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the additional drawbacks of tolls, trans- severities of the law. The new settleshipment, &c. These differences turn, and ments will be in constant communication must always turn, the stream of English with all parts of the Union, by the grand commerce with China upon the way of routes of railroads diverging toward every the Cape of Good hope, until some shorter part, and by the steam navigation of the and less expensive route can be found, lakes. Every particle of corn, or other than any of the proposed railways or products, not required for consumption on canals across the narrow space between the spot, can be instantly exchanged for the two American continents.
eastern manufactures, or for southern proAnother objection more fatal than any ducts, by the way, either of the lakes, of those stated, lies in the deterioration or the Mississippi. By a direct commuof transported goods by the damp and nication with coal-bearing regions, sup; hot atmosphere of the tropics. Even the plies of coal can be furnished for the fuel teas and silks of China would be ma of the inbabitants of the prairies, which terially injured by a detention in the land are now uninhabited from the want of that carriage across the Isthmus,while for bread commodity. stuffs and other perishable commodities, A rapid advance of population will the transportation by that route will be soon carry the road over the prairies, and so difficult as to preclude all hopes of a the consequent advances in the price regular commerce. The effects of climate of lands along the route will furnish upon commodities are a great element in abundant means for bridging the Columall the calculations of commerce, and in bia at Wallawalla, and thence by easy the present instance they are the most im grades completing the connection with portant of all.
Puget Sound and the Pacific. The instant Should a railroad be made across the of the completion of the road would be Isthmus, it must depend for its support the epochal moment of a grand movement upon the commerce of the Pacific shores in the commerce of the world. A fleet of with the Atlantic shores of both the merchant vessels would be found assemcontinents, and will never become the bled at the terminus, and a transfer, or channel of the commerce of Europe with perhaps a barter would commence at that Asia. Although, therefore, it may be an point, in which every species of commodi. enterprise of the greatest importance to ty of Europe, Asia and America, would the inhabitants of Chili and Peru, and in find its equivalent in some other. The the absence of a northern route, to those gold of California, the manufactures of of northern California and Oregon, its New England, and the finer and more advantages fall so far behind those which costly products of France and Great must follow the proposed route from Britain; the sugars and other products of Michigan, we do not feel obliged to dwell the South, the corn of Wisconsin, Canada, upon them at present. A few words in and all the lake countries, the iron of regard to the consequences to be looked Pennsylvania, the furs of the Rocky Mounfor, from the opening of an easy com tains, the teas and silks, and all other promunication with the Pacific across the ducts of China, all would meet at the northern part of the continent, and we grand terminus of the world's road. Here have done.
the various Asiatic commodities would be The first effects of the enterprise would placed in cars which would convey them to be seen in the conversion of a long strip of every point of the Atlantic coast. Here too, forest and prairie, stretching from the foot cargoes would be assorted for South Sea of Lake Michigan to the wilderness be- and South American commerce. At this yond the Mississippi, into a populous and point, which would become the caravancultivated region, held by tillers of the serai of the continent, the half-way house soil
. And in this connection, we may between Asia and America, a grand comadd, that the terms of the contract for the mercial city would soon arise, the capital road may be so ordered in favor of the ac- of the Pacific States and the civilizer and tual settler as to defend him against specula- merchant of the East. tors and monopolists, and, if that is deemed But in dwelling upon the disadvantages best, to protect him against the ultimate of other routes, sufficient, indeed, without
further inquiry to put them out of compe- | advantages of a temperate climate, would tition with the present one, we had nearly turn the entire stream of Asio-European forgotten to mention the great saving of commerce across the continent of North distance and time, by the route advocated America. Packages for China, made up by Mr. Whitney. The distance from the for the convenience of railroad transportfoot of Lake Michigan to Puget Sound, ation, would be carried across the conwith all the windings of the emigrant tinent in 8 days; and to China by steam, route, is about 2,195 miles.
in 25 days, which, with 14 days transport
from England to America, makes 47 days From Puget Sound to Japan, is 4000 miles. from England to China with merchanShangai (China,) 5400
dise; whereas, at present, a favorable Australia, Singapore (India,) 7660
voyage requires 107 days. Saving more
than half the time, sending his goods Add from New York to Prairie du Chien, through a temperate climate, and escapwhere the railroad would cross the Missis- ing the dangers of a voyage about the sippi, 1,141 miles, and from New-York to stormy Capes, the English trader would Liverpool 3,000 miles, and we have a not hesitate in his choice between the distance, by the contemplated grand two routes. To this country would acnorthern route, of 9,541 miles only from crue the double profit of merchandise Shangai, in China, the route by the Cape conveyed to and brought from China. It of Good Hope being 13,330 miles; a is unnecessary to dwell longer upon the difference of 3,789 miles in favor of the plan of Mr. Whitney; its boldness, feasitranscontinental route to China ; a differ
bility, simplicity, and economy, must ence which, combined with cheapness commend it to universal favor. and rapidity of transportation, and the
TRADE WITH THE BRITISH PROVINCES.*
Were free trade extended indiscrimi- , cheap, and have not the same skill in manunately all over the world, its effects would factures as herself. be to generalize and classify the products Whilst as many days' manual labor are of labor, and to confine such products to required in the United States to convert a such climates and countries as soil and given quanity of iron ore into bars or pigs circumstances alone would direct ; whilst as it takes in England, and the English the products of arts and manufactures operative is satisfied with his shilling and would likewise be confined to that spot a half sterling, whilst the same man can where, from arbitrary causes, the price of demand and receive his one and a quarter labor was the lowest. The commercial | dollars in the United States, protection policy of England, for more than two must be extended to American manufachundred years, sets an example for pro- tures or we must abandon them. When tection to home industry, whose unbound the time arrives that we too can produce ed results and most extraordinary success as cheap and cheaper than any other peoestablishes a precedent for national po- ple, then will it be the policy of the United licy in all time to come, to all nations States to follow in the footsteps of Engdesiring to become a producing people. land, and open our trade to the world. Nor is her present policy with reference Rapid as has been the growth of States in to free trade less an example of able states this Union, none now living may reasonably manship than her former course of pro- expect to see that day. Speedy as the tection.
population has increased, our domain is too Self-preservation suggests now that the extensive for competition to reduce wages bane should be made the antidote. Eng. to the standard of Europe for land, by a long course of protection to home labor, hits so advanced the arts and But the extension of reciprocal trade to organized manufactures, within her own the British provinces, on our eastern fronkingdom, that having raised herself to the tier, is not a free trade measure in that position of the workshop, and banking light that is hostile to the vital principle house of Christendom, and from home of protection, but a mere extension of the competition sent her workmen and manu boundaries of commerce to include a tenth facturers abroad over the civilized globe more of the Anglo-Saxon race, born on to scatter her arts among other nations, the same soil, of a common ancestry, poscultivating similar plants in other soils, the sessing a common language, customs and tendency of which is to stifle the growth laws, and worshipping God in the same of her own; now demands that the sluices
way as ourselves ! of commerce shall be opened to her, that Ever since our own manufactures in the she may trade with all the world free of United States have reached a position that charge, and that all the world may trade , enables them to compete with England, the with her on the same terms. Happy British provinces have been our customers. course of international policy for herself, if There are many articles now made in the she could effect it now ; better calculated United States ihat suit colonial consumpto advance her personal aggrandizement tion better than English, and were the duties than any political act of former times, but removed, nearly the entire trade would sure to ruin those who cannot work se fall into the hands of our manufacturers.
* Our Mercantile Connection considered in reference to its effect on Home Industry, together with arguments against Annexation. By Georok W. Potter, author of the Blue Nose Letters, lostitutions of New York, &c.
These articles are, all descriptions of iron Screw augers 3c. 4c. 6c. 8c. 10c. per qr. inch. mongery, suited for building, such as nails, Pod augers 7c. to 10c. per qr. inch. screws, locks, bolts, hinges, &c.; to these may be added the coarser varieties of Almost
article named in the above edge tools, such as axes, saws, &c., con list are superior in quality to English nected with the cutting and manufacture manufactures for durability and workmanof lumber. Mechanical tools of all kinds ship. The form and finish of American of American make are preferred to Eng- made shovels, spades, and hoes is preferred lish in the British provinces; their con in this country, and were the protective duty sumption in a young country is immense, on foreign made entirely removed, they and would increase in a fourfold degree would still continue to find a market at when once again a revival of business gave home alongside of their English rival on new life to industrial pursuits.
account of their intrinsic merits. Scythes The variety of articles required also and sickles of American make have for in the immense fisheries of Newfound- years superseded in this country the sale land, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Bay of of the article made in England, and known Fundy, such as fish-tackle, lines, fisher as Griffin's New England pattern. The mens clothes, &c., would furnish a new American door-lock is an improvement in outlet to consumption for various manu- every respect on the English lock, especifactures in the United States. The quan- ally the article commonly called the tity of ship-bread used by the fishermen Scotch knob lock. It is simplified in its in these waters is immense; the New- internal arrangement, and therefore less foundland trade is supposed to require bread liable to get out of order. The article alone for upwards of six thousand sail of called “mineral knobs,” for locks, is an fishing vessels, with an average number of American invention ; its material is comsix persons. It is probable that the fish mon clay, the same that potter's ware is ermen in the other waters are fully equal made of. It is glazed and hardened by to four thousand, so that sixty thousand heat, and for convenience makes a better fishermen could be supplied with ship- door knob than metal of any kind, parbread from the United States, the most of ticularly brass; as a finish it is preferred to which is now supplied from Europe. brass knobs. The American padlock is
The population of British America is an article different in form, and more conestimated at about two millions, or with venient for use than English. Similar rein five hundred thousand of these United marks will apply with equal force to the States in 1775 when they declared their chest-lock. The American auger and independence.
chisel is better in temper than the Scotch, It may be well to notice here the prices and warranted. at which many leading articles are sold in The steel used for the most part in the the United States, of American manufac- United States for all kinds of edge tools, is ture, that are required in the British prov- English cast steel. The consumption of inces :
this article reaches annually in the United
States to between five and six hundred Iron shovels per doz. $150 to $8 00 tons, the bulk of which is used in edge Steel shovels
5 50 to 10 00
tools. The consumption of English cast Iron spades
4 50 to 8 00 Steel spades
6 00 to 12 00
steel is more general in the United States Steel hoes
2 23 to
than it is in England, and accounts at Iron hoes
1 50 to 3 00 once for the superiority of American manuScythes
6 00 to 12 00 factures over English. One peculiarity Sickles
besides, which renders American tools Hay rakes
1 25 to 2 50 Door-locks with mineral or
more advantageous for use than English brass knobs
7 00 to 12 00 is, that they are warranted, and can be rePad-locks, iron“
3 00 to 5 00 turned and replaced when they are defecPad-locks, brass
0 50 to 3 50 Steel chisels
The largest portion of Canada and New
3 00 to 8 00 Hand-saws
7 00 to 12 00
Brunswick is still in a wilderness state. Carpenters' hammers 2 00 to 7 00 Soon as a better order of things is begun
there, and proper facilities
108,830 37,707 emigration, a portion of the yearly subsi
309,978 80,000 dies of European population that now find
2,428,921 918,725 their way exclusively to the United States
373,306 78,604 would settle in the British provinces ; Pennsylvania 1,724,033 687,447 whilst the natural growth itself in so fine
78,085 not given. Maryland
469,232 259,468 and vigorous a climate causes increase in
1,239,792 580,437 population to be large. The geographical North Carolina 753,419 107,165 extent of all the British provinces is larger
South Carolina 594,398 306,520 than the thirteen original States, whilst Georgia
691,392 186,795 their population in 1849 is four-fifths of
10,587,400 what this country was when independence was declared in 1776.
The population of these States in 1776 These statements are calculated to show was estimated at two and a half millionsto the people of the United States what the thus the increase in sixty-four years makes advantages of a commercial union are with the aggregate over four times what it was the British provinces at present, and what at the beginning, a scale of increase in poputhey are in prospect. The question of lation unparalleled in the history of any annexation is improbable and undesirable, other age or country. These remarks, it for reasons that it will not take long to will be observed, apply exclusively to the explain. First, then it is improbable, be-old States; the new States which, in cause that the feelings of a large portion 1840, were eleven in number, being such of the people in the provinces is not pre as were up to that time admitted into the pared for and do not desire the change; Union between the Revolution and the no political change would be desirable in time of taking the census, contained a the eyes of the Administration of the further population of 6,292,169. Since United States in which the wishes of both | 1840, four other new States liave been parties did not co-operate to the full. added, whose population will be told Second, the interest of British America with accuracy at the close of the comdemands every way, that when she throws ing year; at present it is a matter of off her connection with the mother country
doubt. she should govern herself.
The population of the four British propractical form of government administered vinces, whose early settlement dates about by native statesmen, who, being bred and the same time as that of New England born “at home,” are identified with, and and New York, was, in 1776, less than both understand and feel the best interests one million of people, and has only doubled of their couptry, is so preferable to a set itself in the same time that the population of exotics as to be duly appreciated by of the United States increased fourfold none except those who, like myself, have Although the British provinces have had had the opportunity of studying both. the advantage of a protective trade for
History has made the subject of na their natural productions with the mother tional growth familiar to the minds of country all the time, to the exclusion of every American citizen of intelligence. the natural productions of the United Yet, a few remarks in connection with this States, and both have been extensive conhighly important question cannot fail to be sumers of British goods, the provinces for of interest on both sides of the lines. By most of the time under no duties at all, the last general census of the United and latterly only two and a half per cent., States, the population of that portion of the U.States have for twenty-five years been the Union that constituted the thirteen old under a high tariff for the protection of States, and the expense of governing them, home industry, ranging from 15 to 50 per stands thus ;
cent. This strange disparity between the
two countries, the great majority of whose Population. Expenditure. people is of a common ancestry, leads to Maine
501,793 $318,712 New Hampshire
of 284,574 50,000
an inquiry into the political economy Vermont 291,948 90,000
the two countries; but as that matter is Massachusetts 737,699 445,745 too lengthy to be discussed now, and some