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He was a stout opposer of Popish oppression in the land, and a sharp reprover of the corruptions of the court of Rome, as we have largely declared in our "Ecclesiastical History." Such the piety of his life and death, that, though loaded with curses from the Pope, he generally obtained the reputation of a saint.

Bellarmine starts a question,* whether one may pray lawfully to him, and paint his picture in the church, who is not canonized by the Pope? And very gravely he determineth (a short line will serve to fathom a shallow water) that privately he may do it; and that a picture of such a man may be painted in the church, provided his head be not encompassed with a radiated circle as particular to canonized saints. Thus our learned and pious Robert must want that addition of a glory about his picture; and the matter is not much, seeing no doubt having "turned many to righteousness, he doth shine in Heaven as the brightness of the firmament; "+ whose death happened anno Domini 1254.

MARTYRS.

ROWLAND TAYLOR.-Where born unknown (though some) without any assurance, have suggested his nativity in Yorkshire, was bred in Cambridge, and became head of Borden Hostle, nigh (if not now partly in) Caius College, where he commenced doctor of laws. Hence he was, by archbishop Cranmer, presented to the rectory of Hadley in this county. He was a great scholar, painful preacher, charitable to the poor, of a comely countenance, proper person (but inclining to corpulency), and cheerful behaviour. The same devotion had different looks in several martyrs, frowning in stern Hooper, weeping in meek Bradford, and smiling constantly in pleasant Taylor.

Indeed some have censured his merry conceits, as trespassing on the gravity of his calling, especially when just before his death. But surely such Romanists, who admire the temper of Sir Thomas More jesting with the axe of the executioner, will excuse our Taylor for making himself merry with the stake. But though it be ill jesting with edged tools (whereof death is the sharpest), yet since our Saviour hath blunted it, his servants may rather be delighted than dismayed with it. Not long after, doctor Taylor set archbishop Cranmer, who was his patron, a copy of patience, who indeed wrote after it, but not with so steady a hand, and so even a character of constancy. Taylor was martyred at Hadley, February 9, 1555.

ROBERT SAMUEL was minister of Barfold in this county, who, by the cruelty of Hopton bishop of Norwich, and Downing his chancellor, was tortured in prison: not to preserve

* De Sanct. Beatit. cap. 10.

† Daniel xii. 3.

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but to reserve him for more pain. He was allowed every day but three mouthfuls of bread, and three spoonfuls of water. Fain would he have drunk his own urine; but his thirstparched body afforded none.

I read how he saw a vision of one all in white, comforting and telling him, " that after that day he never should be hungry or thirsty ;"* which came to pass accordingly, being within few hours after martyred at Ipswich, August 21, 1555. Some report, that his body, when burnt, did shine as bright as burnished silver.† "Sed parcius ista." Such things must be sparingly written by those who would not only avoid untruths, but the appearance thereof. Thus, loath to lengthen men's tongues reporting what may seem improbable, and more loath to shorten God's hand in what might be miraculous, I leave the relation as I found it.

MARTYRS-CARDINALS.

Besides these two, I meet with more than twenty by name martyred (confessors doubling that number), whose ashes were scattered all over the county, at Ipswich, Bury, Beccles, &c. It is vehemently suspected, that three of them burnt at Beccles had their death antedated,‡ before the writ de Hæretico comburendo could possibly be brought down to the sheriff. And was not this (to use Tertullian's Latin in some different sense) festinatio homicidii? Now though charity may borrow a point of law to save life, surely cruelty should not steal one to destroy it.

CARDINALS.

THOMAS WOLSEY was born in the town of Ipswich, where a butcher, a very honest man, was his father, though a poet be thus pleased to descant thereon:

"Brave priest, whoever was thy sire by kind,
Wolsey of Ipswich ne'er begat thy mind."

One of so vast undertakings, that our whole book will not afford room enough for his character; the writing whereof I commend to some eminent person of his foundation of Christ-church in Oxford.

was made cardinal of St. Cecily, and died heart-broken with grief at Leicester 1530, without any monument, which made a great wit§ of his own college thus lately complain :

"And though for his own store Wolsey might have

A palace, or a college for his grave,

Yet here he lies interred, as if that all
Of him to be remember'd were his fall.

Nothing but earth to earth, nor pompous weight
Upon him but a pebble or a quoit,

If thou art thus neglected, what shall we
Hope after death, that are but shreds of thee?"

This may truly be said of him, he was not guilty of mis

Fox's Acts and Monuments, page 1709.
† Idem, ibidem.
Fox's Martyrology, p. 1912. § Dr. Corbet, in his Iter Boreale,

chievous pride; and was generally commended for doing justice, when chancellor of England.

PRELATES.

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HERBERT LOSING was born in this county, as our antiquary* informeth us, "In pago Oxunensi in Sudovolgiâ Anglorum comitatu natus: but, on the perusing of all the lists of towns in this county, no Oxun appeareth therein, or name neighbouring thereon in sound and syllables.† This I conceive the cause why bishop Godwin so confidently makes this Herbert born Oxoniæ, in Oxford, in which we have formerly placed his character.

However, seeing Bale was an excellent antiquary, and, being himself a Suffolk-man, must be presumed knowing in his own county; and conceiving it possible that this Öxun was either an obscure church-less village, or else in this day disguised under another name; I conceive it just, that as Oxfordshire led the front Suffolk should bring up the rear of this Herbert's description.

Indeed he may well serve two counties, being so different from himself, and two persons in effect. When young, loose and wild, deeply guilty of the sin of simony: when old, nothing of Herbert was in Herbert, using commonly the words of St. Hierome ;+ " Erravimus juvenes, emendemus senes; (when young we went astray, when old we will amend.) Now, though some controversy about the place of his birth, all agree in his death, July 22, 1119; and in his burial, in the cathedral church of Norwich.

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RICHARD ANGERVILE, son to Sir Richard Angervile, knight, was born at Bury§ in this county, and bred in Oxford, where he attained to great eminency in learning. He was governor to king Edward the Third whilst prince, and afterwards advanced by him to be successively his cofferer, treasurer of his wardrobe, dean of Wells, bishop of Durham, chancellor, and lastly treasurer of England. He bestowed on the poor every week eight quarters of wheat baked in bread. When here moved from Durham to Newcastle (twelve short miles) he used to give eight pounds sterling in alms to the poor, and so proportionably in other places betwixt his palaces. He was a great lover of books, confessing himself "extatico quodam librorum amore potenter abreptum," insomuch that he alone had more books than all the bishops of England in that age put together, which

Bale, Cent. ii. p. 171.

+ Dr. Fuller did not recollect the town of Hoxon, otherwise Horne, in the hundred of that name.-ED.

William Malmesbury. § Hence commonly called Richardus de Burgo.
Godwin, in his Bishops of Durham, p. 131.
In his book called "Philobiblos."

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stately library, by his will, he solemnly bequeathed to the unversity of Oxford. The most eminent foreigners were his friends, and the most learned Englishmen were his chaplains until his death, which happened anno 1345.

PRELATES.

JOHN PASCHAL was born in this county* (where his name still continueth) of gentle parentage; bred a Carthusian, and D.D. in Cambridge; a great scholar, and popular preacher. Bateman, bishop of Norwich, procured the Pope to make him the umbratile bishop of Scutari, whence he received as much profit as one may get heat from a glow-worm. It was not long before, by the favour of king Edward the Third, he was removed from a very shadow to a slender substance, the bishopric of Llandaff; wherein he died anno Domini 1361.

SIMON SUDBURY, alias Tibald, was born at Sudbury, as great as most and ancient as any town in this county. After many mediate preferments (let him thank the Pope's provisions) at last he became archbishop of Canterbury. He began two synods with Latin sermons in his own person, as rare in that age as blazing-stars, and as ominous; for they portended ill success to Wickliffe and his followers. However, this Simon Sudbury, overawed by the God of heaven and John duke of Lancaster, did not (because he could not) any harm unto him. He was killed in the rebellion of Jack Straw and Wat Tyler, anno Domini 1381.

And although his shadowy tomb (being no more than an honourary cenotaph) be shown at Christ Church in Canterbury; yet his substantial monument, wherein his bones are deposited, is to be seen in St. Gregory's in Sudbury, under a marble stone sometime inlayed all over with brass (some four yards long, and two broad, saith mine eye-witness author,† though I confess I never met with any of like dimension); so that in some sense I may also call this a cenotaph, as not proportioned to the bulk of his body, but height of his honour and estate.

THOMAS EDWARDSTON, so named from his birth-place, Edwardston, in this county (a village formerly famous for the chief mansion of the ancient family of Mounchensey); bred first in Oxford, then an Augustinian eremite in Clare. He was a great scholar, as his works evidence, and confessor to Lionel duke of Clarence, whom he attended into Italy, when he married Joland, daughter to John Galeaceus, duke of Milan.

J. Pits conceiveth him to have been an archbishop in Ireland, which is utterly disowned by judicious Sir James Ware.§

Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. v. num. 95.

+ Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 743.

Camden's Britannia, in Suffolk. § De Scriptoribus Hiberniæ, lib. ii. p. 126.

And indeed if Bale's words* (whence Pits deriveth his intelligence) be considered, it will appear he never had title of an archbishop, "Sed cujusdam Archi-episcopatus curam accepit," (he undertook care of some archbishopric), probably commended in the vacancy thereof to his inspection. And why might not this be some Italian archbishopric, during his attendance on his patron there, though afterwards (preferring privacy before a more pompous charge) he returned into his native country, and died at Clare, anno 1396.

THOMAS PEVEREL was born of good parentage, in this county;† bred a Carmelite, and D.D. in Oxford. He was afterwards, by king Richard the Second, made bishop of Ossory in Ireland. I say by king Richard the Second, which minds me of a memorable passage which I have read in an excellent author.

It may justly seem strange, which is most true, that there are three bishoprics in Ireland, in the province of Ulster, by name Derry, Raphoe, and Clogher, which neither queen Elizabeth, nor any of her progenitors, did ever bestow, though they were the undoubted patrons thereof; so that king James was the first king of England that did ever supply those sees with bishops; so that it seems, formerly, the great Irish lords in those parts preferred their own chaplains thereunto.

However, the bishoprics in the south of the land were ever in the disposal of our kings, amongst which Ossory was one, bestowed on our Peverel. From Ireland he was removed to Landaff in Wales, then to Worcester in England, being one much esteemed for learning, as his books do declare. He died, according to bishop Godwin's account, March 1, 1417, and lieth buried in his own cathedral.

STEPHEN GARDINER was born in Bury St. Edmund's,§ one of the best airs in England, the sharpness whereof he retained in his wit and quick apprehension. Some make him base-son to Lionel Woodvile, bishop of Salisbury; which I can hardly believe, Salisbury and St. Edmund's Bury being six score miles asunder. Besides, time herein is harder to be reconciled than place. For it being granted an error of youth in that bishop, and that bishop vanishing out of this world, 1485, Gardiner in all probability must be allowed of greater age than he was at his death.

It is confessed by all, that he was a man of admirable natural parts, and memory especially, so conducible to learning, that one saith, Tantum scimus quantum meminimus." He was bred doctor of laws in Trinity Hall in Cambridge; and, after many State embassies and employments, he was by king

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* De Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. vii. num. 7.
Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. vii. num. 49.

Sir Joh Davis, in his Treatise of Ireland, p. 255.
Rale, Pits, Godwin, &c.

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