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Richard at Font-Everard, then to invest king John with the Principality of Normandy, as being the prime prelate therein. His death may be collected about the year 1206.

CADUCANUS, a Welchman by birth, was a very skilful divine, and bishop of Bangor. Leaving his bishopric, he became a Cistercian monk in Monasterio Durensi, sive Dorensi (which for the present I am unwilling to English). Here I find two learned antiquaries, the one the lender, the other the debtor, (I had almost said the one owner, the other stealer), much divided in their judgments about this his retrograde motion, from a bishop to a monk; the one commending, the other condemning him herein:

"Rarum hoc equidem exemplum est, ut quis optimas fortunas macrâ commutet tenuitate ;"* (This indeed was a rare example, that one should willingly exchange the best fortunes for a lean meanness.)

"Qui episcopatu appetit (ait Paulus) perfectum opus desiderat. Non sic de monachatu otioso, quum sit plantatio, quam non consolidavit Pater cœlestis ;"+ (Whoso desireth a bishopric desireth a good thing, saith St. Paul. It cannot be said so of monkery, which is a plant which the heavenly Father hath not planted.)

It is past my power to compromise a difference betwixt two so great persons in so great a difference, at so great a distance; only, to hold the balance even betwixt them, give me leave to whisper a word to two.

First for Leland. Whereas he calleth the bishopric of Bangor optimas fortunas, it was never very rich, and at the present very troublesome (by reason of the civil wars); so that Caducanus turning monk, in most men's apprehension, did but leave what was little for what was less.

As for John Bale, he himself under king Edward the Sixth was bishop of Ossory in Ireland; and, flying thence in the days of queen Mary, did not return in the reign of queen Elizabeth to his see, but contented himself rather with a canon's place in the church of Canterbury ;§ so that, by his own practice, a bishop's place may on some considerations be left, and a private (though not superstitious) life lawfully embraced.

The best is, even Bale himself doth confess of this Caducanus, that, after he turned monk, "Studiorum ejus interea non elanguit successus," he was no less happy than industrious in his endeavours, writing a book of Sermons, and another called "Speculum Christianorum." He died, under the reign of king Henry the Third, anno Domini 1225.

J. Leland, cited by Bale.

† Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. iii. num. 85. + 1 Tim. iii. 1. § See his Life, in Suffolk.

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HUGH JOHNES, born in Wales; was bred bachelor of the laws in the University of Oxford, and made bishop of Llandaff (which See, it seems, for the poorness thereof, lay bishopless for three years after the death of bishop Kitchen), May 5, 1566. Memorable, no doubt, on other accounts, as well as for this, that though this bishopric be in Wales, he was the first Welchman who for the last three hundred years (viz. since John of Monmouth, elected 1296) was the bishop thereof.* He was buried at Matherne, November 15, 1574.

Doctor JOHN PHILIPS was a native of Wales;† had his education in Oxford; and was afterwards preferred to be Episcopus Sodorensis, or bishop of Man. Out of his zeal for propagating the Gospel he attained the Manks tongue, and usually preached therein.

Know, by the way, reader, that the king of Spain himself (notwithstanding the vastness of his dominions) had not in Europe more distinct languages spoken under his command, than had lately the king of Great Britain, seven tongues being used in his territories; viz. 1. English, in England: 2. French, in Jersey and Guernsey: 3. Cornish, in Cornwall: 4. Welch, in Wales: 5. Scotch, in Scotland: 6. Irish, in Ireland: 7. Manks, in the Isle of Man.

This doctor Philips undertook the translating of the Bible into the Manks tongue, taking some of the islanders to his assistance, and namely Sir Hugh Cavoll, minister of the Gospel, and lately (if not still) vicar of Kirk-Michael. He perfected the same work in the space of twenty-nine years; but, prevented by his death, it was never put to press. I know not whether the doing hereof soundeth more to the honour of the dead, or the not printing thereof since his death to the shame of the living, seeing surely money might be procured for so general and beneficial a design; which makes some the less to pity the great pains of the ministers of the Isle of Man, who, by double labour, read the Scriptures to the people out of the English in the Manks tongue. This singularly learned, hospitable, painful, and pious prelate, died anno Domini 1633.

• Bishop Godwin, in his Catalogue of Bishops of Llandaff.

† Mr. James Chaloner, in his Description of the Isle of Man, p. 7.-F. Of the Isle of Man, there are several Historical Descriptions and Tours, by Sacheverell, Waldron, Rolt, Seacome, Townley, Robertson, Feltham, &c. &c.-ED.

Mr. James Chaloner, in his Description of the Isle of Man, p. 4.-F.

§ The venerable bishop Wilson (who died in 1755, in his 93rd year) had begun a translation of the Scriptures into the Manks language; and, in the most disinterested manner, and at his own expense, proceeded so far as to print the Gospel of St. Matthew; and had prepared for the press a manuscript version of the other Evangelists and the Acts of the Apostles, which afterwards underwent a very careful revision. "This generous design, which death denied bishop Wilson the power to finish (says the Rev. Weeden Butler, in the Memoirs of bishop Hildesley), was


ROBERT RECORDE was born in this country, ex claris parentibus ;* bred in Oxford, where he proceeded doctor of physic. His soul did not live in the lane of a single science, but traversed the latitude of learning; witness his works:

In Arithmetic; not so absolute in all numbers, before his time, but that by him it was set forth more complete.

Astrology; the practical part whereof hath so great an influence upon physic.

Geometry; whereof he wrote a book, called "The Path of Geometry," and that easier and nearer than any before.

Physic; "Of the Judgments of Urines ;" and though it be commonly said, Urina Meretrix, yet his judicious rules have reduced that harlot to honesty, and in a great measure fixed the uncertainty thereof.

Metals; his sight may seem to have accompanied the sunbeams into the bowels of the earth, piercing into those penetrales in his discoveries of, and discourses on, gold and silver (wherewith I believe him well stored), brass, tin, lead, and what not.

What shall I speak of his skill in anatomy, cosmography, music, whereof he read public lectures in Oxford?

As for his religion (say not this is of no concernment in a physician), I conjecture him to be a Protestant: first, because he wrote of "Auricular Confession," and "De Negotio Eucharistiæ," each whereof is a noli me tangere for a Romish lay-man to meddle with, according to popish principles: secondly, because so largely commended by Bale. But I dare conclude nothing herein, having not hitherto seen his treatises in divinity. He flourished under king Edward the Sixth, about the year 1550.

THOMAS PHAIER was born in Wales ;† and bred (I believe) first in Oxford, then in London; a general scholar, and well versed in the common law, wherein he wrote a book, “De Naturâ Brevium," (of the Nature of Writs.) Strange that he would come after justice Fitz-Herbert, who formerly had written on the same subject. But probably Phaier's book (having never seen any who have seen it) treateth of writs in the Court of Marches (whereto Wales was then subjected, and) where the legal proceedings may be somewhat different from ours in England.

But the study of the law did not fadge well with him, which caused him to change his copy, and proceed doctor in physic.

thus left to the care and resolution of his worthy successor bishop Hildesley; who, at length, had the great honour and happiness to see it completed."-ED.

Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. viii. num. 3. † Pits, ætat. decima sexta, anno 1550.


Now (though he made none) he, out of French, did translate many useful books. 1. "Of the Pestilence, and the Cure thereof." 2. "Of the Grief of Children." 3. "Of the Nature of Simples." 4. "The Regiment of Naturall Life." He had also his diversion, some excursion into poetry, and translated Virgil's Eneid, "magnâ gravitate" (saith my author *); which our modern wits will render, with great dulness, and avouch, that he, instead of a Latin Virgil, hath presented us with an English Ennius-such the rudeness of his verse. But who knoweth not that English poetry is improved fifty in the hundred in this last century of years? He died, and was buried in London, about the year of our Lord 1550.


ALBANE HILL was Britannus by birth.t I confess, Britannus doth not clearly carry his nativity for Wales, except it were additional Cambro-Britannus. But, according to our peaceable promise premised,‡ let him pass for this countryman, the rather, because so many hills (and mountains too) therein. He was bred a doctor of physic, professing and practising most beyond the seas, more famous in foreign parts than in his native country. I find two eminent outlandishmen, viz. Josias Simler, an Helvetian of Zurich; and Bassianus Landus, an Italian of Placentia, charactering him to be, "Medicus nobilissimus ac optimus, et in omni disciplinarum genere optimè versatus ;" and that he wrote much upon Galen, and the anatomical part of physic; so that we may say with the poet,§

Ut littus, Hyla, Hyla, omne sonaret.

"The shore resounded still,

Nothing but Hill and Hill."

I find no time affixed wherein he flourished; but, according to the received rule, Noscitur è socio, he may, from his contemporaries, be collected in full lustre, anno 1550. And it is remarkable that Wales had three eminent physicians, writers all in the same age.


Be it premised, that as I should be loth by my laziness to conceal, so with all my industry I conceive it impossible to complete, their characters. For, as the Venetian courtezan, after she had put off her lofty attire, and high chippines, almost pares away herself into nothing; such the slender account given us of these writers, that, after some set forms and commendations of course common to all persons be first defalked, the remainder will be next to nothing. But it is no fault of me the cistern if I be empty, whilst my fountain is dry, seeing I spill

* Pits, ætat. decima sexta, anno 1550.

+ Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. ix. num. 38.

In our Preface to the Reader, p. 548. § Virgil, Ecloga sexta.

2 K


nothing by the leakage of my neglect, but faithfully deliver all the intelligence I find, as followeth :

PETROK was a Welch-Irish-Cornish man. He had his birth in Wales, but breeding in Ireland, according to the mode of that age, wherein all British sailed over into Ireland (as the English in after-ages did into France), there to have their education in all learned sciences. Who would have thought to have found Helicon among the bogs, as indeed it was at that time? Petrok, after twenty years reading good authors there, came over into Cornwall, and fixed himself nigh the Severn sea, in a small oratory called Petrok-stow (the station or abidingplace of Petrok), now corruptly Pad-Stowe, where many eminent scholars were brought up under him. He wrote a book "Of Solitary Life," whereto he was much addicted.

I confess Petrok is somewhat degraded, as entered under the topic of writers, who is reputed a saint; and I remember a handsome church in Exeter dedicated to his memory, who flourished

anno 560.

GILDAS the FOURTH; for there were three before him; viz. Gildas Albanius, Gildas surnamed Sapiens (of whom beforet), Gildas Cambrius, and this our Gildas; who laggeth last in the team of his namesakes. But the second of these is worth all the rest (were there four hundred of them); whom I behold as a sun indeed, shining with the lustre of his own desert, whilst two of the others are but so many meteors about him, some suspecting them no realities in nature, but merely created by men's sightdeception, and the reflection of the memory of the true Gildas.

This our fourth Gildas is made a Welch-Scotch-Irishman ; Wales sharing in him two parts of the three; viz. his birth and death, the largest part of his life belonging to Ireland, where he studied. Many the books imputed to him, of the wonders and first inhabitants of Britain, of king Authur and his unknown sepulchre. So that now we can teach Gildas what he knew not, namely, that king Arthur was certainly buried at Glassenbury. He wrote also of "Perceval and Lancelot," whom I behold as two knights combatants, and presume the former most victorious, from the notation of his name per se valens, prevailing by himself.

Our author is charged to be full of fables; which I can easily believe; for in ancient history if we will have any of truth we must have something of falsehood, and (abating only Holy Writ) it is as impossible to find antiquity without fables, as an old face without wrinkles. He flourished anno Domini 860.

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