of moderate and judicious men in the North, sovereignties. These alarmists certainly forare not received with favor by ultra abolition- get that the Canadas, if admitted into the ists, because they are the free acts of the Union, would come in as absolute sovereignSouth; and are dictated, not by a spirit of theory ties, as jealous, or more jealous of State rights, and demagognism, but by the truest arguments and as fearful of Congressional encroachment of moral and political economy. The subject of as South Carolina herself could be. They forthe gradual emancipation of slaves, and if that get too that this remote danger compared with be found possible, their gradual removal the immediate or threatening one of a coalifrom the States in which they are now held as tion between the Democrats and Abolitionists property, is now systematically agitated. In | in the North, and the northern tier of slave


States, is a mere bagatelle. The entire Cal- | Manufactures in South Carolina and Georgia. houn agitation however, on the subject of slavery, directed by the strangest perversion A correspondent of the New York Herald, against the principles and the men of the pa- | June 26th, 1819, gives a very interesting actriotic and liberal Whig pårty of the South, is count of the new manufactories in South Cara political humbug, of which the true charac-olina and Georgia. In 1846–7 manufactories ter will ere long appear clearly to the eyes of | began to be erected in the South. It was the the people. We may venture to predict with wish of Southern statesmen to make the South certainty, that as long as Whig counsels pre- entirely independent of the North, as far at vail at Washington, there will be no interfer- least, as regards coarse cotton fabrics. Withence of Congress in the affairs of States, nor out questioning the motive, we may at least any attempt to coerce the people of the territo- commend the enterprise and intelligence which ries. Let New Mexico and California be erect- conferred such an important benefit upon the ed, as soon as possible, into States; and the unfortunate poor white people of Carolina and Treasury and the Executive relieved at once of Georgia. The town of Graniteville, in Edge. the expense and danger of territorial govern: field district, South Carolina, was begun about ments in those remote regions, and there will three years ago, and is now a large manufacbe no further agitation of the subject of slavery turing village. A company with a capital of in the territories. We are clearly of opinion, $300,000, purchased a tract of land of 10,000 however, that Mr. Calhoun and his partisans, or 12,000 acres, at one dollar the acre. A canal, notwithstanding their affected jealousy of State which cost $9,000, brings the water to the rights, and of the liberty of the individual citi- manufactories: the building cost $60,000, mazen, would willingly force their pet institution chinery $122,000, saw mill and machine shop, upon the people of the territories, if it were $9,000, dwelling houses $42,000, and the renecessary, at the point of the bayonet. Nothing mainder in water-wheels, shafts, laying out less can be judged of them when we remem

streets, &c.

The manufactory has been in ber their contemptuous treatment of the citi operation one year. At first the sheetings and zens of Oregon, who had the “insolence" to shirtings cost 20 cents the yard, and were sold establish, in the absence of all government, a for 6 cents, but now about 9,000 spindles, and temporary system of laws for the protection of 300 looms are in operation, and the cost of protheir lives and properties.

duction ranges between 4 and 5 cents the yard. It should be added to the above that the ju- | There will also be 40 drilling looms, producing dicious correspondent of the New York Tri- 9,000 yards a week, which will sell for 8 cents bune, Washington, July 14th, declares with the yard. On the first of June, it is said, the out reserve, that General Taylor's adıninistra- factories began to yield a profit, and on the first tion will adhere to a strict policy of non-inter- of January next the Company will make a handvention, and will not take a single step at some dividend.

The persons employed in negotiation with the Canadas without the these factories as operatives, are the broken previous consent of the mother country. He and depressed population of the barrens and adds that it is believed in Washington that a sand hills, who might formerly have made a very large majority of the people of the Cana- wretched living by collecting pitch, and were, das are in favor of a union with the Republic; perhaps, the most miserable class of whites in and that England would give up her authority the United States. They now earn from $4 to over the colonies whenever it appears to be $5 a week, females from $3 to $1; and chilthe earnest desire of the Canadian people to dren from $1 to $2. Their education is atattach themselves to the United States. “This tended to, they lay up money, and are in the administration,” adds the judicious correspond way to become useful and productive citizens. ent,“ will never travel out of the constitution. Since Christmas, it is said, over forty marriages al path to acquire glory as the last did. Nor have taken place among the operatives. In is it probable that any foreign territory will be these cases the husband only continues in introduced, except by the treaty - making the factory, the wife keeping house for him. power." Notwithstanding the vast and evi- Applications for work are twice the number dent advantages which will open to the South that can be employed at present. Excepting in upon the annexation of these new territories, the production of cotton, the district has been the hot blood of southern statesmanship begins wretchedly poor. Raw cotton is sold here at already to rebel at the prospect of a loss of from 6 to 7 cents the pound ; this cotsome portion of their hitherto undisputed gov- ton, if carried to New England, has to travel ernment of the entire Union. We do not per- 140 miles by land, to Charleston ; thence, by ceive that their apprehensions on this score are sea, to New York or Boston ; thence, passing well grounded. Ability will always control through warehouses, to some place in the innumbers; if the Canadas can send greater terior; then back again, by the same route, to men than Virginia, or the Carolinas, the poli. clothe the people who produced it; subject, in tics of the Union will be Canadian, and not both journeys to the risks, costs and losses of until then.

transportation, freight, cartage, storage, marine and fire insurance, labor, wharfage, bro- has made it impossible to live comfortably in kerage, wholesale and retail profits, and profits this country by authorship. Literature is a of manufacture ; subject also to detention in poor and precarious occupation, book-selling Massachusetts, by speculators waiting for a on the contrary has been a good and a profitarise of price-a grand subject of contempla- | ble one. The consequences are that the intel. tion and argument for southern statesmen. ligence of America is, in great part, educated Georgia has

gone farther still in the race of and controlled by England and France. Soon improvement, and has already 38 cotton mills; however, we shall have the booksellers in the the city of Augusta, by the enterprise and fore. same predicament with the authors. “One sight of its corporation, has provided a water of the strangest literary novelties of the day," power sufficient to move any number of mills. says the Republic, (July 12th,) “is the fact In addition to this, other factories are being es- that this country is now flooded with German tablished.

reprints, in English, of the standard classics of The consequences of these reforms and im- our tongue, which are sold at so cheap a rate, provements in the South can hardly be esti- as not only to force from the market English inated above their value; there will be, of editions, but to compete succe

ccessfully with the course, a vast increase of the free white popu- American.” lation, who will not be slaveholders. The “ The pioneer of this enterprise in Germany capital of the State will be diverted from in- was the celebrated Tauchnitz, well known as vestment in slave property, and employed in a the publisher of those small and very accurate much more profitable kind of industry. The editions of the Greek and Roman classics, necessities of the poor white population will which have for fifteen or twenty years been keep down the price of labor for many years to used in all the higher schools of the country. come. A valuable class of foreign emigrants, Printed on fine and white paper, and with a mechanics and operatives, will be drawn toward beautiful type, they compare at infinite advan. the South, Slaves will be gradually excluded | lage with the bad editions of the best authors, from inventive and mechanical occupations, with which booksellers and the reading portion which will pass into the hands of free white of the American people have too long been conmen; and while the current prejudices against tent. Before us are editions of Shakspeare, slavery in the minds of the poorer classes will Byron, Moore, Bulwer, and Sir Walter Scott, be by no means diminished, and a necessary together forming a collection of about sixty amelioration take place in the condition and volumes, each of which the publishers are able treatment of slaves, the state sovereignty itself, to send to America, pay duties, and sell at thirwill, at the same time, by the increase of wealth ty-one and a quarter cents per volume. The and power in the State, becoine better able to above are but a fifth portion of the works printprotect itself against the encroachments of for-ed by Tauchnitz, his library containing the eign reformers, and to subdue the great domes- chefs-d'æuvre of the modern and fashionable au. tic evil of its institutions, by its own free and thors. These books are to be had of all the unassisted force. It will soon be beyond the German booksellers in the country, and, in power of any combination of free States to these days of bad type, and worse paper, are drive or compel the South into an unwilling re- luxuries.' form of her institutions.

When Germany does all our publishing and

printing, England all our manufacturing; when The Necessity for Protection to American Book France makes our hats and shoes, and the EngPublishers.

lish philosophers regulate our politics, what The vast number of foreign books and peri- | people we shall be !

an intellectual, happy, shrewd, and prosperous odicals reprinted and sold cheap in America,

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Last Lenres of American History; comprising, under consideration with its sister tongues, or

Histories of the Mexican War, and Califor- with its mother tongue, where the existence of nie. By EMMA WILLARD. New York : this is certain. But in a grammar for young George P. Putnam, 155 Broadway.

people, such comparisons must be in a great

measure useless; and all that can be done Mrs. Willard in her preface to this history, with advantage, is to apply to the language unobserves, " Washington Irving once said in con- der consideration such principles as may have versation, 'pure truth is as difficult to be ob- been established by comparative philology. The tained as pure water; though clear in appear- present grammar does not lay claim to novelty, ance, it is ever found by the chemist to contain for the author has purposely abstained from extraneous substances. In recording the por- making any material alteration in the arrangetion of my country's history, here presented to ment usually adopted in grammars for schools; the public, I can only say, that pure truth has partly because he thinks that such alterations been my earnest aim; for history is truth, and as have recently been introduced in school truth is history. I am not conscious of any grammars are little calculated to benefit the prejudices, or prepossessions, either as it re- learner, and partly because he is of opinion spects individuals, parties, or sects, by means that sound information can be given without of which, I should incline to error or be led i obliging the teacher to abandon the order to astray. And I have spared no pains in my which he has been accustomed from his youth, power, to make myself acquainted with the and which he may, not always be able or wilstate of facts concerning which I have written. ling to abandon. But doubtless there are mistakes ; for what book ever existed which had none ? There may be errors of the press; authorities may mislead; and that mind must be clear indeed, which never misapprehends. But whenever History of Queen Elizabeth. By JACOB ABan error is found, of whatever nature, and BOTT. With engravings. New York: Harwhether pointed out by a friend to serve, or a per & Brothers. foe to injure, that error will be corrected as soon as discovered.” Mrs. Willard writes clearly This history is one of a most valuable seand interestingly, and her book is a valuable ries—the author and the publishers are entitled addition to our American history.

to much praise. The narratives are not tales founded upon history, but history itself, without any embellishment or deviation from the strict

truth. The author has availed himself of the Grammar of the Latin Language. By LEON- best sources of information within his reach.

HARD SCHMtz, Rector of the High School, Edinburgh. Philadelphia : Lea & Blanchard. 1849.

A Grammar is a classified collection of the Manual of Ancient Geography and History. rules or laws regulating the language of which

By WILHELM Putz, Principal Tutor at the it professes to be an exposition. Every lan

Gymnasium of Düren. Translated from the

Edited by the Rev. THOMAS guage is subject to changes, either for the better or for the worse'; and although in the case

KIRCHEVER ARNOLD, MI. A., Rector of Lynof a dead language a grammarian must consider

don, etc. Revised and corrected from the and illustrate it mainly as it was at the time of

London edition. New York: D. Appleton & its most perfect development, still he cannot

Co., Broadway. Philadelphia: G. S. Apavoid taking into consideration the earlier and pleton, Chestnut street. later forms of words and expressions ; for in many instances the language, in its perfect This is a very useful book, and contains a state, cannot be fully explained without re- clear and definite outline of the history of the course being had to those forms of speech, out principal nations of antiquity; and to renderit of which it has arisen. Very great advantages more clear, a concise geography of each counmay also be derived, especially in the etymo-try has been added. Professor Greene furlogical part, from a comparison of the language nishes a well-written preface.

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