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discontentment. He made verses in description of the chief cities in Europe, wrote the Chronicle of queen Elizabeth's reign (believe him older and wiser, not railing as formerly,) and a book of the Life of Master Camden, all lying hid in private hands, none publicly printed. This I observe the rather, to prevent plagiaries, that others may not imp their credit with stolen feathers, and wrongfully with ease pretend to his painful endeavours. He had a competent estate in good Candlerents in London; and died about the beginning of the reign of king Charles.
To take my Vale of the WORTHIES of Wales General; I refer the reader for the rest to a catalogue of their names, set forth at the end of the Welch Dictionary: which catalogue I was once resolved to print as an Appendix to this work; till dissuaded on this consideration-it being printed in Welch, in the re-printing whereof our best English correctors would be but bad Welch corrupters, and make a mongrel language more than departed from Babel, or ever since was any where used.
And now we proceed to the particular Shires of Wales.
Of this interesting Principality no regular History, of a topographical character, has yet made its appearance; although, so early as 1108, archbishop Baldwin wrote his Itinerary of Wales, which subsequently appeared under the name of Giraldus de Barry; and, in 1806, this work was published by Sir R. C. Hoare, in 2 vols. 4to. illustrated with views, annotations, &c. Sir Richard also produced an edition of Giraldus Cambrensis, which deserves especial com. mendation. Dr. Powell, a native of Denbighshire, who flourished during the latter part of the sixteenth century, also published "Caradoc's History of Wales," and Annotationes in Itinerarium Cambria scriptas per Giraldum." Speed, Bale, Pits, Camden, and Lhud, have each contributed to illustrate the history and topography of the Principality at large. Innumerable Works of a local and graphical nature have also appeared; which, in addition to the many valuable manuscripts known to be in existence, may contribute materially to the aid of the future topographer of Wales. On this subject, the late Mr. Gough, in his "Anecdotes of British Topography," makes some useful observations. "Many valuable manuscripts," says he," are said to be still remaining in Wales. A good collection was made by Mr. Maurice, of Kenvy breach, Denbyshire, whom bishop Nicolson calls a notable antiquary, which since came into the hands of Sir William Williams, and is now in the hands of Sir Watkin Williams Wynne. Besides the valuable library of Mr. Davies, of Llannerk, in the same county, there are several other considerable ones. The collections of their most eminent antiquary, Edward Lhuyd, were left in the hands of Sir Thomas Sebright, of Beachwood, Hertfordshire. They consist of above forty volumes in folio, ten in quarto, and above a hundred smaller, and all relate to Irish or Welch antiquities, and chiefly in those languages. Carte made extracts from them about or before 1736; but these were chiefly historical. Sir John Sebright gave Mr. Pennant twenty-three of Lhuyd's MSS. Latin and English. Many of his letters to Lister, and other learned contemporaries, were given by Dr. Fothergill to the university of Oxford, and are now in the Ashmolean Museum. Lhuyd undertook more for illustrating this part of the kingdom than any one man besides ever did, or than any one man can be equal to. Yet, under certain restrictions, we might wish to see somebody revive the useful design, before time, and a thousand circumstances fatal to private collections, complete the desolation already too far advanced. The progress of antiqua
WORKS RELATIVE TO WALES.
rian discoveries, on which I must congratulate this age, has but lately been turned into this channel. Mr. Evans, who has opened the poetic treasuries of his country, must bear the torch before us into the gloom that overspreads the other provinces of early science there. Mr. Pennant will atone for our ignorance of the Principality by an ample description of it in three volumes 4to; for which purpose he advertised in the Chester paper, 1771, for communications from the Welch clergy; a mode of inquiry which, like queries for a county history, seems to promise more than it really produces. His first volume, intituled, A Tour in Wales, 1770,' has already appeared, 1778, containing the counties of Flint, Denbigh, and the Marches; and it must give every friend to the subject pleasure to observe how well he has been assisted in his inquiries. Charles Penruddock Wyndham, Esq. who has already published two editions of a very informing tour through Monmouthshire and South Wales, and advertised for instructions on a second journey, 1777, proposes publishing his Observations, with considerable additions, and a variety of plates from elegant drawings, by himself and H. S. Grimm.". In addition to the remarks of Mr. Gough, may be noticed Cradock's Account of Wales, a small 12mo volume; Hutton's remarks on North Wales, 8vo; Malkin's Scenery, &c. of South Wales, published in 1804, in 4to; Brereton's Tour through South Wales, &c.
Of the COUNTIES of WALES there have been various historians. Of the Isle of ANGLESEA a very diffuse account was brought out in 1702, by Mr. H. Rowlands, under the title of "Mona antiqua restaurata; or Antiquities, natural and historical, of the Isle of Anglesey ;" and Dr. S. R. Meyrick also published the History of CARDIGANSHIRE on an enlarged scale. In 1809, the History of CARMARTHENSHIRE made its appearance, from the pen of Mr. Nugent; and an Historical Tour through PEMBROKESHIRE has likewise been published by Mr. R. Fenton. For various particulars, however, relative to the different Counties of the Principality of Wales, the reader may consult with advantage the Local Tracts contained in Gough's British Topo. graphy, vol. ii. ; and also his valuable Additions to Camden's Britannia.-ED.
LET us, in the first place, congratulate the restitution of this Island to its ancient Latin appellation, seeing it was in a fair way to forget its own name of MONA,* which some filched from this, and fixed on the Isle of Man; pretending, 1. The allusion in sound betwixt Man and Mona: 2. The description thereof in Cæsar, placing it in the middle betwixt Ireland and Britain, which position better agreeth to Man than Anglesea: 3. The authorities of many [later] historians, amongst whom Polydore Vergil and Hector Boethus.
But Dr. Humphrey Lluyd, in his learned letter to Ortilius, most clearly demonstrateth this to be the true Mona; and the reason of reasons doth evince the truth thereof, taken from Tacitus, reporting the Roman Foot (under Paulinus) to have swam over from the continent of Britain to the Isle of Mona. Now such swimming over (with the oars only of arms and legs) (ten leagues at least) to Man is utterly impossible, which from Britain to Anglesea (being hardly an Italian mile) may (though with much difficulty and danger) be performed.
ANGLESEA, that is, the English Island (so called since conquered by our countrymen) is surrounded on all sides with the Irish Sea, save on the south; where a small fret (known by the peculiar name of Menai) sundereth it from the Welch continent, having twenty miles in the length, and seventeen in the breadth thereof. May the inhabitants be like the land they live in; which appears worse than it is, seemingly barren and really fruitful, affording plenty of good wheat; and to grind it,
These, in the Greek Gospel, are termed puxo oviko; that is, asses' mill-stones; either because asses (as Saint Hilary will have it) used to draw them about (before men taught the wind and water to do that work for them), or because the lower millstone was called ovos, an ass,§ from the sluggishness thereof, as always lying still. Observe an opposition betwixt artificial and
"In hoc medio cursu [inter Iberniam et Britanniam] est insula quæ appellatur Mona." (Cæsar de Bello Gallico, lib. v.)
† See Speed's Description thereof.
§ See Erasmus, in his Chiliades, in Prov. Antonius Asinus.
Matthew xviii. 6; Luke xvii. 2.
natural mills; I mean, our mouths. In the former, the lower mill-stone lieth always immoveable; whilst in our mouths the upper jaw always standeth still, and the nether applieth itself in constant motion thereunto. Excellent mill-stones are made in this island. When in metion, in default of grist to grind, they will fire one another; so necessary is foreign employment for active spirits, to divert them from home-bred combustions.
Before we begin on this plentiful topic, be it premised that I conceive the author of that distich was too straight-laced in his belief, thus expressing himself:
Mira canam, non visa mihi sed cognita multis,
"Wonders here by me are told,
For mine own part, I conceive, he that will not believe is unworthy to be believed; and that it is an injury to deny credit to credible persons, attesting as followeth.
There are divers trees daily dug out of moist and marish places, which are firm and fit for timber.* They are as black within as ebony, and are used by the carvers of that country to inlay cupboards and other wooden utensils. These trees are branched into a double difficulty; first, how they came hither; secondly, how preserved here so long from putrefaction.
Some make the pedigree of these trees very ancient, fetching them from Noah's flood, then overturned with the force thereof. Others conceive them cut down by the Romans when conquering this Island, and shaving away their woods, the covert of rebellion.
Others apprehend them felled (or rather falling) of themselves, their weight meeting with the waterish and failing foundation; and it is more easy for one to confute the conjecture of others, than to substitute a more rational in the room thereof.
But grant this first knot in these trees smoothed-how they came hither; a worse knob remains to be plained, how they are preserved sound so many ages, seeing moisture is the mother of corruption, and such the ground wherein they are found: except any will say, there is clammy bituminous substance about them (like those in Lacashire),† which fenceth them from being corrupted. I could add to the wonder, how hazel nuts are found under ground, with sound kernels in them; save it is fitter that the former difficulties be first conjured down, before any new ones be raised up.
• Humphrey Lluyd, in his learned letters to Ortelius. + Camden's Britannia, in that county.
"Mon Mam Cymbry."*]
That is, "Anglesea is the mother of Wales." Not because bigger than Wales (as mothers always are whilst their children are infants), being scarce one twentieth part thereof; nor because (as parents always) ancienter than Wales, which, being an island, may be presumed junior to the continent, as probably made by the interruption of the sea; but because, when other counties fail, she plentifully feedeth them with provision, and is said to afford corn enough to sustain all Wales. Nor is she less happy in cattle than corn; so that this mother of Wales is in some sort a nurse to England. I have seen yearly great droves of fair beasts, brought thence and sold in Essex itself; so that he who considers how much meat Anglesea spends, will wonder that it spares any; how much it spares, that it spends any.
This historical by-word (for proverb properly it is none) we will consider: first, in the original: secondly, in the use: thirdly, in the abuse thereof.
Original.-In the reign of king Henry the Second, in his many expeditions against Wales, one proved very unsuccessful, wherein divers of his camp were sent to essay a passage over Offa's Ditch at Croggen castle. These, being prevented by the British, were most of them slain; and their graves hard by are to be discovered at this day.
Use.--The English afterwards, when having the Welch at advantage, used to say to them, " Crogging, Crogging," as a provocative to revenge, and dissuasive to give them quarter; as if the Romans, on the like occasion, should cry to the Carthaginians, "Cannæ, Cannæ."
Abuse. Continuance of time, which assumeth to itself a liberty to pervert words from their primitive sense, in ignorant mouths hath made it a disgraceful attribute, when the English are pleased to revile the Welch; though, to speak plainly, I conceive not how that word can import a foul disgracing of them, first occasioned by their valiant defeating of us. This byword (though Croggen castle is in Denbighshire) being generally used all over Wales, is therefore placed in this, because the first county thereof.
GUIDO DE MONA was so surnamed from his birth-place in Anglesea. Some suspect that filius insule may be as bad as filius populi, no place being particularized for his birth; whilst others conceive this sounding to his greater dignity to be deno
* Camden's Britannia, in Anglesea.