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struction in the arts of peace; under this pation is accidental, and he may leave it division it is also necessary to include states- to-morrow; all that we ask of the man, is men and those who manage affairs of that he shall not engage in a business for public economy. Statesmen, as affairs now which he is incompetent, or remain in any are, seem to be merely the great business occupation too great or too heavy for his men of the country, who assist or who abilities. The opinion of castes and ranks, impair manufactures, agriculture, and by which a person is confounded with his
occupation; and by that treatment deThe fourth class of occupations is that graded into a machine, to the total sacriof military and police, and all that is con- fice of his liberty, is not to be tolerated, cerned in the private and public defense, even in idea ; and it is certainly better whether of life or property. The courts that men should exercise several trades, as of law, with all that belongs to them, fall is commonly done in New England, than under this head, as well as the army, lose their liberty by an hereditary devotion navy, and all those dangerous services, to one. It is necessary to the free and which require the arts of defense, offense manly character, that it should have tasted and inquisition. At the head of those several kinds of life; enough at least to stand the greater offices of the land and know their pains and their pleasures, their of the military state.
advantages and disadvantages; and if we Last in order we have domestic offices meet with a man who has experience in of every kind, from the service of the agricultural, mechanical, and commercial kitchen, to the offices of the public health, affairs, we are apt to value him above one or command of a royal household. Those who knows only one of these. It is this whose example governs the manners, versatility of intellect that distinguishes a customs, and fashions, of society, and who free from a stupid and slavish people; and exercise a merely social influence, stand in this Americans take the greatest pride. first in this rank.
After enumerating all the occupations, Although, in the general idea of human and observing in what forms human innature, every human being is regarded as dustry is obliged to develope itself, and containing all the knowledge and capacity after admitting that a complete and perfor the exercise of every occupation of fect man, or family of men, would be masevery order, yet, in practice it happens ters of all occupations and conditions, at that individuals are engaged permanently least in their principles, our natural pride or for the time, in but one occupation, as leads us a step further, and we say, that of science, worship, business, police, or NATIONS also, should be complete and persocial duty. The castes always exist; fect, and should take care to have all the though their members are continually occupations well and ably exercised by changing
their own citizens. A nation should scorn Though it might be justly regarded as an to become a mere herd of shepherds, or injurious and impossible attempt to class tribe of artisans ; it should not narrow its men by their occupations, every man being ability to the exercise of any one art, trade capable in his nature, unless his mind be or business, but should fill out the circle abortive or deformed, of exercising all of industry and make itself the complete the occupations, yet, it can do no harm and perfect representative of humanity. to regard these occupations themselves Its ambition should be broad and liberal. as fixed, and as having each a certain It should desire that all its energies attain character and value when compared with a full development. others. The most intense admirer of equality In all civilized nations, the occupation prefers the occupation of a sage, in whom of a learned man, or teacher, has been the philosopher and the poet are combined, held superior in importance and reputation or that of a hero who unites the warrior to all others. For, of this order of occuwith the patriot in himself; or that of the pations, the lowest grade is more reputastatesman who sees his own in his ble than the lowest of any other, as the country's prosperity; to that of a sutler dame schoolmistress is a person of more or fisherman. The mun indeed is neither trust than the ordinary domestic, or than statesman, sutler, or fisherman ; his occu- any other in the inferior occupations of life. So, also, the complete savan, such with all the rights and powers of freedom for example as we have in modern times and wisdom. Self-preservation is its first in the person of a Humboldt, or a Cuvier, law, and to sustain and protect itself a is of the first repute ; not excelled in his first necessity. The whole system of a occupation—which is that recommended free government is founded on the necesby Lord Bacon as the best a wise man sity of protection and self sustentation. It can engage in—by any, however eminent, is therefore the obvious duty of the peoof the other orders. The contempt that ple, not only to favor the education of falls upon such teachers as remain in the youth, but to protect them from corruptvulgar routine of schooling and flogging, ing influences; for if it is necessary that is itself a proof of the superior import- they be well educated, and converted into ance of the teacher's office; the mass of good citizens, it is also necessary to protect men regard it with a mysterious respect, them against evil education, and against and despise the tutor by comparison with such influences as will make them bad or his business.
discontented citizens. The purpose of We run little risk of contradiction in education being to render the mind of the saying, that this caste of occupations are nation, if we may so speak, free and comby far the most important and valuable plete within itself, producing all knowlthat can employ a reasonable being ; and edge and inventions within itself, and rethat a citizen who feels a proper pride and lying upon itself for direction and guideenthusiasm for his nation, will protect and ance in the study of nature, and of the favor, in every way, the office of the teach- works of human and inspired intelligence. er and the man of science.
A people to whom the occupations of the The most important office, in the king
scholar and of the savan are a mystery doms and republics of the Old World is and a wonder, or which does not produce that of minister of public instruction, and within itself both scholars and men of the most perfect instrument of good gov. science, will as tenderly be led by the nose ernment and progress is the system of as asses are. Such a half-educated peoschools. Our State governments are in- ple endued with a natural, unfed desire of complete, while they remain without a knowledge, may be so inveigled and robbeaureau of education; the commission to bed of their common sense, by ingenious be chosen out of the best men of the State, foreigners, that they will surrender
their and commanded by the people to observe very purses and business to foreigners, unsuch care in erecting a system of educa- der the persuasion of a mere theory. tion for their children, as if the fate of The people being in the strictest sense, the Republic depended chiefly upon their a moral person-seeing that from them wisdom and integrity.
emanates the constitution of the StateThe creative, conservative, and beneficent which is a formal expression of universal energy of a popular State, discovers itself justice, as they understand it, and which in nothing more than in the education of is one in essence with the law of nations youth. By schools the youth of the coun- and the law of conscience, have rightfully try are bound together and nationalized. invested their government with a two-fold As a part of our polity for the fusing to power, namely that of protection, and gether and organizing of the incongenial that of beneficent aid and creation. They elements of our society, schools are evi- provide in their laws, not only for conserdently the most effectual. But creation is vation of the existing order of things, not the sole function of a beneficent pow- against which it is treasonable to conspire, er; protection and conservation to all in- but for the good of future generations, by terests, to life and liberty, to health, and the establishment of schools and the conto free opinion, to industry and genius, is struction of harbors, roads, and public equally a fundamental duty of govern- works. Setting aside all controversy about ment; more especially in a government the powers of the general government, in hike ours, conducted under the eye and regard to works of internal improvement, influence of the people themselves, and neither the right or duty of the State govsubject to their approval or condemnation. ernments to provide such works, or that "A political society is a moral person,” | of cities, towns and villages, to erect build
ings, and make roads for public purposes, , solutely free. Looking inward upon itself has ever been contested. Government the nation observes a cold and rigid imis really invested with a prospective and partiality toward those of its citizens who creative as well as a protective and con- engage in occupations of this caste. But servative power.
of other nations it indulges a patriotic Could it be shown, for example, that jealousy. It desires that its religious in time of war certain persons maintained teachers, its artists, authors, and editors, an encouraging correspondence with the should be its own citizens ; that public enemy, or that in time of peace certain opinion should be created at home; that persons were engaged in exciting revolt, its public buildings, its paintings and the protective and conservative power may statues, its literature should be of native be employed to stop them. Or could it growth, an offspring of native sense and be shown that the inhabitants of a State genius. This is its beneficent desire; and were about to establish a hierarchy, and as far as government may justly extend abolish the republican forms, the conser- its protection, that desire will extend it. vative power of the higher government The occupations of taste and opinion, restmay forbid them. In all its functions the ing necessarily on prejudice, will be assiState represents the moral person, exclud- duously guarded and protected by any ing all that is individual or partial, when State not sunk in ignorance or selfishness. it looks toward the citizen, and adinitting Passing by for the moment the conall that is individual and partial when it sideration of that protective and beneficent looks lowards other nations.
influence which the State is required to The first exercise of the beneficent use over the occupations of industry, in powers of government, which we consid- the field, the workshop, the office, and ered, was in the establishment of schools, the store ; an influence so important that for
sake of preserving and continuing governments receive one half their power the Republic, by the effects of education. and character from the mode in which it is The second looks toward religious mat- exerted ; let us look at its operation in afters, and toward literature and the fairs of military and police. And here the arts.
very first feature of a free government, that In these two particulars, namely, in strikes us, is that it employs the arms, the maintaining the right of opinion, against courage, and the skill of its own citizens persecution for conscience sake, and the in its own defense. Those who do not liberty of person against unjust wars, and understand the moral nature of a governprivate or public violences, under what- ment, or who affect a philosophical acever name or authority, our own govern- curacy of opinion, will perhaps assure us ments are distinguished from all others :- that we ought to defend our country as and because the grounds of our own Con- cheaply as possible, and if Hessian merstitution cannot be distinguished from cenaries can be had for less wages than those of the law of nations and of con- free citizens, we should employ them in science, our State as a moral person, ex- preference. But here the protective, which tends the same rights to other nations, is one with the patriotical sentiment, saves acknowledged free, that it does to its own us the labor and evil chances of an anticitizens acknowledged free. In these free trade argument; we are not reduced instances the protective and conservative to the necessity of an argument; history powers appear in their perfection. The and the national prejudice has set us right occupations of the priest, the clergyman, upon that point; and the time must come the minister, the missionary, those of crit- when the protection of native labor and ics, authors, and editors,—in a word, of all industry, from patriotic motives, will seem who engage in works that rest for their as essential to a patriotic policy as the emvalue upon the public taste, belief and ployment of the arms and courage of our sentiment, are protected with a sacred own citizens. care. In these occupations men are ab
THE PRESENT STATE OF TRADE.
By the kindness of the publishers of , down is, that of the agriculturalists, that that valuable and widely-read paper, “The as for the increase of the riches of a farm, Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil,” which the products of the soil should be consumed has done so much toward diffusing right upon the soil
, so also the products of information and just opinion, on subjects mines, and plantations, should be worked of public economy during the past year, up and consumed as near as possible to we have been favored with proof-sheets in the place of their production. advance, of an article entitled, “Hear both We venture to say, that any man of sides," from the pen of Henry C. Carey, business, or any person who has a pracEsq., one of our own contributors, and ticle knowledge of the economy of prowhose work, entitled “Past, Present, and duction will acquiese in the principle at Future," seems destined to become the first hearing of it. text-book of conservative and patriotic The arguments of the anti-protectionists, economists. Our readers will remember on the contrary, are derived from certain an able article published in our number abstract propositions, such as the injustice for January, 1849, on the policy of Eng- of taxing one class of the community for land and its results, from the same power- the benefit of another ; which are indeed ful
pen. The following bears more direct- true in the abstract, but have no bearing ly upon our own affairs. We give the
We give the on the question ; the protectionists holding matter of the article by abstract or by the same opinions about justice and injusquotation.
tice that other men do, but insisting that The occasion of the essay was an ex- the nation must defend itself against the amination of the question, whether the efforts of foreigners to draw away its farmer and planter are to be protected or business and suppress its industry. not, in their efforts to draw the loom and To this the reply is, true it is, the the anvil nearer to themselves; or whether, farmer is made to pay a little more, for the as the Union newspaper, and the so-called time, by a tariff, for foreign luxuries; but, free-trade legislators contend, they should at the same time he is enabled to produce not be protected, but for the sake of “an more, and his products command a better augmented trade,” should go without pro- price. tection.
And here begins the argument of the The general effort of the free-trade article which we are now reviewing. theorist has been to prove that low tariffs The writer for the Union newspaper, cause a greater consumption of foreign June, 1849, advanced that the free-trade goods, by affording an outlet for the pro- principles of the Revenue Bill of 1846 are ducts of farms and plantations, to be ex- fully vindicated, by the fact, “ that the changed for foreign manufactured articles. export of breadstuffs still continues, and
They argue strenuously for freedom of that the demand for cotton is sustained at trade in the abstract, as a thing so excel an advanced price, and in the face of large lent in itself, that everything else should supplies.” “While the market for our be sacrificed to it. Just as some enthusiasts agricultural productions abroad has been argue for the abolition of all laws, because extended without producing commercial all laws work some injury to innocent in- embarrassment, by the reception of foreign dividuals.
goods, on liberal terms, in payment, the Mr. Carey, in his large work, as well as great consuming interests of the country in his periodical essays, adopts a line of have been enabled to become better cusargument quite different from any that we tomers to the manufacturers.” have seen in any other writers.
We cannot but pause here and invite The principle of economy which he lays the readers attention to the language of
the Union above given. It is asserted
says that the exporis of cotthat the great consuming interests, that is ton goods from New England were fifty to say, the skin and stomach of every millions yards, re-exports of foreign, ten man, woman and child in the country, are millions. Southern and Western consumpenabled to buy more from our Northern tion of Eastern manufactured goods, manufacturers, in consequence of a tariff 535,200,000 yards. Again, 7 millions of which has let in foreign competitors on foreign cotton goods were introduced for liberal terms. It appears, too, that our home consumption, and the estimated 120 free trade gentlemen have the interests of millions of Southern and Western manuthe Northern manufacturers greatly at factures, had to contend against these, and heart; a disposition to be acknowledged against the entire Eastern production. in them, with every courtesy.
The article closes by stating that the But to return. The correspondent selling of large quantities of goods at low adds, that the revenue under these low prices is advantageous to the operatives, duties, has increased some $6,000,000; and that small quantities at high prices
“unfavorable balance of trade,' favor the capitalists; an assertion to which has been "prevented by an increased ex- we can only give a flat denial, it being a port,” that is to say, we have paid in cot- notorious fact that low prices entail the ton and breadstuffs, instead of cash; he necessity of low wages, large capitals, and then adds that the generally firm and immense sales, all of which conditions are comfortable state of things has enabled those of the English manufactories, and
our manufacturers to enlarge their es- work a hopeless and disastrous state of tablishments, and to extend their opera- things for the operatives. High prices tions ;” more cotton having been pur- and moderate sales enable small capitalists chased by them in proportion under the to engage; and vice versa. present, than under the last tariff. In- The same correspondent of the Union crease under the tariff of '42, 154,747 and writer for the Democratic, states that bales in four years; under the present the demand for cotton is “maintained at tariff, 130,000 in three years.
an advanced price, and in the face of large This estimate, he continues, omits supplies." I'o this Mr. Carey replies, 75,000 for the last, and 100,000 for the that the destructive frosts and freshets of present year, consumed by Southern man- the present year have diminished the proufacturers. He then adds, that when spective crop, perhaps one third, and the manufactures are high, the consumption price has consequently risen a little
. is limited, and the owners of capital and That the planter has hardly received five machinery, (the larger operators) reap cents the pound, average, the past season; the benefit, and vice versa. The corres- and that consequently a great rise is de. pondent of the Union is evidently the manded to cover his losses from the past same who prepares free trade commercial sales, which have not covered the costs of articles for the Democratic Review; in production. To this must be added the answering the Union, therefore, the Demo- reduction of freights, almost two thirds, cratic Review is also answered.
within a few months, a reduction facilitaHe furnishes a table of cotton statistics, ting exportation, and of course sending showing the regular increase of consump- more cotton abroad, and raising the price. tion, the largest being in 1848, 103,805 A barrel of flour can now be carried to bales; and the finallest increase 20,000 Liverpool for 25 cents, and the price is bales in ten months, ending June '49, still falling. which shows a frightful falling off, by no We shall confine ourselves for the remeans noticed by the Union.
mainder of this article to a summary
of Let us use the statistics given. From Mr. Carey's argument. '42 to '45 inclusive, there was a regular The policy of free trade has driven the increase ; that of '45 being 42,262. From South into excessive production of cotton, '45 to '47 inclusive, a regular falling off, which has made prices unremunerative. that of '47 being only 5,000! Then fol- The planters are seeking to substitute lows a sudden and enormous increase in sugar in its place, and the sugar planters 248, of 103,805, and a great falling off | need protection more than the manufacagain this present year.