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CANADA.

tained with England. But while a great mili

tary nation holds Fort Erie, Fort Malden, Isle THE Montreal correspondent of the New aux Noix, and fortifiable islands in the St. York Tribune, represents that the entire Lower Mary's—and has the power of embodying the Canada press, has come out in favor of an Canadian militia at its pleasure-with that nanexation. The most influential paper, the tion there can be no unsuspicious peace on Brockville Statesman, declares that separation

one side.

What would be England's trust cannot be independence; intimating the abso- either in France or Prussia, if Wales belong. lute necessity for an union with the United ed to either of them ? and the Canadian is to States. “Nothing can be more selfishly ab us a more dangerous frontier, than the Welsh surd than to set up as a rival power to you. to England. Perhaps we might trust Eng. This every body now sees. According to the land's good faith. I think so myself. But best information I can get, and I assure you I what is to hinder some future Sir Francis, in am not exaggerating, the strength of the despite of the opinions of his superiors, from Orange lodges in the two Canadas is about conceiving that the best plan of hindering the forty thousand men, all well armed and most "loathsome institutions of those whom he of them fairly disciplined. The Irish Roman mysteriously calls “allies,” gaining credit, is Catholics have taken a position of entire neu to get up all possible ill-will to us in Canada, trality, but it is distinctly intimated that they and to make all possible disturbance on the will go with the first party that goes for an frontier? And what is to hinder some future nexation, and if they and the Orange-men go Canadian financiers from calculating that by together, which I think very likely, it will be keeping up difficulty with us, they can milk an unexampled instance of the absorbing pre- England of more money in the way of troops dominance of one common feeling."

and fortifications, than it may be convenient A correspondent, who signs himself Camil to raise otherwise ? Thus then stands the lus, addresses the editor of the Courier and Canada is useless to England, except Enquirer as follows:

as a military position of offence-there is al"Neither do we of the North, want the ways danger of frontier quarrel—our acquisiCanadas as a balance against the Slave States tion of it is therefore the best pledge of future --that would have been important three years peace—especially as the possession thereof, in ago: but now it matters little. A wonderful no wise enables us to act against her with any work of Providence has changed the whole more effect.” bearing of things. The placers have made California a Free State. Without any reasonable doubt California will be admitted this winter—and probably the Wilmot Proviso passed—and the North win the battle: and gain irrevocable mastery in the Senate. A | To the People of Canada. couple of Canadian States might a little an The number and magnitude of the evils ticipate things—but as the result must surely that afflict our country, and the universal and come, why (so far as home politics are con- increasing depression of its material interests, cerned) hurry to make an arrangement, while call upon all persons animated by a sincere it is necessary to consult the South in the mat desire for its welfare, to combine for the purter?

poses of inquiry and preparation, with a view But what we do want the Canadas for, is to the adoption of such remedies as a mature for the sake of safety and peace—peace with and dispassionate investigation may suggest. England. The almost hostility between the Belonging to all parties, origins and creeds, countries from 1783 to the embargo and war, but yet agreed upon the advantage of cowas followed by a pitched commercial battle. operation for the performance of a common Corn Laws and Navigation Laws on the one duty to ourselves and our country, growing side, American system on the other. But this out of a common necessity, we have consenthas passed by, and now we may hope for ed, in view of a brighter and happier future, peace, (even perhaps more) habitually main- ' to merge in oblivion all past differences, oi

ADDRESS OF INFLUENTIAL CITIZENS OF NON

TREAL IN FAVOR OF IMMEDIATE ANXEI-
ATION TO THE UNITED STATES.

ever source.

whatever character, or attributable to what nations of the world, Canada would become

In appealing to our Fellow the battle-field, and the sufferer, however litColonists to unite with us in this, our most tle her interests might be involved in the needful duty, we solemnly conjure them, as cause of quarrel or the issue of the contest. they desire a successful issue, and the wel The bitter animosities of political parties fare of their country, to enter upon the task, and factions in Canada, often leading to vioat this momentous crisis, in the same fraternal lence, and upon one occasion to civil war, spirit.

seems not to have abated with time; nor The reversal of the ancient policy of Great is there, at the present moment, any prosBritain, whereby she withdrew from the Co pect of diminution or accommodation. The lonies their wonted protection in her markets, aspect of parties becomes daily more threathas produced the most disastrous effects upon ening towards each other, and under our exCanada. In surveying the actual condition isting institutions and relations, little hope is of the country, what but ruin or rapid decay discernible of a peaceful and prosperous admeets the eye! Our Provincial Government ministration of our affairs, but difficulties will, and Civic Corporations embarrassed ; our to all appearance, accumulate until GovernBanking and other securities greatly depre- ment becomes impracticable. In this view of ciated; our Mercantile and Agricultural in our position, any course that may promise to terests alike unprosperous ; Real Estate efface existing party distinctions and place scarcely saleable upon any terms; our unri entiely new issues before the people, must be valled Rivers, Lakes and Canals almost un fraught with undeniable advantages. used; while Commerce abandons our shores, Among the Statesmen of the Mother Counthe circulating capital amassed under a more try-among the sagacious observers of the favorable system is dissipated, with none from neighboring Republic-in Canada-and all any quarter to replace it!!—Thus, without British North America--among all classes, available capital, unable to effect a loan with there is a strong pervading conviction that a Foreign States or with the Mother Country, political revolution in this country is at hand. although offering security greatly superior to Such forbodings cannot readily be dispelled, that which readily obtains money both from and they have, moreover, a tendency to reathe United States and Great Britain, when lize the events to which they point. In the other Colonies are the applicants. Crippled, meanwhile, serious injury results to Canada therefore, and checked in the full career of from the effect of this anticipation upon the private and public enterprise, this possession more desirable class of settlers, who naturally of the British Crown-our country-stands prefer a country under fixed and permanent before the world in humiliating contrast with forms of government to one in a state of tranits immediate neighbors, exhibiting every sition. symptom of a nation fast sinking to decay. Having thus adverted to some of the causes

With superabundant water-power and cheap of our present evils, we would consider how labor, especially in Lower Canada, we have far the remedies ordinarily proposed possess yet no domestic manufactures ; nor can the sound and rational inducements to justify most sanguine, unless under altered circum their adoption : stances, anticipate the home growth, or ad I. “The revival of Protection in the marvent from foreign parts, of either capital or kets of the United Kingdom.” enterprise to embark in this great source of This, if attainable in a sufficient degree, and national wealth. Our institutions, unhappily, guarantied for a long period of years, would have not that impress of permanence which ameliorate the condition of many of our chief can alone impart security, and inspire confi- interests, but the policy of the Empire forbids dence; and the Canadian market is too lim the anticipation. Besides, it would be but a ited to tempt the foreign capitalist.

partial remedy. The millions of the Mother While the adjoining. Siates are covered Country demand cheap food, and a second with a net-work of thriving railways, Canada change from Protection to Free Trade would possesses but three lines, which, together, complete that ruin which the first has done scarcely exceed 50 miles in length, and the much to acheive. stock in two of which is held at a deprecia II. “The Protection of Home Manufactures." tion of from 50 to 80 per cent.-a fatal symp Although this might encourage the growth tom of the torpor overspreading the land. of a manufacturing interest in Canada, yet,

Our present form of Provincial Govern without access to the United States' market, ment is cumbrous and so expensive as to be there would not be a sufficient expansion of ill-suited to the country; and the necessary that interest, from the want of consumers, to reference it demands to a distant Government, work any result that could be admitted as a imperfectly acquainted with Canadian affairs, remedy” for the numerous evils of which and somewhat indifferent to our interests, is we complain. anomalous and irksome. Yet, in the event of III. « A Federal Union of the British Améria a rupture between two of the most powerful can Provinces."

The advantages claimed for that arrange- Statesmen, the public sentiments of the Empire, ment are Free Trade between the different present unmistakable and significant indicaprovinces, and a diminished governmental ex- tions of the appreciation of colonial connection. penditure. The attainment of the latter ob- That it is the resolve of England to invest us ject would be problematical, and the benefits with the attributes, and to assume the burdens anticipated from the former might be secured of Independence is no longer problematical. by legislation under our existing system. The The threatened withdrawal of her troops from markets of the sister provinces would not other Colonies—the continuance of her milibenefit our trade in timber, for they have a tary protection to ourselves only on the condisurplus of that article in their own forests; tion that we shall defray the attendant expendiand their demand for agricultural products ture, betoken intentions towards our country, would be too limited to absorb our means of against which it is weakness in us not io supply. Nor could Canada expect any en- provide. An overruling conviction, then, of couragement to her manufacturing industry its necessity, and a high sense of duty we from those quarters. A federal union, there- owe to our country, a duty we can neither fore, would be no remedy.

disregard nor postpone, impel us to entertain IV. “ The Independence of the British the idea of separation ; and whatever nego North American Colonies as a Federal Re- tiations may eventuate with Great Britain, public."

a grateful liberality on the part of Canada The consolidation of its new institutions should mark every proceeding. from elements hitherto so discordant-the for- The proposed Union would render Canada mation of treaties with Foreign Powers—the a field for American capital, into which it acquirement of a name and character among would enter as freely for the prosecution of the nations--would, we fear, prove an over- public works and private enterprise as into match for the strength of the new Republic. any of the present States. It would equal. And having regard to the powerful confederacy ize the value of real estate upon both sides of States conterminous with itself, the needful of the boundary, thereby probably doubling military defences would be too costly to ren- at once the entire present value of property der Independence a boon, while it would not, in Canada, while by giving stability to our any more than a Federal Union, remove those institutions, and introducing prosperity, it obstacles which retard our material prosperity would raise our public, corporate, and private

V. “Reciprocal Free Trade with the Uni- credit. It would increase our commerce both ted States as respects the products of the farm, with the United States and foreign countries, the forest, and the minc."

and would not necessarily diminish, to any If obtained, this would yield but an instal. great extent, our intercourse with Great Briment of the many advantages which might tain, into which our products would, for the be otherwise secured. The free interchange most part, enter on the same terms as at preof such products would not introduce manu- sent. It would render our rivers and canals factures to our country. It would not give the highway for the immigration to, and ex. us the North American Continent for our ports from, the West, to the incalculable market. It would neither so amend our in- benefit of our country. It would also introstitutions as to confer stability nor insure con- duce manufactures into Canada as rapidly as fidence in their permanence; nor would it they have been introduced into the Northern allay the violence of parties, or, in the slight- States; and to Lower Canada especially, est degree remedy many of our prominent where water privileges and labor are abunevils.

dant and cheap, it would attract manufacturVI. Of all the remedies that have been ing capital, enhancing the value of property suggested for the acknowledged ard insuf- and agricultural produce, and giving remuneferable ills with which our country is rative employment to what is at present a afflicted, there remains but one to be consid- comparatively non-producing population. Nor ered. It propounds a sweeping and impor- would the United States merely furnish the tant change in our political and social condi- capital for our manufactures. They would tion, involving considerations which demand also supply for them the most extensive markets our most serious examination. This remedy in the world, without the intervention of a Cusconsists in a Friendly and Peaceful Sepa- tom-House Officer. Railways would forthwith ration from British Connection, and an Union be constructed by American capital as feeders upon equitable terms with the great North for all the great lines now approaching our American Confederacy of Sovereign States.". frontiers; and railway enterprise in general

We would premise that towards Great Bri- would doubtless be as active and prosperous tain we entertain none other than sentiments among us as among our neighbors. The of kindness and respect. Without her con- value of our agricultural produce would be sent we consider separation as neither practi- raised at once to a par with that of the United cable nor desirable. But the Colonial policy States, while agricultural implements and of the Parent State, the avowals of her leading many of the necessaries of life, such as tea,

coffee and sugar, would be greatly reduced in | posterity might enter on terms of perfect price.

equality The value of our timber would also be Nor would the amicable separation of Cagreatly enhanced by free access to the Ameri- nada from Great Britain be fraught with adcan market, where it bears a high price, but vantages to us alone. The relief to the Pais subject to onerous duty. At the same time rent State from the large expenditure now there is every reason to believe that our ship- incurred in the military occupation of the holders, as well at Quebec as on the Great country-the removal of the many causes of Lakes, would find an unlimited market in all collision with the United States, which result the ports of the American Continent. It can- from the contiguity of mutual territories so not be doubted that the shipping trade of the extensive—the benefit of the larger market United States must greatly increase. It is which the increasing prosperity of Canada equally manifest that, with them, the princi- would create, are considerations which, in pal material in the construction of ships is the minds of many of her ablest statesmen, rapidly diminishing, while we possess yast render our incorporation with the United territories, covered with timber of excellent States a desirable consummation. quality, which would be equally available as To the United States also the annexation it now is, since under the Free Trade system of Canada presents many important induceour vessels would sell as well in England af- ments. The withdrawal from the borders of ter Annexation as before.

so powerful a nation, by whom in time of war The simple and economical State Govern the immense and growing commerce of the ment, in which direct responsibity to the Lakes would be jeopardized—the ability to people is a distinguishing feature, would be dispense with the costly but ineffectual revesubstituted for a system at once cumbrous nue establishment over a frontier of many and expensive.

hundred miles—the large accession to their inIn place of war and the alarms of war come from our Customs—the unrestricted use with a neighbor, there would be peace and of the St. Lawrence, the natural highway amity between this country and the United from the Western States to the ocean, are obStates. Disagreements between the United jects for the attainment of which the most States and her chief if not only rival among substantial equivalents would undoubtedly nations, would not make the soil of Canada be conceded. the sanguinary arena for their disputes, as Fellow COLONISTS: We have thus laid under our existing relations must necessarily before you our views and convictions on a be the case. That such is the unenviable momentous question—involving a change, condition of our state of dependence upon which, though contemplated by many of us Great Britain is known to the whole world, with varied feelings and emotions, we all beand how far it may conduce to keep prudent lieve to be inevitable ;-one which it is our capitalists from making investments in the duty to provide for, and lawfully to promote. country, or wealthy settlers from selecting a We address you without prejudice or parfore-doomed battle-field for the home of them- tiality,—in the spirit of sincerity and truth,selves and their children, it needs no reason- in the interest solely of our common country ing on our part to elucidate.

-and our single aim is its safety and welfare. But other advantages than those having a If to your judgment and reason our object bearing on our material interests may be fore and aiin be at this time deemed laudable and told. It would change the ground of politi- right, we ask an oblivion of past dissensions; cal contest between races and parties, allay and from all, without distinction of origin, and obliterate those irritations and conflicts of party, or creed, that earnest and cordial corancour and recrimination which have hitherto operation in such lawful, prudent and judidisfigured our social fabric. Already in an- cious means as may best conduct us to our ticipation has its harmonious influence been common destiny. felt--the harbinger, may it be hoped, of a lasting oblivion of dissensions among all classes, creeds and parties in the country. Changing subordinate for an independent con- The low price of railroad iron at the predition, we would take our station among the sent time is a theme of serious consideration. nations of the earth. We have no voice in There is no article imported which bears the the affairs of the Empire, nor do we share in same relative proportion in consumption as its honors or emoluments. England is our this. For instance: one mile of track conParent State, with whom we have no equali- sumes eighty-five to ninety tons of iron. At ty, but towards whom we stand in the simple the end of ten years on a good road, this relation of obedience. But as citizens of the ninety tons is replaced with new, and the old United States, the public service of the nation stock is ready for manufacture into another would be open to us, a field for high and form, at a depreciation not to exceed thirty honorable distinction on which we and our per cent., leaving sixty-three tons to be rolled

RAILROAD IRON.

into bar and hoop iron, to be consumed by dents with almost every branch of the legal the farmers and mechanics of the country. science their prompt replies to the most ditfi.

There are now in the United States over cult questions, which, at your request, I had four thousand miles of railroad in operation; the honor of addressing to them, and the ease, and, estimating the weight of iron per mile at fluency, and power with which they delivered eighty tons, we have the amount of three their extempore speeches, and engaged in the hundred and twenty thousand tons in actual trial and summing up of their cause, have service.

both delighted and surprised me. Can it be, This, at a depreciaton annually of ten per sir, that the case that has just been triedcent., gives us thirty-two thousand tons, that the minutely detailed stores of the witwhich goes into the channel above specified nesses drawn out by the rigid interrogations for consumption.

of the young counsellors, and their solemn Suppose we continue this system for twen- appeal to the jury, are all, all fiction ? Am I ty years, what amount of iron consumed by in a seminary of learning or in a court-room, the United States annually will be produced surrounded by the mature realities of profesfrom this source ?

sional life? It is the practical part of this It is usually supposed that old rails are system that strikes me with the greatest force. easily converted into new ones, but such is If you go on, young gentlemen, in the course not the case. New rails cannot be made with you are now pursuing, you may take a high facility except from pig iron ; consequently stand in your profession. Constant, persethe already large and constantly increasing vering application will accomplish every amount of this stock is thrown on the mar- thing. To this quality, if I may be allowed ket.

to speak of myself, more than to any thing Look at Vermont and New Hampshire. else, do I owe the little success which I have Carry out the building of all the roads now

attained. Left in early life to work my way in the process of construction, and construct alone, with no other than a common educa. those which are chartered, and both of these tion, I saw that the pathway before me was States will have a full supply of iron (from long, steep and rugged, and that the height this source) for all farming purposes.

on which I had ventured to fix the eye of my The States upon the seaboard may derive ambition could only be reached by toil the a small benefit in being the carriers of this ar

most severe and a purpose the most indomiticle, but they must compete with foreign car

table. But shrinking from no labor, disheartriers.

ened by no obstacle, I struggled on. No opWhat is to be the effect of this trade upon portunity which the most watchful vigilance the iron mines of the west and south?

could secure, to exercise my powers, was per: Uphold this system in its present form for mitted to pass by unimproved. And if I twenty years, and you effectually transport a

could have enjoyed the advantages which

I portion of the iron mines of England and Wales this institution is now conferring upon you, to this country, and distribute them in such a

should have entered upon my profession unmanner as to control the iron interests in all der far higher auspices and brighter hopes. its branches.

But think not, young gentlemen, that your Are the west and south willing to receive labor is to cease with your preparatory course. the stipend? How will Missouri be benefit- / You are here, indeed, but to lay the superted? What say Alabama and Georgia ?

structure to be reared hereafter. The profession you have chosen, more than all others, imposes upon its incumbents the necessity of

constant and arduous exertion. To acquire a MR. CLAY'S SPEECH.

thorough knowledge of the great and compliThe following is the speech of Mr. Clay, cated science of law, demands a life of labodelivered on the occasion of his recent visit to

rious effort. But it is an honorable, a glothe examination of the students of the National rious pursuit. To search out truth, and to Law School at Ballston Spa, N. Y. It is ad- promote justice, is its great end. Truth is to dressed to Mr. Fowler, the president of the

be your aim, justice your guide, and the smiles institution :

of conscience, of God and of men, your ulti. Mr. PRESIDENT: Were I to give a full ex

mate--your high reward. Let these consipression of the feelings with which the scenes

derations govern you from this time forward, of this day have inspired me, it might seem

and with skill and discipline you may lay the too much like the language of extravagant

foundation, and finally reap the reward of a fiattery. For, although the enterprise in high standing and destiny in life. which you are engaged has been long and favorably known to me, I have never until now understood the nature of your system

THE RECENT CUBA EXPEDITION. and its vastly superior advantages to the legal Orleans and New York for the invasion and

The recent ridiculous organizations in New student. The ready familiarity of your stu

AN IRON DEMOCRAT.

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