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The same policy has shut up furnaces to us, and still further depress our farand mills in all parts of New England, and driven capital into the building of ships ; The free trade principles of the comproand now low freights, and low prices gener- mise bill “ vindicated” by the crash of ally make all equally unprofitable. 1841-2, again being “vindicated" by a

The total earnings of shipping, notwith similar state of things coming fast upon us. standing the great increase, and the California accident, are less than for many " The great difficulty with most of these years past.

professional political economists is, that they The cotton crop of the South is only a have no practical knowledge. They have little larger than in 1840, notwithstanding they have by slow degrees arrived at the point

studied so many politico-economical books, that the great increase of Southern population ;

at which all men of real “common sense the money product of the entire crop is far

gin, i. e. that all trade ought to be free. The less than in that year.

latter see, however, that the great and importHad the South adopted the true eco- ant trade is between man and his neighbor nomical policy of bringing the plough, the man, and that the small trade is that between loom and the anvil side by side, of caus

far distant men. They see that everywhere ing the products of the soil to be wrought men desire to have blacksmiths and shoe

makers, cotton and woolen-cloth makers, and up and consumed upon the soil, the home iron makers, in their neighborhood, and that consumption would have been double of

the more nearly they can be brought to them what it is, and the vast increase of popula- the greater is the facility of obtaining shoes for tion would have had an equal increase of horses and men, and cloth and iron. They see wealth.

this desire developing itself on all occasions in If 200,000 more bales of cotton are now a constant effort to bring the loom and the consumed at home, and with a small pro- almost perpetual ruin following the effort, be

anvil to the side of the plough, and they see spective crop, the price of cotton ought, cause of changes of policy abroad, that could under a just protection, to have risen not have been anticipated, still less guarded enormously ; but the rise is at present against. Seeing all this, they have arrived at very trifling, notwithstanding all that has the conciusion that there must exist disturbing conspired to produce a rise.

causes preventing the possibility of the estabOf sixteen rolling mills for the manu

lislıment of universal freedom, but that it may facture of railroad iron, only four are now

be obtained through the means of effectual pro

tection to the great and really important trade busy, and these to complete orders given

between men and their neighbor men; and they before the tariff of 1846 came into opera- are confirmed in that belief by the fact that tion. A great many furnaces and factories those manufacturers which have most required in the North are stopped.

protection are now those which least require Among the smaller manufacturers a it. They see that in the desire for freeing the great depression exists, in consequence of country from the colonial system which preinability among the mass of population to be found the most important of the causes of

vented the establishment of manufactures, may consume the usual amount; low wages,

our Revolution, and that from that time to the low interests, low prices, capital and labor present, the most eminent men-our Washalike unemployed, is the present condition ingtons and Jeffersons, and Jacksons—have

seen and felt the necessity for bringing the Our exports to a large extent are stocks ! manufacturer to take his place by the side of eridences of debt, to the amount of nine the agriculturist.' 'In place of feeding the millions or more!

pa upers of Europe,' said President Jackson,

. let us feed our own,' — yet he was fully Cloth and iron we are importing in large

aware that under natural circumstances free. quantities; the food and products of other

dom of trade among all men, the near and the agricultural countries, wrought up on distant, would be the most profitable of all. other soils, and paid for in evidences of He, however, had practical knowledge, of debt!

which these men are totally destitute. They The people idle, and foreign paupers

are political economists to the point of repeatand laborers working for us.

ing, parrot-like, the words 'free-trade,' but beFarmers and workmen out of employ

yond that their knowledge does not extend."

Plough, Loom and Anvil. ment, go to the West, to raise more food; and capital goes into railroads to bring it “ Among the blunders of this class of men

of things.

is that which results from the omission of all , almost altogether inoperative. The great railattention to that most important element in road speculation of Europe had produced a every politico-economical calculation, called vast demand for laborers and for iron, and time. At the end of the first month of his new both were high in price. Well-paid laborers tariff, the late Secretary set himself to calcu- consumed largely of food and cloth, while the lating its effects, whereas every man of any potato-rot produced a vast demand for food for practical knowledge knows well that consider- Ireland, and thus all things were unnaturally able time must elapse before the effects of any high, and as the new tariff was altogether an such measure begin to be felt. Prosperity ad valorum one, it followed that duties were does not come or go with the passage of a law, high, and sufficiently protective. The railroad but with its practical operation. The passage i speculation broke down, and the demand for of the tariff of 1842 did not remedy the diffi- labor ceased, and therewith there was a ces. culties under which the country labored, but sation of the demand for cloth and iron, and it enabled men to construct mills and furnaces, the makers of cloih and iron were forced to by aid of which a state of prosperity was re- work at diminished wages, and the prices of stored. The man who is driven from the cloth and iron fell, and then for the first time, mines to seek the West, continues for a year at the close of about a year and a half from the to be a consumer of food and a customer

first of December, 1846, did the tariff of 1846 (though on a smaller scale than he before had come into practical operation.” – Plough, been) to the farmer, but in the second year he Loom, and Anvil. ceases to be a customer and begins to be a rival. The hundred thousand people that have been driven to the West, this year will not be

So far our author, without inquiry as to felt as producers until next year, and then the correctness of the statistics given by and scarcely till then—it will be that the farm- | the correspondent of the Union. We reers of the Union will feel the evil effects of serve for a succeeding number a farther the abolition of the tariff of 1842. All these examination of the article, and a fuller de. things are obvious to men of plain common

velopment of our author's argument to sense, but they have studied few politico-eco- show that the cotton planters have been nomical books, and they have no theories to greatly injured, and by no means benemaintain in opposition to the common sense of itted by the actions of low tariffs. the nation for a hundred years past. They feel under no obligation to teach their neigh- The greatest physical prosperity of this bors that they have been talking prose all their country will have been attained, when the lives, nor to lisp free trade without understand entire wants of its people are supplied by ing it, as do so many of the great men of our

their own industry. When in every State or day. The existing tariff—the great measure that separate region of the Union, there shall

be manufactures established suitable to was to einancipate labor and capital from the grinding oppression of 1842—the measure that

that region, and fully equal to the supply was to raise wages, and that has so far de- of its wants; and when the joint surplus pressed them that laborers find increased dif- products of all shall be poured through ficulty in obtaining food, fuel, or clothing, the great channels of commerce, the prothe measure that was to raise the value of jected Pacific Railroad, and the ports of capital, and that has so far depressed it that men gladly purchase stocks yielding little more habitable globe.

the Atlantic, toward every part of the

Such a condition of than five per cent., because of the impossibility of employing capital to advantage ; that great things can be brought about only by the measure, we say, went into operation nomi- pursuit of that system of policy which nally in December, 1846. Practically, it was was established by the Republican party.




semblage of almost forsaken dwellings.

Abundant signs of poverty are visible, but At the head of tide-water on Ga- they are not found in the usual abodes of vin Run, a considerable creek which rural wretchedness, tottering, low-browed five miles lower enters one of the finest hovels. All is brick-brick. Man seems of our southern rivers, stands Ander- here to have put forth his strength at the port. Besides its age, many considera- start, and done his best ; but at the same tions make it deserving of note. Its found- instant that we perceive this, we perceive ers, less restricted in means than most also that his labor has been vanity. of the early colonists, erected its buildings One has no occasion to go to Tadmor, in a manner so lavish of material, and so nor to Baalbek, to experience the painful substantial and massive, that a modern pleasure of watching how desperately the builder would call them proof against the poor relics of human toil and skill may wear of time. The town, however, has struggle for existence with an engulfing had to resist a destroyer which its first desert. If Anderport present the scene settlers did not anticipate, nor could have less grandly than the ruined cities of the guarded against—that ravager, at once in East, it has one element of impressiveness sidious and ruthless-neglect.

which they lack. This dingy little town, Tall brick houses frown grimly upon with its air of antiquity, its dilapidated grass-grown streets, which were laid out roofs and crumbling walls, is not found for the leading thoroughfares of an enter in the Old World, where sights of decay prising and populous mart. The traveller, are to be expected, but in flourishing viwho in a score of miles has not passed gorous, lusty America. There is somehalf that number of habitations, rubs his thing striking, too, in its diminutive size, eyes to find himself suddenly in what we cannot come upon it without being reseems the heart of a city. Yet, wearied minded of one of those pitiable dwarfs as he is with the wilderness through who carry the heavy weather-beaten feawhich his journey has led him, his mind tures of full-grown manhood upon the meets little relief in the unlooked-for ter- small and feeble limbs of a child. mination. Indeed, nothing in the sur- The decline of Anderport is easily acrounding prospect, cheerless though it be counted for. At the time of its settle--not the hills covered with hen-grass, ment, and for some years afterward, Gavin that ashen garb of sterility; nor the Run was navigable to vessels of several scrubby clusters of old field pines, creep- hundred tons burden. Now, it hardly afing upon the dispirited husbandınan; nor fords unobstructed passage at low tide for the wide, unenclosed forests, plundered of the fisherman's skiff

. Concurrent causes their younger growth and retaining only might be enumerated, such as the characthe huge patriarchs, which may defy the ter of the population, and the existence axe, but are sinking helpless beneath the of more fortunate rivals ; but I am not reiterated strokes of the elements; nor writing a history. The intelligence of even that sluggish, dismal stream, spread those who gave it its name, is vindicated over a reedy marsh, and bordered by by the statement that it was once a port; moors of broom-sedge and dense thickets and its present condition is sufficiently deof alder and brambles-not all together scribed, when the fact is added that it is can give the beholders such an intense a port no longer. feeling of desolation, as that gloomy as- Most of the houses, as has been menVOL. IV.




tioned, line the streets, and are constructed A single companion attended him; an in the style usual in cities. There are elderly man, quite bald but for the scanty some, however, on the heights in the out-gray locks which hung at the back of his skirts of the town, which have much more head, yet with a full bright eye, and a architectural character. These formed in brow unmarked by a wrinkle. Altogether, fact the mansions of the original owners Mr. Simon Rennoe, of a figure compact of the settlement. One of them, which and rotund, but not corpulent, a composed attracts attention by its white, rough-cast demeanor, great suavity of address, and a front, was built by Wriothesly Ander, countenance ever wearing a benignant from whom the town received its name. smile, was one of those persons who exTo him succeeded Reginald his son, a cite, in all with whom they associate, equal profligate scamp, who, tradition tells us, respect and confidence. He saw in his had the credit of breaking the heart of an young friend much more than was visible amiable wife. Then came Edward, and to others. Under a cold and sluggish next to Edward, who died without issue, temperament, he knew there lurked qualihis brother Charles James, of neither of ties which rendered their possessor capawhom is anything memorable related. ble of the highest things. The direction, Anthony followed, whose wife died a year however, which these energetic elements after their marriage, leaving an infant son would take was yet uncertain. ConseReginald.

quently, Mr. Rennoe, who was a philosoAnthony Ander, a man of morose, me- pher in his way, regarded Reginald not lancholy temperament, took little interest only with affection, but with a deep interest. in the growth and education of his heir. This friendship was not, perhaps, anacThe child grew to boyhood with no soci- companied by a degree of jealousy, for ety but that of servants, and of old musty Rennoe was certainly anxious to prevent the volumes found in the neglected apartment youth from forming any new attachment. which had sometimes been used as a li- In this respect, he was for several weeks brary. In his sixteenth year he was sent completely gratified. The society of the by his father, who seemed to have had gentlemen of the neighborhood, polished, some prejudice against the English uni- frank, and companionable as they were, versities, to one of the European continen- had little attraction for the student; and tal colleges. Anthony himself was short with his reserve and bashfulness, be found ly after taken sick in London, and died still less to please him in the ladies whom there. The estate went into tbe hands of he met. The occasional sarcasms of Renexecutors, and Reginald who had no ties of noe on the frivolous, trifle-loving sex, were blood nor friendship to draw him to An- evidently listened to without displeasure. derport, passed five full years at the college Sometimes Reginald expressed his own without making a single visit to America. thoughts. “I cannot conceive,” he obIt was just a week after the attainment of served one evening, on their return from his majority that he set out for the home a visit, “how it is that man, who is fitted from which he had so long been estranged to entertain such lofty aspirations, can

The people at Anderport, who had look- bring himself to feel attachment for a creaed forward to his arrival as an epoch, ture whom pature has made incapable of found little to prepossess them in his first thinking.” appearance. He was below the ordinary “It is easily accounted for," returned stature, ungraceful in person, and remark- Rennoc;

" such men

as we saw yonder able for the homeliness of his features. are well fitted to be governed by such inThin locks of carroty hair dangled over fluence." his low forehead and completed the ugli- “True!" ejaculated Reginald. ness of an exterior which was not relieved “Whilst those,” Rennoe continued, by the slightest attention to neatness of "who possess great faculties—who are attire. Nor were there any obvious indi- made to be the master-spirits of the earth cations of intellect to redeem so much that —who seek power, not merely for its rewas repulsive; indeed, his eye had a va- sults, but, like the strong man using his cant, hazy look, which many characterized strength, from delight in the effort" at once as stolid and doltish.

The student, without waiting for the conclusion of the sentence, murmured, half right dashed with unslackened speed along unconsciously, “ They must not let their the road, and afterwards through by-way minds become any body else's property- and over moor, till at last they drew rein the man who knows how to avoid obeying on a lofty eminence which jutted into the may soon learn the way to rule.”

vale, and commanded a prospect of its The sentiment uttered was not exactly whole extent, both downward and up. that which Rennoe desired to provoke, In the one direction the eye swept over yet he did not choose to open a discussion. Anderport and followed the Gavin, until it

Some days after, Reginald went alone was lost from sight in the lake-like river. to return the call of Mr. Chesley, a planter, Towards the southwest the view was whose mansion was some six or seven more contracted, but the very objects that miles distant. He was ushered by the limited it had their own peculiar beautyservant into a parlor, the only occu- rocky hillsides, curtained with vines and pant of which, at the moment, was a shrubbery, and, directly in front, a bold young lady whom he had never before precipice down which the little stream was seen—Matilda Chesley, eldest daughter joyously bounding. They gazed long and of the planter. She received him with silently at the lovely landscape. When great ease and politeness; and as he they turned away, the soft influence of the found her reading when he entered, his scene accompanied them, and no disposiheart at once softened more than it had tion was felt by either to resume the wild ever before done in the presence of womán. haste which had brought them thither. Availing himself of a pause in the dialogue, Their panting horses walked slowly down, he glanced at the open volume. It was not unwilling after such a race to snuff at poetry—the Seasons--and he no longer leisure the balmy air of the evening. Seymade any exception from his sweeping mour talked of his native England; he contempt of the daughters of Eve. described a vale not less beautiful than that

“Do you like Thomson ?". Matilda in- of the Gavin; he told how the hill which quired, noticing the direction of his eyes. they had just left, reminded him of the

“No; he's a pompous, second-hand af- site of his father's stately castle; then he fair, with much more sound than sense.'' painted the park, with its oaks that gave

The lady's countenance was expressive shade when the Tudors reigned ; and lastly, of some surprise, but at that instant the he sighed as he referred to the feelings with door opened. The new comer, also a vis- which he, a younger brother out of a nuitor, was Laurence Seymour, a fine look- merous household, had left those dearly ing young man, who was met with a very cherished scenes to seek his fortune in the cordial greeting. Miss Chesley of course forests of the Western World. introduced him to Reginald Ander. As Matilda listened with rapt attentionthe three were taking their seats, a smile why should she not ? Encouraged by the played on Seymour's lips, and he darted expression of interest which beamed from a glance of peculiar meaning at the young her beautiful countenance, he went on to lady. Reginald took note of both smile say that notwithstanding all which the Atand glance. Immediately all the torpidlantic divided him from, he yet felt that energies of his soul were aroused. That there was room in his heart for the hope of almost imperceptible expression of disdain, a happiness exceeding any that all broad which sprang involuntarily to the hand- England could furnish. He looked full some face of Seymour, and which vanished towards her as he spoke, but her eyes were the moment after, had durable consequen- now bent downward, and he could no: ces.

catch their expression. It was clear, howReginald, satisfied with making a brief ever, that she was much absorbed in what visit, soon returned home. Seymour re- he was saying, for her horse happening to mained, and in the course of the afternoon stumble, the rein was held so carelessly persuaded Matilda that it was a delight that it fell from her grasp, and was drawn ful day for a horseback ride. The sad- quite out of reach. He seized it promptdled steeds were quickly brought to the ly and restored it to the fair horse-woman, door, and they galloped gaily down the but her hand trembled as it touched his. noble avenue in front, then turning to the A great deal more was uttered on the

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