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whom, respectively, the Presidents were political information. The Messages of each elected, than can be found in the speeches President are preceded by a tolerably full of members of Congress, or in the writings biography, and followed by a history of of the partisan editors. The President has his administration, detailing a considerable always been regarded as the only author- portion of the party operations, and other ized single exponent of the party princi- influences at work upon the government. ples, and however more conspicuous in It thus brings together matter naturally point of leadership, active advocacy, or connected, explains the causes of events talent others may have been, their expo- which are mentioned in bare detail in forsitions receive but a limited respect com mal histories, and to the ordinary reader, pared with the general consideration at- adds intelligibility and interest to the Mestached to the Messages as authoritative sages. party manifestoes. Nothing, certainly, In addition to these matters, the comcould have been farther from the design of pilation contains the Declaration of Indethose who compounded the theory of our pendence; the Articles of Confederation; government, than that, in its practical ope- the present Constitution, with the decisions ration, the President should be the official of the Supreme Court on all contested head of a party. They intended for him points submitted to its jurisdiction; epitoan independent position, similar to that of mes of the State Constitutions; lists of the the British sovereign; but it is impossible members of the Continental and Constituthus to isolate any office from party influ- tional Congresses, extending from 1774 to ence, which rests on popular election. An 1846; votes of the States at the Presideningeniously-compounded electoral system tial elections ; lists of the several Cabinets ; was devised as the only partition practica- Ministers abroad; chronological table, &c. ble between the people and the President; An analytical index is added. but in the first instance, the people select In the matter of errors and defects, so ed the President in advance of the elect- important in a work of this character, we ors, and as soon as the system placed an notice but a limited proportion.
The impediment in the way of the popular will, copies of the messages from which it is it was broken through by a constitutional printed are pure, the typographical revisamendment; and we have now electoral ion well made, the mechanical execution colleges only to show the futility of an very fair. We notice one omission—8 effort to base a high office in a Republic proclamation of Washington (other procfounded on universal, or nearly universal lamations being inserted) in relation to the suffrage, on any other foundation than that resistance to the excise on distilled spirits, of popular choice. The evils which our issued Sept. 1792, and which is referred fathers might have feared from this reduc- to in the message of November of that tion in the position intended for the chief year, does not appear.
Several errors magistrate have not wholly overtaken us, meet us in the historical part of the work. and there are good reasons, considering Page 378, it is stated that Mr. Clay was the dignity, restraint, and caution, seeming elected Speaker of the House for the inseparable from the office, why the Presi “second time,” in Dec. 1815; it was the dent should, in preference, be considered third time, as he had been previously the annunciator of the general sentiments, Speaker of the 12th and 13th Houses. On at least, held by the dominant party-in page 354 is a considerable error, for which other words, the majority of the people. one of the “authentic writers on Ameri
The “Statesman's Manual," of which the can history" appears responsible. It is Presidents’ Messages form the principal stated that of the 79 Representatives wbo part, should be on the table of every political voted for the War bill, in 1812, 62 were editor, and in the library of every profes- from the Southern and but 17 from the sional politician; and it is adapted to other Northern States; and that in both Houses uses than those of a mere book of reference. only 21 voted for the bill. This is deci, It is compiled upon such a design that it is dedly bad history. The list of yeas and entirely suited to the purpose of general nays shows that on the passage of the War ling, and could not fail to interest any bill in the House, of the 79 yeas, 33 were
oderately inquisitive on matters of from the North, and 46 from the South
and West; and that instead of the war and in our view this feature gives a most being altogether "a measure of the South decided addition to the value of the work. and West,” it was voted for by a majority | We regret only that it has not been carof the Representatives of the Middle States ried to a farther extent, and that on cer(21 to 18,) and that the whole North gave tain important points, in particular, the nearly as many votes for (33) as against (38) action and motives of parties are not more the measure. There are rather too many elaborately set forth. The history of errors in the Election Tables, pages 1544— parties in the United States is to be writ1546. In the election of 1796, Jefferson's ten. At the proper time it will be done, vote is given at 69 in one place, 68 in and if the proper historian undertakes the another; it was neither, but 67, the whole work, it will be found that few books of vote being 138, and John Adams's 71.- greater interest, or better calculated for Election of 1800, nine States are named instruction, have been written. It will as voting for Jefferson on the 36th ballot open all the machinery of administration, in the House : Vermont should be added, will reveal the secret sources of motion, making ten. 1817-John Marshall had and trace their connection to apparent four instead of five votes as Vice-President events. It will be regarded as an adjunct in Connecticut. 1820—the vote for Mon- to the national history as necessary as the roe is given at 231, without that of Mis- glossaries to the old writers. souri : the vote as counted by the tellers, We are tempted, having the subject and declared by the President of the Sen- before us, to annex a compendious acate (see all the papers of the day,) was 231 count of the parties that have hitherto for Monroe with, or 228 without Missouri's divided the Union. vote. To make up 231, while excluding Missouri, the table gives one vole too many
In the divisions upon the question of to each of these States, Pennsylvania, Mis- the acceptance of the Constitution framed sissippi, Tennessee. The stray vote for John by the Convention of 1787, we discover Quincy Adams is credited to Massachu- the origin of the parties that have consetts; it was New Hampshire, however, tinued, with various modifications, to the and not Massachusetts, which broke the present time. Of the 55 members who unanimity of Monroe's re-election. 1824– attended the deliberations of the convenin the election of President by the House, tion, 39 signed the constitution it had preAlabama looks very much out of place in pared, and 16 declined affixing their the support of Mr. Adams; her three votes
In the discussions following, bewere cast for Jackson. 1836_Col. John-fore the people, and in State conventions, son's vote for Vice-President is made 144, the friends and opponents of the Constitubut should be 147, exactly half the whole tion were in most of the larger States vote. These errors corrected, as we hope nearly balanced. The votes by which it they will be in a future edition, this ta was finally ratified in the several convenble will be the only full and correct one tions, amendatory recommendations and of the Presidential elections we have seen other considerations disarming much of published. Page 1547—Geo. Cabot's ap- the opposition, were as follows: pointment as Secretary of the Navy is
unanimously. stated to have been made in 1789, which
46 to 23 could not have well been; the department 3. New Jersey,
unanimously. not being created until 1798. In the list 4. Georgia,
unanimously. of Secretaries of the Navy, Jacob Crown 5. Connecticut,
128 to 40 6. Massachusetts,
187 to 163 inshield, of Mass., is omitted ; and Robert
62 to 12 Smith, of Md., in the list of Attorney
8. South Carolina,
149 to 73 Generals. In a work not intended for a
9. New Hampshire,
57 to 46 standard character, these errors might be 10. Virginia, allowed to pass.
11. New York,
193 to 75 13, Rhode Island,
2 majority. With the idea of incorporating the histories of the political parties in that of the The Constitution being adopted, an imadministration, we are particularly pleased, | mediate struggle would have ensued for the
89 to 79 30 to 25
offices between the Federalists and anti- ton, but supported George Clinton, of New Federalists, as its friends and opponents York, for Vice-President, in opposition to were respectively termed, on the question Mr. Adams. Of 132 votes cast by the of a more or less effective administration electors, Mr. Adams had 77, Mr. Clinton of its powers, had any other candidate than 50, and there were 5 scattered Democratio General Washington been brought forward votes. for the Presidency. It was not long after The French Revolution was viewed at the first administration commenced, be the outset with equal favor by both of the fore an organization, composed nearly ex parties; but when the Republicans atclusively of anti-Federalists, was perceived tempted to injure the administration with as an opposition, laboring to defeat the the people, on account of its measures of measures of the friends of the President neutrality, and to excite the national anand cabinet, with whom they were nearly tipathy to Great Britain; and, when farther, matched in strength. The President of the disposition of the French to rush into the Senate and Speaker of the House wild excesses became apparent, the en(elected before the opposition appeared) thusiasm of the Federalists was very much were included in this party. Their pro- cooled, and they soon found it necessary fessed principle was a close construction of to resist the increase of the French influthe Constitution ; all considerable powers ence in the United States, which seemed not expressly delegated were reserved by to them fast hurrying the Democratic parthe States, and the rights of the States ty towards the same course on which the were directly invaded by any attempt to French were advancing. The opposition derive large powers by implication. One gained strength enough to carry a small of the earliest constitutioual debates was majority of the House of Representatives on the power of the President to remove on this question, but the majority of the the officers whose appointment was vested people still were with the administration. in him. The anti-Federalists strenuously in the third Congress, Mr. Muhlenberg denied the right of removal, but it was was again elected Speaker by the Demodecided against them. Their alarm was cratic majority. The debates were boisagain fully aroused by the measures of terous, and the Whisky Insurrection, and Mr. Hamilton. The Secretary's Funding other affairs, added fuel to the flames. The scheme—the Internal Duties—the Nation- President's Message, at the second session, al Bank, appeared to them measures de attributed the insurrection to certain “selfsigned to swallow up State sovereignty in created societies,” (the Jacobin clubs ;) the a consolidated nation.
House, in their answer, carefully avoided In the second Congress, the Federalists, any allusion to the matter, or to the Presor Administration party, had a majority in ident's foreign policy, the Senate warmly each branch, and in the House elected commending his sentiments on both subJonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, Speak-jects. An attempt in the House to censure er, over Frederick A. Muhlenberg, of Pa., the “self-created societies” failed by the the Speaker of the former House. A high Speaker's casting vote. degree of irritation prevailed during the When the British treaty was effected, in session, and extended to the cabinet ; | 1795, the rage of the opposition went beMessrs. Jefferson and Hamilton, the ac- yond all bounds. The President, who, knowledged leaders of the parties, became until now, had been treated with at least irreconcilably hostile to each other. The outward respect, was vehemently denounobject of the anti-Federalists, it had now ced, and charged by a portion of the party become apparent, was the election of Mr. with the worst vices and crimes. A small Jefferson to the Presidency, when it should Republican majority had been returned to be vacated by Washington. At his in the House of the fourth Congress, though stance, they dropped their name, and sub- Jonathan Dayton, a Federalist, was elected stituted that of Republicans, but were Speaker, and an address declaring the concalled by the Federalists Democrats, a fidence of the House in the President to name to which they were not then partial. be undiminished, was refused, and the ex
At the election of 1792, the Democrats pression modified. In the debates in this did not venture to oppose Gen. Washing. Congress on the British treaty, the admin
istration finally triumphing, the principal | 100,000—50,000 of them having been speakers were, on the Federal side, Fisher subjects of Great Britain, and 30,000 of Ames, Theodore Sedgwick, Robert G. France. Harper, Roger Griswold, of Connecticut, In the sixth Congress, the administraand Wm. Smith. On the opposition side, Ed- tion party was in a majority in each branch, ward Livingston, James Madison, William as in the last. At the first session cauB. Giles, and Albert Gallatin.
cuses of the members of each party were On the resignation by Mr. Jefferson of held to nominate candidates for President his seat in the cabinet, another Federalist and Vice-President, for the coming elecwas added to the President's advisers, and tion. The Federalists nominated Mr. when Mr. Randolph followed, the cabinet Adams for re-election, with C. C. Pinckwas made undividedly Federal.
ney for Vice-President; the Republicans To succeed Washington, at the election nominated Mr. Jefferson and Col. Burr. of 1796, the Federalists brought for- Before the session adjourned, the result of ward John Adams, a small portion of them the New York State election was ascerpreferring Mr. Pinckney, who was on the tained, the Republicans carrying the Leticket with him, intended for Vice-Presi- gislature, (which was to choose the President. The then called “Republicans” dential electors) and thus deciding a rallied to Mr. Jefferson. The Federalists change of the vote of that State from the argued that in the Washingtonian policy preceding election. The hopes of the Rewas all the safety of the nation-French publicans were raised in a high degree, influence would destroy our liberties if and those of the Federalists somewhat dethe "Republicans " succeeded. The latter pressed, but they did not consider the replied that the Federalists had proved election decided, and made preparations themselves a monarchical party by their for a vigorous effort to repair the loss by devotion to England, and would, at the gains in other States. first opportunity, attempt the establish The quarrel between the President and ment of regal power. Adams received 71 a portion of his cabinet, which had been votes, Jefferson 67. So many votes were long fomenting, became an open rupture withheld from Mr. Pinckney, by the Fed about this time. The President's course eral electors in the Eastern States, that in one part of the French affair had been he fell below Mr. Jefferson, who conse condemned by a portion of the party, inquently became Vice-President. Of the cluding many of the influential leaders, and “Republican” votes intended for Vice among them, Gen. Hamilton; as well as President, 30 were given to Aaron Burr, the Secretaries of State and War, Messrs. and 15 to Samuel Adams.
Pickering and M Henry. The altercation In the first Congress under Mr. Adams, had gone on between the President and the Federalists were in a majority in each Secretaries, increasing the excited feelings branch. The measures of this Congress, between them, until the President dismissand of the administration, regarding ed them both from the cabinet, replacing France, were highly acceptable to the the Secretary of State by John Marshall, people, the French fever having now of Virginia, and the Secretary of War by pretty much subsided, and been succeeded Samuel Dexter, of Massachusetts. The by indignation at the insults offered to the dismissed Secretaries denounced the PresUnited States. The Alien and Sedition ident's "ungovernable temper” and “inacts, however, proved very injurious to correct maxims of administration,” and a the party, and added materially to the considerable portion of the party seconded strength of the opposition. The rancor of their complaints. Gen. Hamilton wrote a political opposition has never gone to such letter highly censuring Mr. Adams's course, extremes in the United States as at this and exposing his faults of character. It period. Of about 200 papers published is supposed Gen. Hamilton designed by in the United States at this time, the Fed this letter, intended for circulation at the eralists had the overwhelming proportion South, to induce the Federal electors of of 180, while to restore the balance, the that quarter to cast their votes so as to Republicans had a body of foreigners in secure the election of Pinckney over their ranks estimated a little short of Adams, in case the party succeeded. If
the State of South Carolina should vote in the Treasury, and Stoddart in the Navy for Jefferson and Pinckney, as in 1796, the Department, besides the Attorney-General,
object would be easily accomplished, Habersham. This was, however, probably + In spite of all their disadvantages, the not intended, at the time, for a permanent
Federalists presented a good front, and arrangement. nearly made up for the loss of New York The President was soon obliged, by the by gains in other States. The little bal demands of his party, to commence the ance wanting to restore the footing of 1796 work of removal, and in answer to the occasioned their defeat; Jefferson and Burr complaints of the Federalists, he declared having 73 votes each, Adams 65, Pinck- it necessary to remove some
of their Now
new difficulty. party, to give his own a fair share in the Fearing the election of Mr. Pinckney as offices. He did not find the places monoPresident or Vice-President, the Republi- polized, however, by that party, and to can electors had withheld none of their effect this equal distribution, is said to have votes from Mr. Burr, and he consequently made but 39 changes during his 8 years. became the equal competitor of Mr. Jef Mr. Jefferson was an excellent judge of ferson for the Presidency, the election be human nature, and no man was better caltween them devolving on the House of culated than he to build up a party. His Representatives. The Federalists in that policy, from the outset, was to conciliate body were in a majority of members, but the moderate portion of the opposition, not of States, which was required for without offending his own party. He was an election. They determined to support more of a politician than statesman, and Burr, supposing that if elected by them he adapted his measures rather according to must of necessity lose the confidence of their effect upon the public mind than the Republicans, and be forced to adopt a upon ideas laid down in theories. Sach Federal line of policy, or at least con was, at least, the course of his first term. siderably modify his Republican principles. Mr. Jefferson commenced with active For 35 ballots, no choice could be effect- projects of “Reform.” The internal ed, Jefferson receiving the votes of 8 States, taxes were to be at once removed, the Burr of 6, and 2 being evenly divided, and newspaper postage abolished, the number of the members 53 voting for Burr and 51 of offices to be reduced, which had been for Jefferson. It being now believed im-“unnecessarily multiplied,” the army and possible to elect Burr, and the assurance navy to be cut down, the naturalization being made by Mr. Jefferson's friends that laws revised, and the importance of the he would pursue a liberal course regarding national government lessened. Several of removals from office, while Burr had de these recommendations were at once cartermined, if elected, to come in only as a ried out; among others, the internal duties Republican, and would be necessitated to
were repealed, while the expenditures exgive some striking proofs of his sincerity, ceeded the revenue; and to carry appear. and might, therefore, sweep all the Fede ances farther, $7,300,000 were appropriralists from the offices. Accordingly, after ated to be added to the sinking fund for an earnest consultation, it was agreed to the payment of the national debt, an apallow Mr. Jefferson to be elected. The propriation which, under the circumNew England Federalists who had assent stances of the treasury, was entirely nomied, with one exception, were bound by a nal. Care was taken that the appearance previous agreement in consequence of that should exceed the reality of reform, exception, and voted again for Mr. Burr, what was effected being chiefly in amendon the 36th ballot, when Jefferson received ment of, instead of supplanting, Fedethe votes of 10 States, Burr of 4, and two ral measures. The general system of were divided.
finance adopted by the Federalists was reFrom the tenor of Mr. Jefferson's inau- tained, even the Bank was cherished and gural, the Federalists hoped that no remo extended, and the neutral policy, so much vals would be made from the public offi- abused, was adhered to still. ces, and perhaps as a measure of concilia In the true spirit which should actuate tion he retained two members of Mr. considerate rulers, the fate of the various · dams's cabinet in his own-Mr. Dexter “reforms” introduced were decided ac