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of any other taxes. The British ship-owner |
may buy his ships where he can get them
cheapest; ships can be built for $40 the ton
in America, and completely fitted for sea,
(a piece of information taken by him from
the Courier and Enquirer of New York,) while
in England they are costing $97 the ton.
It is very evident from these, and abundant
other details, that the Navigation law repeal is
simply an effort on the part of English manu-
facturers and producers to cheapen their own
manufactures and produce in America and
elsewhere, without loss to themselves. They
are willing that their 80,000 ship-builders
should go and build ships in America as
American citizens.

The time must soon come when, under the influence of a judicious tariff, American manufactures of cotton, woollen, and iron, will be cheaper, even in England, than English products of the same quality; let us see then what the policy of England will be. She has given up to us the navigation of the seas; she has given us the carrying trade of the world. When to this navigation, this carrying trade, we add a cheaper material than can be supplied by England, what will become of her manufacturing interests? It is not improbable that the greatest mercantile revolution the world has ever seen will follow upon this turn in affairs. Already manufactories are established, and are in successful operation in Georgia and South Carolina; already the anthracite furnaces of Pennsylvania are beginning to turn out a valuable and abundant yield of iron. A Whig majority in Congress have only to provide a judicious, discriminating tariff, fair and moderate in its provisions, and keep this tariff in operation for twenty years, and the question of commercial superiority and of relative wealth and power, is settled forever and for aye, between England and America.


The General Aspect of Politics in Missouri and

The movements in Missouri and Kentucky for the gradual disuse of slaves, and for the gradual abolition of slavery by the only powers which can abolish it, that is the state sovereignties themselves, which are favored by Mr. Clay and his friends directly, and by Mr. Benton indirectly, however agreeable to the hopes of moderate and judicious men in the North, are not received with favor by ultra abolitionists, because they are the free acts of the South; and are dictated, not by a spirit of theory and demagoguism, but by the truest arguments of moral and political economy. The subject of the gradual emancipation of slaves, and if that be found possible, their gradual removal from the States in which they are now held as property, is now systematically agitated. In

Delaware, where the proportion of the slave population is extremely small; in Maryland, where it is also comparatively small; in Virginia, the central portions of which are now being rapidly colonized by Germans who employ free labor; in Tennessee, where a considerable and powerful portion of the citizens are independent of slave labor; in Kentucky, a state remarkable for the intellectual power and courage of its people, and who are beginning now to understand better why their own advances in wealth and population are not equal or superior to those of other western states; in Missouri, where the proportion of the white population is rapidly increasing, and where investments in slave property are beginning already to be esteemed unprofitable; in New Mexico, where the introduction of slave labor would throw out of employment the entire Mexican population, and effectually check the immigration of capital and free labor; in California, where the negro could be employed only as a gold-seeker, and where, if so employed, he would extinguish at once the golden hopes of the present adventurous populationin all these states and territories, the bad economy and injuriousness of investments in slave property is understood; and the popular feeling against the legal establishment of slavery is gaining every day in intensity. It may safely be predicted, that the new territories, together with the northern tiers of slave States, will refuse to receive, or will soon shake off the burthen which Mr. Calhoun and his friends wish to lay upon their backs.

Annexation of the Canadas.

The papers are largely occupied at present with minute and almost unreadable descriptions of party contests in the Canadas. From all that can be gathered from these accounts, we do not discover any settled intention to effect an immediate annexation of those provinces to the United States. The French population are perhaps more inclined to annexation than the British. A great deal of alarm has been manifested in some quarters in the South, lest the addition of several free States, bringing each two additional votes into the Senate of the United States, and increasing largely the present anti-slavery majority in the House of Representatives, might endanger the southern sovereignties. These alarmists certainly forget that the Canadas, if admitted into the Union, would come in as absolute sovereignties, as jealous, or more jealous of State rights, and as fearful of Congressional encroachment as South Carolina herself could be. They forget too that this remote danger compared with the immediate or threatening one of a coalition between the Democrats and Abolitionists in the North, and the northern tier of slave

A correspondent of the New York Herald, June 26th, 1849, gives a very interesting account of the new manufactories in Sonth Car

States, is a mere bagatelle. The entire Cal- | Manufactures in South Carolina and Georgia. houn agitation however, on the subject of slavery, directed by the strangest perversion against the principles and the men of the patriotic and liberal Whig party of the South, is a political humbug, of which the true charac-olina and Georgia. In 1846-7 manufactories ter will ere long appear clearly to the eyes of the people. We may venture to predict with certainty, that as long as Whig counsels prevail at Washington, there will be no interference of Congress in the affairs of States, nor any attempt to coerce the people of the territories. Let New Mexico and California be erected, as soon as possible, into States; and the Treasury and the Executive relieved at once of the expense and danger of territorial governments in those remote regions, and there will be no further agitation of the subject of slavery in the territories. We are clearly of opinion, however, that Mr. Calhoun and his partisans, notwithstanding their affected jealousy of State rights, and of the liberty of the individual citizen, would willingly force their pet institution upon the people of the territories, if it were necessary, at the point of the bayonet. Nothing less can be judged of them when we remember their contemptuous treatment of the citizens of Oregon, who had the "insolence" to establish, in the absence of all government, a temporary system of laws for the protection of their lives and properties.

It should be added to the above that the judicious correspondent of the New York Tribune, Washington, July 14th, declares without reserve, that General Taylor's administration will adhere to a strict policy of non-intervention, and will not take a single step at negotiation with the Canadas without the previous consent of the mother country. He adds that it is believed in Washington that a very large majority of the people of the Canadas are in favor of a union with the Republic; and that England would give up her authority over the colonies whenever it appears to be the earnest desire of the Canadian people to attach themselves to the United States. "This administration," adds the judicious correspondent," will never travel out of the constitutional path to acquire glory as the last did. Nor is it probable that any foreign territory will be introduced, except by the treaty - making power." Notwithstanding the vast and evident advantages which will open to the South upon the annexation of these new territories, the hot blood of southern statesmanship begins already to rebel at the prospect of a loss of some portion of their hitherto undisputed government of the entire Union. We do not perceive that their apprehensions on this score are well grounded. Ability will always control numbers; if the Canadas can send greater men than Virginia, or the Carolinas, the politics of the Union will be Canadian, and not until then.

began to be erected in the South. It was the wish of Southern statesmen to make the South entirely independent of the North, as far at least, as regards coarse cotton fabrics. Without questioning the motive, we may at least commend the enterprise and intelligence which conferred such an important benefit upon the unfortunate poor white people of Carolina and Georgia. The town of Graniteville, in Edgefield district, South Carolina, was begun about three years ago, and is now a large manufac turing village. A company with a capital of $300,000, purchased a tract of land of 10,000 or 12,000 acres, at one dollar the acre. A canal, which cost $9,000, brings the water to the manufactories: the building cost $60,000, machinery $122,000, saw mill and machine shop, $9,000, dwelling houses $42,000, and the remainder in water-wheels, shafts, laying out streets, &c. The manufactory has been in operation one year. At first the sheetings and shirtings cost 20 cents the yard, and were sold for 6 cents, but now about 9,000 spindles, and 300 looms are in operation, and the cost of production ranges between 4 and 5 cents the yard. There will also be 40 drilling looms, producing 9,000 yards a week, which will sell for 8 cents the yard. On the first of June, it is said, the factories began to yield a profit, and on the first of January next the Company will make a handsome dividend. The persons employed in these factories as operatives, are the broken and depressed population of the barrens and sand hills, who might formerly have made a wretched living by collecting pitch, and were, perhaps, the most miserable class of whites in the United States. They now earn from $4 to $5 a week, females from $3 to $4; and children from $1 to $2. Their education is attended to, they lay up money, and are in the way to become useful and productive citizens. Since Christmas, it is said, over forty marriages have taken place among the operatives. In these cases the husband only continues in the factory, the wife keeping house for him. Applications for work are twice the number that can be employed at present. Excepting in the production of cotton, the district has been wretchedly poor. Raw cotton is sold here at from 6 to 7 cents the pound; this cotton, if carried to New England, has to travel 140 miles by land, to Charleston; thence, by sea, to New York or Boston; thence, passing through warehouses, to some place in the interior; then back again, by the same route, to clothe the people who produced it; subject, in both journeys to the risks, costs and losses of transportation, freight, cartage, storage, ma

has made it impossible to live comfortably in this country by authorship. Literature is a poor and precarious occupation, book-selling on the contrary has been a good and a profita

rine and fire insurance, labor, wharfage, bro- | kerage, wholesale and retail profits, and profits of manufacture; subject also to detention in Massachusetts, by speculators waiting for a rise of price-a grand subject of contempla-ble one. The consequences are that the inteltion and argument for southern statesmen.

Georgia has gone farther still in the race of improvement, and has already 38 cotton mills; the city of Augusta, by the enterprise and foresight of its corporation, has provided a water power sufficient to move any number of mills. In addition to this, other factories are being established.

ligence of America is, in great part, educated and controlled by England and France. Soon however, we shall have the booksellers in the same predicament with the authors. "One of the strangest literary novelties of the day," says the Republic, (July 12th,) "is the fact that this country is now flooded with German reprints, in English, of the standard classics of our tongue, which are sold at so cheap a rate, as not only to force from the market English editions, but to compete successfully with the American.”

The consequences of these reforms and improvements in the South can hardly be estiinated above their value; there will be, of course, a vast increase of the free white population, who will not be slaveholders. The "The pioneer of this enterprise in Germany capital of the State will be diverted from in- was the celebrated Tauchnitz, well known as vestment in slave property, and employed in a the publisher of those small and very accurate much more profitable kind of industry. The editions of the Greek and Roman classics, necessities of the poor white population will which have for fifteen or twenty years been keep down the price of labor for many years to used in all the higher schools of the country. come. A valuable class of foreign emigrants, Printed on fine and white paper, and with a mechanics and operatives, will be drawn toward beautiful type, they compare at infinite advanthe South. Slaves will be gradually excluded tage with the bad editions of the best authors, from inventive and mechanical occupations, with which booksellers and the reading portion which will pass into the hands of free white of the American people have too long been conmen; and while the current prejudices against tent. Before us are editions of Shakspeare, slavery in the minds of the poorer classes will Byron, Moore, Bulwer, and Sir Walter Scott, be by no means diminished, and a necessary together forming a collection of about sixty amelioration take place in the condition and volumes, each of which the publishers are able treatment of slaves, the state sovereignty itself, to send to America, pay duties, and sell at thirwill, at the same time, by the increase of wealth ty-one and a quarter cents per volume. and power in the State, become better able to above are but a fifth portion of the works printprotect itself against the encroachments of for-ed by Tauchnitz, his library containing the eign reformers, and to subdue the great domestic evil of its institutions, by its own free and unassisted force. It will soon be beyond the power of any combination of free States to drive or compel the South into an unwilling reform of her institutions.


chefs-d'auvre of the modern and fashionable authors. These books are to be had of all the German booksellers in the country, and, in these days of bad type, and worse paper, are luxuries."

When Germany does all our publishing and printing, England all our manufacturing; when

The Necessity for Protection to American Book France makes our hats and shoes, and the Eng


The vast number of foreign books and periodicals reprinted and sold cheap in America,

lish philosophers regulate our politics, what an intellectual, happy, shrewd, and prosperous

people we shall be!


Last Leaves of American History; comprising Histories of the Mexican War, and California. By EMMA WILLARD. New York: George P. Putnam, 155 Broadway.


Mrs. Willard in her preface to this history, observes, "Washington Irving once said in conversation, pure truth is as difficult to be obtained as pure water; though clear in appearance, it is ever found by the chemist to contain extraneous substances. In recording the portion of my country's history, here presented to the public, I can only say, that pure truth has been my earnest aim; for history is truth, and truth is history. I am not conscious of any prejudices, or prepossessions, either as it respects individuals, parties, or sects, by means of which, I should incline to error or be led astray. And I have spared no pains in my power, to make myself acquainted with the state of facts concerning which I have written. But doubtless there are mistakes; for what book ever existed which had none? There may be errors of the press; authorities may mislead; and that mind must be clear indeed, which never misapprehends. But whenever an error is found, of whatever nature, and whether pointed out by a friend to serve, or a foe to injure, that error will be corrected as soon as discovered." Mrs. Willard writes clearly and interestingly, and her book is a valuable addition to our American history.

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A Grammar is a classified collection of the Tales or laws regulating the language of which professes to be an exposition. Every language is subject to changes, either for the beter or for the worse; and although in the case fa dead language a grammarian must consider and illustrate it mainly as it was at the time of & most perfect development, still he cannot cid taking into consideration the earlier and er forms of words and expressions; for in many instances the language, in its perfect e, cannot be fully explained without reCurse being had to those forms of speech, out which it has arisen. Very great advantages may also be derived, especially in the etymoagical part, from a comparison of the language

under consideration with its sister tongues, or with its mother tongue, where the existence of this is certain. But in a grammar for young people, such comparisons must be in a great measure useless; and all that can be done with advantage, is to apply to the language under consideration such principles as may have been established by comparative philology. The present grammar does not lay claim to novelty, for the author has purposely abstained from making any material alteration in the arrangement usually adopted in grammars for schools; partly because he thinks that such alterations as have recently been introduced in school grammars are little calculated to benefit the fearner, and partly because he is of opinion that sound information can be given without obliging the teacher to abandon the order to which he has been accustomed from his youth, and which he may, not always be able or willing to abandon.

History of Queen Elizabeth. By JACOB ABBOTT. With engravings. New York: Harper & Brothers.

This history is one of a most valuable series-the author and the publishers are entitled to much praise. The narratives are not tales founded upon history, but history itself, without any embellishment or deviation from the strict truth. The author has availed himself of the best sources of information within his reach.

Manual of Ancient Geography and History. By WILHELM PUTZ, Principal Tutor at the Gymnasium of Düren. Translated from the German. Edited by the Rev. THOMAS KIRCHEVER ARNOLD, M. A., Rector of Lyndon, etc. Revised and corrected from the London edition. New York: D. Appleton & Co., Broadway. Philadelphia: G. S. Appleton, Chestnut street.

This is a very useful book, and contains a clear and definite outline of the history of the principal nations of antiquity; and to render it more clear, a concise geography of each country has been added. Professor Greene furnishes a well-written preface.

The Crayon Miscellany. By WASHINGTON | the pride, the leisure, and the stomach, reject IRVING. New York: George P. Putnam, 155 Broadway.

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Homer until they can comprehend him in the original; until they can sit down, and without thought of grammar or metre, read a book of him at once, as they would of Milton or Job, rapidly, and with a vivid insight; for short of that, they will never comprehend him; but for the mass of men, let us have perfect, literal translations, like those of our English Bible, and this of Dr. Carlyle's. A very tolerable, though rather pedantic, prose version of Homer has been published at Princeton, in New Jersey. To read this literal Dante, and the literal Homer, side by side with the literal Job! what an admirable employment, how enlightened and elevating!

An Autobiography and Letters of the Author of "The Listener," "Christ our Law," &c. Philadelphia: J. W. Moore, 193 Chestnut street. 1849.

The life of a pious and very talented woman, have had a large sale in this country. We Caroline Fry, whose works, say the publishers, and pious lady, but from a casual reading of are not acquainted with the works of the good her autobiographical memoir, have conceived that she must have been a truly delightful and valuable member of society, and a worthy fol lower of the faith to which she devoted her calm and innocent existence.

Dante's Divine Comedy, The Inferno. A literal prose translation, with the text of the original. Collated from the best editions, and Explanatory Notes. By JOHN A. CARLYLE, M.D. New York: Harper and Brothers. 1849.

Dante's Divine Comedy, so called only because it ends happily, though it begins sadly, is counted among the greatest productions of genius. The Paradise Lost, the Inferno, the Eneid of Virgil, the Iliad of Homer, and the Book of Job, are generally regarded as the grandest works of imagination in their class. The Drama indeed contends with the Epic; and Shakspeare, Sophocles, and Calidas, stand upon the other equal summit of the glorysinitten Parnassus, but only at an equal, not a grander altitude.

To make these wonderful works common in all languages has been the task of the most. accomplished scholars. A wretched, we had almost said an inhuman pedantry, has forbidden currency to accurate translations of Homer, and had it happened that Dante were a college book, we might have been deprived of this valuable translation. Let those who have

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This is a very elegant edition of the popular work of Mr. Melville, with his own revisal and improvements.

Selections from Catullus for the use of Classical Students. With English Notes. By G. G. COOKESLEY, M. A., one of the Assistant Masters at Eton. Revised, with additional Notes, by C. A. BRISTED, late B.A., Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. New York: Stanford & Swords, 137 Broadway. 1849.

The most elegant poems of Catullus, with the indecencies omitted; very properly, we think. Age, surely, does not sanctity obscenity, at least among the living; why, then, should antiquity? Besides, if we have a tooth, there is Moore and Byron, and Paul de Kock

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