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Henry the Eighth made bishop of Winchester. His malice was like what is commonly said of white powder, which surely discharged the bullet, yet made no report, being secret in all his acts of cruelty. This made him often chide Bonner, calling him ass, though not so much for killing poor people, as not for doing it more cunningly.


He was the chief contriver of what we may call Gardiner's Creed, though consisting but of six articles, which caused the death of many, and trouble of more Protestants. He had almost cut off one who was and prevented another for ever being, a queen (I mean Catherine Parr and the lady Elizabeth,) had not Divine Providence preserved them. He complied with king Henry the Eighth, and was what he would have him; opposed king Edward the Sixth, by whom he was imprisoned and deprived; acted all under queen Mary, by whom he was restored, and made lord chancellor of England.

He is reported to have died more than half a Protestant, avouching that he believed himself and all others only to be justified by the merits of Christ; which if so, then did he verify the Greek and Latin proverb,

Πολλάκις καὶ κηπερὸς ἀνὴρ μάλα καίριον εἶπεν.

Sæpe Olitor valdè verba opportuna loquutus.

"The Gardiner oft-times in due season
Speaks what is true, and solid reason."

He died at Whitehall of the gout, November the 12th, 1555; and is buried, by his own appointment, on the north side of the choir, over against bishop Fox, in a very fair monument. He had done well, if he had paralleled bishop Fox (founder of Corpus Christi College in Oxford) in erecting some public work; the rather because he died so rich, being reported to have left forty thousand marks in ready money behind him.†

However, on one account his memory must be commended, for improving his power with queen Mary to restore some noble families formerly depressed. My author ‡ instanceth in some descendants from the duke of Norfolk, in the Stanhopes, and the Arundels of Wardour castle. To these give me leave to add, the right ancient family of the Hungerfords, to whom he procured a great part of their patrimony, seized on by the crown, to be restored.


JOHN BALE was born at Covie in this county, five miles from Dunwich ;§ and was brought up in Jesus College in Cambridge, being before, or after, a Carmelite in Norwich.

By the

* Sir John Harrington, in the Bishops of Winchester.

† Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. viii. num. 88. Sir John Harrington, ut prius.

In Vità suâ, Cent. viii. num. 100.

means of Thomas lord Wentworth, he was converted to be a Protestant. This is that Bale who wrote a book "De Scriptoribus Britannicis," digested into nine centuries, not more beholding to Leland, than I have been to Bale in this work, and my "Church History." Anno 1552, February the 2nd, he was consecrated at Dublin, bishop of Ossory in Ireland, whence, on the death of king Edward the Sixth, he was forced to fly (some of his servants being slain before his eyes); and, in his passage over the sea, was taken prisoner by pirates, sold, ransomed, and after many dangers safely arrived in Switzerland.

After the death of queen Mary, he returned into England, but never to his Irish bishopric, preferring rather a private life, being a prebendary of the church of Canterbury. One may wonder, that, being so learned a man, who had done and suffered so much for religion, higher promotion was not forced upon him, seeing, about the beginning of queen Elizabeth, bishoprics went about begging able men to receive them. But probably he was a person more learned than discreet, fitter to write than to govern, as unable to command his own passion; and biliosus Balæus passeth for his true character. He died in the sixty-eighth year of his age at Canterbury,* (anno Domini 1563, in the month of November); and was buried in the cathedral church therein.

JOHN MAY was born in this county,† bred in the university of Cambridge, whereof he became proctor 1545; elected master of Catherine hall 1564, vice-chancellor 1569, and at last consecrated bishop of Carlisle Sept. 27, 1577, continuing eleven years in that see; and died in April 1598.

JOHN OVERAL, D.D., born at Hadley in this county, was bred in the free-school therein, till sent to St. John's; then to Trinity College in Cambridge, whereof he was fellow, and there chosen regius professor, one of the most profound school divines of the English nation. Afterwards, by the queen's absolute mandate (to end a contention betwixt two co-rivals), not much with his will, he was made master of Catherine Hall; for, when archbishop Whitgift joyed him of the place, he returned that it was terminus diminuens, taking no delight in his preferment. But his Grace told him," that if the injuries, much more the less courtesies of princes must be thankfully taken;" as the ushers to make way for greater, as indeed it came to pass. For, after the death of Dr. Nowel, he was (by the especial recommendation of Sir Fulke Grevil) made dean of St. Paul's. Being appointed to preach before the queen, he professed to my father (most intimate with him) "that he had spoken Latin so long, it was troublesome to him to speak English in a con

Jac. Waræus, de Scriptoribus Hiberniæ, lib. ii. p. 136.

† Scelletos Cantab. of Parker, MS.


tinued oration." He frequently had those words of the Psalmist in his mouth, "When thou with rebukes dost correct man for iniquity, thou makest his beauty to consume away like a moth: surely every man is vanity."*

I cite it the rather out of the new translation (something different from the old) because he was so eminent an instrument employed therein. King James made him bishop of Norwich, where he was a discreet presser of conformity, on which score he got the ill-will of many disaffected thereunto, and died anno 1618.


LEONARD MAWE was born at Rendlesham in this county ;† a remarkable place I assure you, which, though now a country village, was anciently the residence of the kings of the East Angles; where king Redwald, a mongrel Christian, kept at the same time altare et arulam,§ the communion table, and altars for idols.

He was bred in Cambridge; where he was proctor of the university, fellow and master of Peter-house, after of Trinity College, whereof he deserved well, shewing what might be done in five years by good husbandry to dis-engage that foundation from a great debt.

He was chaplain to king Charles whilst he was a prince, and waited on him in Spain, by whom he was preferred bishop of Bath and Wells 1628. He had the reputation of a good scholar, a grave preacher, a mild man, and one of gentle deportment. He died anno Domini 1629.

RALPH BROWNRIGG, D. D., was born at Ipswich, of parents of merchantly condition. His father died in his infancy, and his mother did not carelessly cast away his youth (as the first broachings of a vessel); but improved it in his education at school, till he was sent to Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, and afterwards became scholar and fellow thereof.

King James, coming to Cambridge, was (amongst others) entertained with a philosophy act; and Mr. Brownrigg was appointed to perform the Joco-serious part thereof; who did both, to the wonder of the hearers.

Herein he was like himself, that he could on a sudden be so unlike himself, and instantly vary his words and matter from mirth to solidity. No man had more ability, or less inclination, to be satirical, in which kind posse et nolle is a rarity indeed. He had wit at will; but so that he made it his page, not privy councillor, to obey, not direct his judgment. He carried learning enough in numerato about him in his pockets for any

Psalms xxxix. 11.

Scellet. Cant. of Mr. Parker, MS.

Since the time of Fuller, this place has given title to a peerage in the family of the celebrated John Thellusson, Esq.; whose extraordinary will bas excited so much public attention.-ED. § Beda.

discourse, and had much more at home in his chests for any serious dispute. It is hard to say whether his loyal memory, quick fancy, solid judgment, or fluent utterance, were most to be admired, having not only flumen but fulmen eloquentiæ, being one who did teach with authority.

When commencing bachelor in divinity, he chose for his text, "Vobis autem, &c." (it is given to you, not only to believe but suffer in the behalf of Christ*); a text somewhat prophetical to him, who in the sequel of his life met with affronts to exercise his prudence and patience, being afterwards defied by some, who [almost] deified him before in whose eyes he seemed the blacker for wearing white sleeves, when 1641 made bishop of Exeter.

I was present at his consecration sermon, made by his good friend Doctor Younge, taking for his text, "The waters are risen, O Lord, the waters are risen," &c.; wherein he very gravely complained of the many invasions which popular violence made on the privileges of church and state. This bishop himself was soon sadly sensible of such inundations; and yet, by the procerity of his parts and piety, he not only safely waded through them himself, but also (when vice chancellor of Cambridge) by his prudence raised such banks, that those overflowings were not so destructive as otherwise they would have been to the university.

He continued constant to the church of England, a champion of the needful use of the Liturgy, and for the privileges of ordination to belong to bishops alone. Unmoveable he was in his principles of loyalty; witness this instance:

O. P., with some shew of respect unto him, demanded the bishop's judgment (non-plus't it seems himself) in some business; to whom he returned, "My lord, the best counsel I can give you is, Give unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and unto God the things that are God's;" with which free answer O. P. was rather silenced than satisfied.

About a year before his death, he was invited by the Society of both Temples to be their preacher, admirably supplying that place, till strong fits of the stone, with hydropical inclinations, and other distempers incident to plethoric bodies, caused his death.

I know all accidents are minuted and momented by Divine Providence ; and yet, I hope I may say without sin, his was an untimely death, not to himself (prepared thereunto), but as to his longer life; which the prayers of pious people requested, the need of the church required, the date of nature could have permitted, but the pleasure of God (to which all must submit) denied. Otherwise he would have been most instrumental to the composure of church differences, the deserved opinion of † Oliver the Protector.-ED.

Philippians i. 29.

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whose goodness had peaceable possession in the hearts of the presbyterian party. I observed at his funeral, that the prime persons of all persuasions were present, whose judgments going several ways met all in a general grief for his decease. He was buried on the cost of both Temples, to his great but their greater honour.


The reader is referred for the rest to the memorials of his life, written by the learned Doctor John Gauden, who preached his funeral sermon, and since hath succeeded him, both in the Temple, and bishopric of Exeter. His dissolution happened in the 67th year of his age, December 7, 1659; and was buried the week following in the Temple church.


Sir NICHOLAS BACON, Knight, was born in this county, not far from the famous abbey of St. Edmund's Bury; and I have read that his father was an officer belonging thereunto. His name, I assure you, is of an ancient gentry in this shire as any whatsoever. He was bred in Bennet College in Cambridge, to which afterwards he proved a bountiful benefactor, building a beautiful chapel therein.


He afterwards applied himself to the study of the common law and was made attorney to the court of wards, whence he was preferred lord keeper of the great seal in the first of queen Elizabeth, 1558. He married Anne, second daughter to Sir Anthony Cook, of Giddy-hall in Essex, governor to king Edward the Sixth. And it is worthy of our observation, how the statesmen in that age were arched together in affinity, to no small support one to another.

Sir John Cheek, secretary to king Edward the Sixth, whose sister was first wife to Sir William Cecil, secretary to the same king.

Sir William Cecil aforesaid, for his second wife, married the wife's sister unto this Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord-keeper.

Sir Francis Walsingham, secretary to queen Elizabeth, had a sister married unto Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the Exchequer.

Sir Francis Walsingham was also brother-in-law unto Sir Thomas Randolph, that grand statesman and ambassador.

To return to Sir Nicholas Bacon. He was condemned by some who seemed wise, and commended by them that were so, for not causing that statute to be repealed (the queen relying on him as her oracle of law), whereby the queen was made illegitimate in the days of her father. For this wise statesman would not open that wound which time had partly closed,* and would not meddle with the variety, yea, contrariety of statutes in this kind, whereby people would rather be perplexed than satisfied; but

• Camden, in the first of queen Elizabeth.

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