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annum for every successive period of seven, by party—and none of the inhabitants had years; or seven and a half per cent. annually any political object in destroying its public for every period of ten years. He estimated the credit. Although feeling the effect of the getolls from 1840 to 1846, both inclusive, at neral depression, the city issued seven per $15,602,745—they actually amounted to $15,- cent. stocks to the amount of $1,900,000, and 490,076; showing a variation of only $112,- finished the work. Had the state policy been 669 in this immense sum. He then expressed pursued, not a drop of water would have the opinion of the Fund Commissioners, that flowed through the aqueduct to this day. it would be safe to add to the debt of the State By the last Report of the Commissioners of three millions annually, for the next five the Canal Fund, it appears that the whole years. This sum would have fulfilled all ex amount of loans made for the enlargement of isting contracts, and have brought into use all the Canal, up to the 30th of September, the locks and aqueducts on the enlargement. 1848, was $10,122,000: of this amount: $8, Under the law of 1838, the State had already 150,000 had been authorized previous to 1842. borrowed $4,000,000 for that purpose; but the balance, $1,972,000, represents the whole they proceeded to authorize loans for the ad- amount due to contractors on the 29th of ditional amounts of $2,000,000 in 1840, and March, 1842, including the damages paid for $2,150,000 in 1841, making the sum total for rescinding their contracts. the enlargement of $8,150,000.
MR. COLLIER, the Whig Comptroller, proIn the year 1841, a general depression of posed to issue seven per cent. stocks for a public stocks was experienced throughout the moderate amount; but he was displaced, and United States. The Ohio Six per cents were Mr. Flagg again succeeded to the office. No secured both by a pledge of the canal tolls of money was raised or sought for on any terms. that State and a permanent authority of their The improvements of the public works were state officers to levy a direct tax, should there doomed, by the party now having the power, be any deficiency. Such a provision could to be stopped, and they were stopped. The safely have been adopted in this state, and it Canal from Albany to Buffalo was strewed would have silenced demagogues, who were with the wreck. The Legislature paid $10,000 loud in denying its pecuniary solvency. Pro- for removing materials which encumbered the tected by this provision, the Ohio Sixes sold in ground' most required for immediate use in 1839 for 105 per cent. In April, 1841, they | Lockport; and the contractor, for that very had fallen to 91 per cent. Within the same work, obtained $74,000 as damages for the period, New York Six per cents fell from 97 rescinding of his contract. to 85 per cent.
Although the law contemplated stopping all In the autumn of 1841, the anti-improve the public works, yet there was provision ment party, headed by Mr. MICHAEL HOFF- made for a limited class of cases, in which the MAN, were in the ascendancy in both branches State officers should deem the work necessary of the Legislature. They had the power to to preserve or secure the navigation of the control the public works, by either suspending navigable canal, of which it was a part-or them, proceeding with them slowly, or stop- to preserve work already done, from destrucping them wholly.
tion by ice or floods or where the completion In January, 1842, two months after the would cost less than the expense of preservelection, the Ohio Six per cents fell to 67 ing the part done. But even this clause was per cent., and in March were sold at 52 per disregarded. The new Jordan level was an cent. The Five per cent. stocks of the city independent line of new canal 11 1-2 miles of New York, being the Croton Water Loan, / long, which dispensed with two locks, and which had been sold in April, 1841, at 85, fell united three levels in one. It had cost $530,to 75 in February, 1842, while the stock of 429, and required but $42,178 to bring it into the Bank of Commerce, a proverbially con use. The old navigation was actually hazservative institution, was depreciated in a still ardous; but the State officers peremptorily regreater degree. The city of New York, instead fused to allow it to be completed. of laying a tax to pay the interest of the Cro The Scobarie creek, in times of floods, was ton Stock, compounded and added it to the dangerous for boats to cross, and often caused principal,--the policy being to expedite the very serious delay to great numbers which, at work as rapidly as possible and render it pro- such times, were obliged to wait for the stream ductive, when a tax, if necessary, could be to subside. To obviate this inconvenience a adjusted to make up the difference between the fine aqueduct, on ten or twelve stone arches, revenue and the interest. The city had ex was completed, at a cost of $179,000, and it pended about $11,000,000_a little more than required only the expenditure of $37,617 to the state had expended on the Erie enlarge- adapt it to the levels of the enlarged canal. ment. The city was receiving nothing from the This was also refused. aqueduct—the state was receiving large and In 1844, Mr. Flagg and his associates, the increasing annual revenues from the canal. Canal Commissioners, made a Report, quesThe Croton Aqueduct had never been attacked tioning the policy and necessity of enlarging
the canal at all, for the purpose of cheapening | Add
Add to this the loss for the useless movement transportation. This was intended as a death of 18,725,150 miles, and we approach to blow to the canal enlargement. Mr. HORACE something like a demonstrable amount of the SEYMOUR, of Utica, an eminent Hunker, and loss that the public will have sustained by the Chairman of the Canal Committee, strongly Stop law at the end of the seven years! But opposed it, and succeeded in passing a law when will the work be completed? The fucompelling the State officers to complete, and ture appears as full of loss as the past. We bring into use, the Jordan level and the Sco are full of amazement at the infatuation harie aqueduct—but under the pretence of a which could have led the people to submit to repair of the Erie canal. At the same session, a policy so suicidal. the Canal Committee also showed the impor In 1846 the three political parties in this tance of enlarging, without further delay, the State met in Convention to make a new Conremaining 15 locks between Syracuse and stitution. So long as the people are satisfied Rochester. The cost, they showed, would not with the result, the Constitution will continue. exceed $1,350,000. Nothing was done. This Mr. HOFFMAN came into the Convention flush. measure would have been one of great value, ed with his triumph of 1842, and resolved to for, by allowing boats of the increased size engraft its whole spirit into our organic law. (of 105 tons) instead of 70 tons to pass be But time and circumstances had dissipated, in tween the Hudson and Buffalo, two boats would a good degree, the clouds which had envelopbe able to carry as much as three of the pres ed the public mind. After establishing a sinkent capacity. The number of miles run by ing fund out of the revenues of the canal to the boats in 1844 was 6,740,740, which might re-imburse the debt, he condescended, as an have been diminished one third, or 2,246,913 act of sovereign grace, to allow $2,500,000 in miles, if vessels of the larger measurement the aggregate, to be applied at some future pehad been employed. The economy of saving riod, not to the enlargement
, but to the "imannually such an immense movement is obvi provement” of the Erie Canal. Black River
and Gennesee Valley were left to their fate. Mr. RUGGLES proceeds to show the amount Mr. Bouck had become Governor during of useless movement that the boats and car the darkest hour of the Stop law, and was goes of the canal have been and will be obli now a member of the Convention. Although ged to perform in the "seven years" of folly the author of the Enlargement policy, he was which have followed the Stop law. Under the elected Governor by the very party who were Whig policy, the locks could and would have loudest in denouncing the policy to which his been finished, at the farthest, by the spring of whole life had been devoted. It was a sorry 1844. The movement of boats, independent sight to see him, in the Executive chair, susof those from the lateral canals, during the taining the act of 1842; but such only was five years from 1844 to 1848, inclusive, has the tenure by which the office could be held! been 39,831,550 miles; and by adding 1849 In the Constitutional Convention of 1846 and 1850, there will be a total of 56,175,450 he had regained so much of his former tone, miles. Of this, 18,725,150 could have been as to oppose Mr. HOFFMAN, and he was supsaved to the community. This loss falls chief ported by most of the Hunkers. The result ly on the agricultural classes. To the loss of was, that the provision was finally adopted individuals must be added the loss of interest, which secured the ultimate completion of the which in these seven years of delay falls upon Erie Canal Enlargement, and the Genesee Valthe treasury. The enlargement had cost in ley and Black River Canals. 1842, including interest, at least $13,000,000 The "compromise," as it is termed, of the To finish the locks and aque
Constitution of 1846, consists in prohibiting ducts in 1844, the further
the State from using its credit, except on coninterest for two years would
ditions that virtually render it impracticable not have exceeded
$1,600,000 for it assumes that the principal and interest of
any debt hereafter to be incurred can only be
$14,600,000 discharged by means of direct taxes to be imTo which add cost of locks
posed on all the property of the State, and and aqueducts themselves,
that the taxes shall be sufficient to pay the inaccording to Mr. SEY
terest and redeem the principal in eighteen MOUR's Report,
$1,400,000 years. A tax of this kind would fall equally
on those who are and those who are not be
$16,000,000 nefitted by an improvement. And, moreover, Loss by the seven years' de
the people would scarcely submit to a tax for lay-interest from 1844 to
eighteen years, when the State possesses am1851 on the $14,600,000
ple revenues to pay the interest and extinguish at simple interest,
5,932,000 the principal of a debt. The Constitution
therefore, by adopting this provision, practiMaking a total cost in 1851 of $21,932,000 cally declares that no further improvement
shall be prosecuted in this State by means of As an avenue of trade, it now outstrips its credit, except when coupled with a tax. every channel of commerce, natural or arti
The only resource, then, which remains for ficial, in the New or the Old World; it far the exigencies of the State, so far as its pre exceeds the Rhine, which flows through the sent or future public works are concerned, are heart of Europe for 500 miles, and has its the tolls of the Erie Canal, and it is therefore navigation carefully improved by the seven more than ever important that they shall be Sovereign Powers adjacent to its banks. Nor carefully watched and vigilantly cherished. is its activity impaired by the long line of Rail
It is not a little edifying that those who Roads lying on its margin. The whole descendmost violently ridiculed the idea that the Ca- ing cargoes passing over the Rail Roads during nal revenues would suffice as a basis of a debt, the year 1848, were but 29,999 tons. In seven are now comforting their friends on the lines months of navigation of the same season, the of the Canals by the assurance that the tolls Canal brought 1,180,000 tons to tide water. will not only pay off a debt of $25,000,000 in The pecuniary amount of the Canal comabout twenty years, but in addition, will af- merce, which in 1843 had reached 76,000,000 ford ample means for proceeding with all of dollars, ascended in 1848 to 140,000,000; suitable despatch, to complete the public and yet it was alleged in the Convention for works.
making a Constitution, that the Canal revThe sum annually set apart by the Consti enues had about reached their culminating tution for extinguishing the principal and in- point. Mr. RUGGLES concludes his letter as terest of the public debt, is $1,650,000, to follows: which is added $200,000 on account of the “For once the writer of this hasty sketch ordinary expenses of the government. The has ventured to believe, and yet continues to remainder is to be divided between the En-believe, that an immense interior region of unlargement, the Genesee Valley, and Black River equalled fertility, and of truly imperial extent, Canals, and it now is about $1,000,000. This --the destined centre of American population, is the result of the compromise." There is, commerce and power,--as yet but in the early however, one feature in the Constitution which morning of its days, --lies just beyond our the friends of improvement regard as impor-western border, and plainly within our reach, tant-it is that the State officers who manage --and that it does not fall within the narrow the Canals and their revenues, shall hereafter ken of the men of the present day, fully to be elective by the people.
encompass the vast extent of its future wealth At the opening of the Session of the Legis- and greatness. lature in 1847, Mr. Flagg announced the " To connect the ocean with a region thus surplus tolls then applicable to the public wide spread and magnificent, by commodious, works to be $117,000.
constant and ample means of intercourse,- to In November, 1847, MILLARD FILLMORE was bind in bonds of mutual and ever-enduring inelected Comptroller, under the new Constitu- terest and affection, the far distant portions of tion. On examination of the public accounts, our favored land,—he has always believed, he discovered a sum of $500,000 which he and yet believes to be the bounden duty of the decided to be justly applicable to the comple- government of this State, and the aim of the tion of the public works. Mr. WASHINGTON intelligent, generous, and patriotic Whig party, Hunt succeeded Mr. FILLMORE, and he has of which he claims to be one among the humdiscovered sums amounting to $800,000, blest members. which, in his judgment, were also applicable " But the Constitution of 1846, in a great to the public works. This makes a total of measure, renders future effort needless and $1,300,000.
hopeless. We may proceed slowly and paWith the moderate means the Constitution tiently, and in a reasonable time accomplish a has left to our present faithful and patriotic useful portion of the work, but the full meaofficers, the locks of the Erie Canal may be sure of its benefits can hardly be enjoyed by finished and opened for the large boats by the the present generation. The next will be spring of 1851. But the progress of deepen more fortunate, and may be wiser-and when ing the channel and realizing its largest bene they come to perceive and enjoy its multifold, fits, must necessarily be slow and painfully ceaseless, and ever increasing blessings, some protracted.
curious inquirer into the past, wondering why During the last season, the products floating it was so long delayed, may possibly look on the Canals amounted to 2,736,230 tons, back and calculate the losses sustained by exceeding by 1,100,000 tons the amount trans their fathers in the fury of party conflicts, by ported in 1843. The amount paid upon the the madness of party leaders. "If the history Canal in 1848 for tolls and freight was $5, shall chance to furnish a salutary lesson, it 800,000 dollars, and in the active season of will not be studied in vain." 1847, $8,400,000.
The engraving of Gov. Briggs, of Massa-, Orations and occasional Discourses. By Geo. chusetts, in the preceding number, purports W. BETHUNE, D.D. New York. G. P. in the lettering to have been taken from a Putnam. daguerreotype by Whipple, of Boston, the the same who took the portrait from which The publication of this book will gratify Richie's plate of the Hon. Daniel Webster was the minds of many persons who have crowdengraved.
ed to listen to the eloquent sermons and disThis we are informed is an error. The courses of this eminent divine. They will daguerreotype of Gov. Briggs was taken by hasten to possess the words that have thrilled L. M. Ives, of Boston, and is declared by the them with classic beauty, and those who have engraver to be of the very best kind for artis not heard with their own ears will be able to tic purposes. Mr. Richie's plate is a very verify the fame of the orator. Dr. Bethune faithful copy of it.
is probably most remarkable for the deep ap
preciation he has of classic literature. He Medicines, their uses and mode of administra- shows by his poetic spirit and severe taste
tion, including a complete conspectus of the that he has not merely wandered by and adthree British Pharmacopæias, an account of has drunk deeply thereof.
mired these Pierian springs of literature, but all the new remedies, and an Appendix of Formulæ. By J. MOORE NELIGAN, M.D., Edinburgh, &c., from the second Dublin edition. With additions, by BENJAMIN W. M'CREADY, M.D., Prof. of Materia Medica
The inedited works of Lord Byron, now first and Pharmacy in the College of Pharmacy
published from his letters, journals
, and other of New York, &c., &c. New York: W.
manuscripts in the possession of his son, MaE. Dean, Publisher.
jor GEORGE GORDON Byron. New York :
G. G. Byron, 257 Broadway. R. Martin, The high authorities, the Drs. Beck of this 46 Ann street. New York. city and Albany, both of them Professors of Materia Medica, say of this work, "as a com This work is such as might be supposed a pact, yet comprehensive manual of the Mate reprint. It is published by and for Major Byria Medica it is the best we know of in the ron in New York. We have heard a great English language." Dr. McCready is also deal of scandal about Major Byron and this commended by these gentlemen as a particu- book, but have neither leisure nor inclination larly competent editor of the American edi- to attend to it. All that we know absolutely tion. We of the laity, must, of course, rely about the matter is gathered from the work itupon such authority in calling attention to self, which is its own explanation. There can such professional works, which we do in this be no doubt of its authenticity. The edition case with the utmost confidence.
is exquisitely printed, the part of the editor in On turning to our contemporary the “Bos- the first number, the only one as yet publishton Medical and Surgical Journal," we ob- ed, is well, not to say elegantly written, and serve that it speaks în disparaging terms of the notices of Lord Byron's life and conduct the mechanical execution of this edition. We are extremely interesting, placing him in a light cannot account for this, as the copy of the very favorable to humanity, and satisfactory book before us does by no means justify these to those who admire his genius. One thing strictures. It is very true that the book is not will give his readers a particular pleasure, gotten up in that expensive manner common namely, that his son has secured his memory in other countries in issuing, professional from the worst of calumnies, from the charge works, and which in works of this character of having abused and neglected his mother. is often a greater fault than merit; but the That she and her son loved each other tenderpaper of this edition is good, and the type and ly, and that he regarded his mother as the best printing as clear as the condensed form will friend he had on earth, is fully established by allow. It has evidently been the intention of Major Byron in this first number. We wish the publisher to bring
the work within the rank all success to his truly worthy and honorable of that extensive class of medical students endeavors to rescue the memory of his father whose means are too limited to pay much for from the disgraces which have been heaped
upon it. Major Byron is a citizen of Virginia.
ornamenting the useful.
The Old World: or Scenes and Cities in For- | Poems. By AMELIA, (Mrs. WELBY.) A new
eign Lands. By William FURNESS. AC enlarged addition. Illustrated by original companied with a map and illustrations. designs, by Robt. W. West. New York: New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1849. D. Appleton & Co. 1850.
A very agreeable series of sketches of travel through the principal cities of Europe. The worthy of the finest dress. This is the sev
A most beautiful edition of poems, well book is written in a light and pleasing style, and carries on the reader easily and agreeably. Unquestionable poetry they undoubtedly are.
enth edition of these. They are worthy of it. The author is evidently one of the "good natured travellers," sees whatever is agreeable,
Of how many of the singers of the day can and imparts his own feelings to his readers.
we say as much ? He wrote because he liked to, and sought to please by the communication of his own pleasures. With one reader at least he has The Mouuments of Egypt. By F. L. HAWKS perfectly succeeded.
D.D. With notes of a Voyage up the Nile by an American. New York : G. P. Put
Outlines of Astronomy. By Sir John F. W.
HERSCHELL. With plates and wood cuts. As it is our intention to review at length Philadelphia : Lee & Blanchard. 1849. this valuable work, we will content ourselves Of all the subjects of human thought and for the present. The enterprising publisher
with calling the attention of our readers to it scientific investigation, Astronomy most palpably illustrates the glory of the intellect of
has made it a fit companion, in artistic execuman, whilst it at the same time most reveals to Nineveh. The numerous readers of that ab
tion, &c., to the beautiful edition of Layard's it the infinite power and wisdom of his Creator. - The most plodding and industrious in
sorbing work, will be glad of this book of Dr. vestigator in this transcendant science must be
Hawks, as in a measure filling out a branch of an eloquent writer or speaker, when he dis
the subject of Eastern antiquities, which the
former author has made, we may almost say, plays his studies to the world. Hence, it is the most popular of the Sciences. We need
a popular study. not commend the work before us, therefore, to the public. The author's name stands the first among a "glorious company," and a new work from him, giving the last results at
Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt. By which the wing of thought has reached in the
John P. KENNEDY. 2 vols. Philadelphia : profounds of space will command universal
Lea & Blanchard. 1849. attention. The book is well printed, and illustrated with the necessary diagrams.
As it is our bounden duty to display at large the beauties and merits of this excellent
work and labor of love of Mr. Kennedy, we Physician and Patient. By WORTHINGTON
can only now say that we trust there is genuHOOKER, M.D. New York: Baker & ine patriotism enough to reward the author by Scribner: 1849.
a wide and appreciative reading of it. The We find such a "capital notice" of this work
readers of this Journal are not unacquainted in the Boston Medical Journal, that we can
with Mr. Kennedy's high qualities as a writer not do better than quote it. “This gentleman,”
on politics as well as literature. Would that it says, “has been for a considerable time ma more of our statesmen would appreciate as he king a kind of philosophico-ethical analysis does, the duty of putting their thoughts in a of the mutual duties, relations, &c., of the more durable form than that of mere verbal medical profession and the community." utterance.
The following are among the subjects of the chapters of the book Uncertainty of Medicine; Skill in Medicine; Popular Errors; Quackery; Thomsonianism; Homæpathy; The Puritan and his Daughter. By J. K. Natural Bonesetters; Good and Bad Prac PAULDING. New York: Baker and Scribtice; Theory and Observation; Mental influ
1849. ence of Mind and Body in Disease; Insanity, &c. We trust, for the sake of suffering and de The simple announcement of this work of luded humanity, that this delightful work may Mr. Paulding, is all we have space for. It is be extensively read, and serve as some shield gotten up in the beautiful style of printing, paagainst the many harpies who now live upon per, and binding, customary with the publishthe decay they themselves in a great measure ing house, who issue it, and will, no doubt, be engender.