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Asia. California will then indeed become and prosperous state, but whose prosperity a grand commercial centre, but she will will be most seriously retarded should the continue to be insignificant as a state ; and great road be turned away from it, and for the reason that she produces nothing, directed upon the barren mountains and or rather produces nothing but gold, of all / unprofitable plains of California. With products the least valuable, the least pro- such a route as is contemplated, the profitable, the least beneficial to the world. ducts of Oregon will within a century far

Should Oregon, on the other hand, be exceed a dozen Californias ; nor will those, made the terminus of the new route, there meanwhile, of California decline in consewill be added to the United States a coun- quence, since nothing is more needed to try well fitted for every purpose of agricul- the prosperity of that state than the immeture and manufacture, of vast extent, free diate neighborhood and intercourse of such from the remotest danger of invasion, of a a population as that which will be in temperate climate, and lying convenient to Oregon. Let not the Californian think the ocean, towards which already a stream

me his enemy:

The fewer the better in of population is moving, which must soon that country for those who are there. convert it from a wilderness to a wealthy

J. D. W.



The State and City elections of New to a great height. A complete rupture York on the 6th November, have shown a took place all over the Union. It was resuperiority of strength in the Republican and solved by the Barn Burning faction that Conservative party over the united forces of Mr. Cass, who headed the Old Hunker dithe remains of the old Jackson organiza- vision, should be defeated, cost what it tion, called Loco Focos, and of the new might. The body of the party, however, party, who go by the name of Barn Burn- had been so entirely corrupted by the en

joyment of office, and by other causes of The origin of these two factions in the political decay incident to the unscrupulous State of New York arose upon a quarrel employment of power, that the new divisbetween the old office holders, who came ion of them found themselves, to their in under the old Jackson dynasty, and the great surprise, without a single principle of younger members of the same party, who organization; in fact, in the race for power wished to succeed them in the offices which they had left their principles behind, and they had so long held. The two factions forgotten where they left them. They had organized themselves under the name of nothing positive about them. They were Barn Burners and Old Hunkers. (We opposed to prohibitory duties and unnecesput these facts on record for the benefit of sary tariffs, it is true, but so were the mafuture historians, as they are likely to be jority of the Whigs. In Kane letters, and forgotten.) The Old Hunkers were the other recorded documents, they advocated successors of, or were themselves, the men protection, incidental, certainly, but still who went over from the ranks of Federal- protection. They thought it a good thing, ism to join the no-principle party of Gen- so it was not carried too far—and so eral Jackson ; they, however, carried their did the Whigs. They were opposed to the principles with them in their pockets, to be establishment of a National Bank with used upon occasion. In order to win over unlimited powers. They announced, in the body of foreign emigration, more Presidents' messages, and elsewhere, that especially in the city of New York, they they thought a Bank, unless it were propassumed the name of Democrats, synono- erly regulated, and placed under proper mous with Jackson men, or friends of the restrictions, a dangerous experiment, and people. Unluckily for themselves, however, so did the Whigs. They professed themas it proved in the sequel, they adopted the selves opposed to an unlimited and extravnew doctrine of rotation in office, and be- agant system of improvements. They ing, of late years, extremely slow and loth thought it necessary that the money of the in its application to themselves, there Government should be expended constitusprang up a number of enthusiastic young tionally, and in cases that were deemed philosophers, very practical men too, who necessary to the national welfare, and so undertook to see that the doctrine was ap- were and did the Whigs. They were opplied;

the consequence was the formation posed to the interference of Congress in of a new party, who called themselves the domestic affairs of the Southern States, Barn Burners, because they had under and so were the Whigs. They thought it taken to set fire to the barn in order to necessary to make a peace with Mexico, drive out the rats.

on terms favorable to the honor of this Under Mr. Polk's Administration the country—the Whigs indicated with great unpopularity of the old office-holding, or distinctness that they were of the same old Hunker division of that scion of Fed- opinion. They believed in a certain reaeralism which claims the name of Democ- sonable rotation of office, and so indeed racy, but which goes commonly by the did the Whigs, as was proved by the elecmore appropriate title of Loco Foco, rose tion of General Taylor. They thought it

had" but one,

necessary that Representatives should rep- that Congress had no right to interfere to resent their constituents, and that what a prevent the extension of slavery over the man had promised to vote for in Congress national territory. Could the new faction he should vote for; in fact, to their amaze- set itself in opposition to this doctrine, there ment, they found that they had not a sin- was the hope of something like an organgle principle left them. Old Hunkerism, ization. They made it a point to say, with even,

and that it had inher- the Whigs, that slavery ought not to be ited from Federalism, the unscrupulous extended over the national domain. They application, namely, of the Presidential endeavored to have a form of law given to veto, and of this they conld make no cap- this principle; and, under the name of ital, taken by itself. The principle was Wilmot Proviso, it came before the counnothing in itself. To have any basis of try, and was rejected, chiefly because of organization at all, to have any soul, the untimeliness of its appearance, and the thought, or speculation, to have any thing injudicious manner of its introduction, and efficient or statesmanlike about them, they its insulting and repulsive appearance to must find something, they must find some the South. The majority of the people fresh and lively opinion, some new and phi- were clearly in favor of preventing the exlosophical sentiment, that should serve as tension of slavery over the national domain, a soul to animate the, as yet, dull and life- but the Wilmot Proviso neither is, nor ever less faction.

will be, the means of that prevention. By assiduous writing, speaking, and The Abolition third party, which had teaching, the Whig party had, after many hitherto distinguished itself by annually years of almost hopeless effort, succeeded putting a certain number of good votes in in creating a powerful opinion against the limbo, witnessing the unfortunate predicaextension of slavery over new territory. ment of the young faction, came forward They had succeeded in convincing the with a very handsome offer to furnish out South that every additional acre of cotton, a new stock of principles, of a very racy cultivated by slave labor, would serve only and enlivening character, such as would to lower the price of cotton, and diminish have a good sound, and chime in well with the profits of the older planters. They the sentimental passion of the day. Barn had succeeded in convincing the South Burnerism took the hint, and accepted this that its true policy was rather to diminish very handsome offer in part; it announced than to increase the number of cotton itself, on a sudden, as the champion of planters. They had shown them møre- Free Soil, much to the astonishment of the over, nay, had convinced them, as they Whigs, who had hitherto imagined that had convinced the entire North, that Con- they alone were the defenders of free ingress had full power either to extend or to stitutions in the new territories; that they limit slavery in the territories of the na- alone, for reasons both economical and phition. They had also established the doc- lanthropical, had set themselves against the trine that the sovereignty of a State created extension of domestic slavery. The oraupon new territory, was perfect from the tors of the new faction, overjoyed at the instant of its birth, and that new States discovery of a principle-a thing unheard could not be interfered with to force them of since the election of Gen. Jacksoneither to suppress or to erect among them- were at vast pains to impress the minds of selves the institution of slavery. It was the masses with a proper sense of the digthe original doctrine of the Whigs that nity of their mission. They stepped fornew States should legislate for or against ward with great self-possession, as the slavery on their own responsibility, and defenders of human rights in general, eswith full powers. This doctrine so un- pecially as they appear

in the

of the luckily appropriated by the Whigs, was of negro; but they were not unconstitutional, no avail to either section of their adversa- oh! no, not they! They were not disposed ries, except under a very bold and danger- to meddle with the domestic institutions of ous system of lying and misrepresentation, the South, oh! no, not they! all that they such as is followed by the Union newspaper. professed was an intention to prevent the

The Old Hunker division, on the other spread of slavery over new territories, and hand, were disposed to hold to the doctrine | by constitutional means.

For a time the new organization flour- | to their opponents to come over and work ished wonderfully. They adopted a leader together with them to defeat the Whigs. who was by no means a man of straw, but Democrats, cried the liberal Globe newsa powerful and able politician ; in fact paper, with the characteristic Old Hunthe original organizer of the party of ker bon hommie, shall we go to work which they were now the most important and elect our whole ticket, which will enfaction. Mr. Van Buren led off the new able us all to partake of the fat things movement very handsomely, pledging him- which will fall from the Democratic cornuself to do every thing to prevent the ex- copia ? or shall we remain divided, and be tension of slavery, and committing himself compelled for a number of years to feed on to nothing farther. It is said that he al- short commons, until we have not strength lowed himself to be placed in this position to withstand an old fashioned North Wesin order that he might revenge himself up- ter—what do you say? The appeal was on the Southern division of the party who irresistible; the two factions closed their had previously defeated his nomination at ranks, and voted together; but, to the Baltimore. However this may be, the amazement of all concerned, they were new faction succeeded in defeating the old beaten by a good majority. one; the Whigs came into power, and Old That men should make sacrifices in a Hunkerism fell prostrate; deprived of of great cause is necessary to their success; fice, and, consequently, as it had nothing they are called upon, in a good cause, to else, deprived of organizing power. To sacrifice whatever is most dear and precious be, at once, without office and without to them; and when such sacrifices have a principle, was the condition of Old Hun- been made, how great is our sympathy and kerism ; it consisted now of a clique of re- pity for those to whom they have availed jected office holders, who could not, for nothing! The Barn Burner faction, stimutheir lives, show any man a reason, or the lated by a patriotism truly elevated, resolshadow of a reason, why they should be ved that no sacrifice should be esteemed too returned to office-an imbecile and wretch- great for the advancement of that cause of ed condition.

which it was the sworn advocate; the Finding their case hopeless, and witness- cause, as it avowed it, of freedom and huing with a sullen discontent and jealousy manity; no sacrifice seemed too great; it the rising

power of their new enemies, for- was ready to throw aside that which it held merly their brothers, or their sons, they most dear, its own jewel, its sole principle, began to make overtures to the new fac- its yery

honor. As the principle for which tion. Old Hunker made a very liberal of- it existed was the thing of all others which fer to young Barn Burner that they two it held most dear, that was the thing of all should clap each a shoulder to the wheel, others which it determined to sacrifice. and having, by the union of numbers, It did this, and lost the election ;-catasachieved a victory, they should divide the trophe truly to be deplored !-melancholy spoil between them. In New York espe- comment upon the vanity of human wishes, cially, for some months previous to the and the futility of the best laid schemes ! late election, this union was agitated, and it had laid a wager to swim across the finally agreed upon by most of the leaders. river with a bag of gold, and as a prelimiNewspapers on the Old Hunker side ad- nary step, threw away the bag. dressed hearty and soul-stirring invitations

J. D. W.



On the 24th of October, SAMUEL B. Rug- chimerical, and this was more especially true GLES, Esq., of this city, addressed to a com- in the city of New York, among its merchants mittee of gentlemen residing in Rochester, an and capitalists. After an eight years' struggle, able letter in vindication of the policy that has on the 15th of April, 1817, the law authoribeen pursued in the construction of canals in zing the Canal passed through the Legislature. this state, from the time of Clinton to the pre- The whole delegation of the City of New York sent period. Being too long for publication voted against it. in the Review, we shall endeavor to furnish, It was during these contests that the politiin a condensed form, all its important facts and cal parties which even now agitate the State, conclusions.

found their origin and early organization. Mr. The great subject of his letter is introduced Silas Wright, since elected Governor, and by asking three questions : "What is the pre- Mr. AzARIAH C. Flagg, the late Comptroller, sent state of the Erie Canal enlargement ? came into public life about that time, the active What has brought it to its present condition ? opponents of Mr. Clinton. What are its prospects ?" The three ques- In 1823 Mr. CLINTON retired from the office tions, though distinct, he examines together. of Governor; from the year 1810, when the He first gives a graphic sketch of the three first explorations and surveys were made, to political parties at present existing in the state. the year 1823, he had held the honorary post The Whigs, he says, consist mainly of those, of Canal Commissioner, without salary or and the descendants of those, who supported emolument. In 1824, the great work was near Clinton in the great work of the Erie Canal; its completion. His adversaries, having a —they are those who advocate, as part of their majority in both branches of the Legislature, creed, improvements of the interior as well as passed a joint resolution, supported by Mr. of the sea-board, and who believe that the Wright in the Senate, and Mr. Flagg in the commerce of rivers, and canals, and lakes, are Assembly, removing him from that post, which as important to national interests as that of the he had so long and so ably filled. ocean.

The whole community was shocked at this Opposed to this party is that of those who cold-blooded, intentional insult to a great pubcall themselves Democrats. This last is di- lic benefactor. Mr. Clinton was at once put vided into two sections, one of which is wholly in nomination for re-election as Governor the averse to every kind of internal improvements approaching autumn, and he swept Colonel at the expense of the state, and is known by Young, the opposing candidate, from the field the terrible name of - BARNBURNERS," the by an immense majority. most prominent leader of which is Col. Sam- In the large views of Mr. Clinton, howvel Young, aided by Mr. MICHAEL HOFFMAN, ever valuable the Erie Canal might be, as the and Mr. Flagg, the late Comptroller.

main commercial artery of the State, it needed Midway between this wing of the Demo- the contributions of lateral canals, branching cracy and the Whig party, is that portion who oft into the more interior recesses of the counenjoy the comfortable title of “OLD HUNKERS;" try. He, therefore, recommended successive and it is their creed that public works ought additions to the system, which should connect to be "judiciously” prosecuted-provided they Lake Ontario and the Black River, the Cayuga themselves can fill the offices of honor or pro- and Seneca Lakes, and the fertile regions of fit connected with the administration. The the Genesee, the Susquehanna and the Allemost eminent leader of this school is Govern- gany, with the great trunk traversing the or MARCY.

State. The present generation, enjoying as it does This was the origin of the lateral canals. the daily benefits of the Erie Canal, can hard- From the moment of their construction they ly realize the difficulties which its projectors have been the theme of the most malignant were obliged to encounter. Forty years ago, abuse which party could devise. Disregardwhen the plan was first announced of con- ing their palpable effects in swelling the revestructing a canal from the Hudson River to nues of the main line and the general comLake Erie, the idea was treated as purely | merce of the State, their tolls have always



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