Applying Cognitive Science to Education: Thinking and Learning in Scientific and Other Complex Domains
MIT Press, 2008 - 471 էջ
Many students find it difficult to learn the kind of knowledge and thinking requiredby college or high school courses in mathematics, science, or other complex domains. Thus they oftenemerge with significant misconceptions, fragmented knowledge, and inadequate problem-solving skills.Most instructors or textbook authors approach their teaching efforts with a good knowledge of theirfield of expertise but little awareness of the underlying thought processes and kinds of knowledgerequired for learning in scientific domains. In this book, Frederick Reif presents an accessiblecoherent introduction to some of the cognitive issues important for thinking and learning inscientific or other complex domains (such as mathematics, science, physics, chemistry, biology,engineering, or expository writing). Reif, whose experience teaching physics at the University ofCalifornia led him to explore the relevance of cognitive science to education, examines with somecare the kinds of knowledge and thought processes needed for good performance; discusses thedifficulties faced by students trying to deal with unfamiliar scientific domains; describes someexplicit teaching methods that can help students learn the requisite knowledge and thinking skills;and indicates how such methods can be implemented by instructors or textbook authors. Writing from apractically applied rather than predominantly theoretical perspective, Reif shows how findings fromrecent research in cognitive science can be applied to education. He discusses cognitive issuesrelated to the kind of knowledge and thinking skills that are needed for science or mathematicscourses in high school or colleges and that are essential prerequisites for more advancedintellectual performance. In particular, he argues that a better understanding of the underlyingcognitive mechanisms should help to achieve a more scientific approach to scienceeducation.Frederick Reif is Emeritus Professor of Physics and Education at Carnegie MellonUniversity and the University of California, Berkeley.