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the opinion with care and with caution; To all those who knew any thing of and the result was a perfect conviction General Pichegru's mind and manners of its necessity. The Duke d’Enghien -to all those who have been accuswas accessary to the confederacy: and tomed to weigh probabilities, and to although the resident of a neutral terri- reason on evidence, it will be evident tory, the urgency of the case, in which that this particular must be false. Pi. my safety and the public tranquillity, chegru was, by character and habit, to use po stronger expression, were in- sedate-he could never have been the volved, JUSTIFIED THE PROCEEDING. I buffoon of the seamen-he could never accordingly ordered him to be seized have betrayed his name to the gossipand tried: He was found guilty, and ing merriment of a ship's crew, who sentenced to be shot.—The sentence would have repeated it on their return was immediately executed; and the to England, where it would have soon same fate would have followed had it found its way into the newspapers, and been Louis the Eighteenth. For I again through them into France. No-Bodeclare, that I found it necessary to roll naparte knew mankind too well, and the thunder back on the metropolis of he was well aware that the only one of England, as from thence, with the the crew who was worth interrogating Count d'Artois at their head, did the was Captain Wright. The conclusion assassins assail me.”—pp. 144-149. then to be drawn from all this is inevi

• Now we have here, from this most table, that the Captain, to be made of interested witness, some admissions use, must be forced to speak. It would which, so far from exculpating him, in- be too much to assert positively that crease the presumption against him. Captain Wright would have resisted all

"Let it be recollected that the charge the extremities of torture. We must relative to Captain Wright was not that not reckon so confidently on the firmBonaparte had wantonly murdered him, ness of human nature ; but at least the but that he had first caused him to be generous character ofthat gallant officer tortured, in order to obtain the clue of induces as to think him as capable as the conspiracy, and afterwards to be any other man of'a noble resistance :murdered to prevent this atrocity from yet, to prove how uncertain are all debeing discovered.

ductions of this kind, Bonaparte after"From Bonaparte's own account, it wards tells us that he found Pichegru is evident how great his anxiety was to was in France, not by one of the crew, trace this plot.-His police, he says, but by a surgeon to whom he was miwere in an ignorant perplexity-his life raculously directed, and from whom, was supposed to be in imminent dan- because he was avaricious, he contrives ger-seventy conspirators were at Pa- to obtain a confession, not by money, ris, but neither their names, persons, but by terror ! The contradictory nor haunts can be discovered : fortu- statements prove, at least one thingnately in this moment of perplexity, that Bonaparte was not telling truth, Captain Wright is taken--the intellj, and that there was some part of the gence is instantly transmitied to Paris transaction which he chose to involve -instructions immediately returned to in obscurity. We have seen his anxiinterrogate the crew separately, i. c. ety for information, the vast importance secretly, and by the police. These ex- he attached to the capture of Captain aminations, however, produced nothing Wright, and the necessity in which he et first; but at length one of the crew was to obtain his evidence : let us now threw some light on the subject; he see whether there is reason to suppose stated that the brig had landed several he was a man to be deterred from enFrenchmen on the coast, and, among deavouring to obtain this evidence by others, a merry fellow called Pichegru. torture.

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• In the first place, he does not deny the confession of Bonaparte himself; a that, contrary to the laws of nations, confession accompanied with explana. he subjected the English crew to secret tions which take little or nothing from interrogatories before the Police—this the guilt of the wretch who proposed is the first step towards torture. In the the one, and executed the other of these second place, it is admitted that Cap- atrocities. tain Wrigb: was placed in solitary con “ On raising the siege of St. Jean finement in a state prison-this is the d’Acre, the army retired upon Jaffa. next—nay, it is of itself a species of It had become a matter of urgent neforture. Thirdly, he confesses that he cessity. The occupation of this town employed the direct and overwhelining for any length of time was totally im. terror of immediate death upon the practicable, from the force that Jezza mind of the surgeon.

And, finally, he Pacha was enabled to bring forward. avows and boasts, that-for the purpose The sick and wounded were pumerous; of deseating the very plot in which and their removal was my first consideCaptain Wright was implicated-he ration. Carriages the most convenient seized a prince, no subject of his, in a that could be formed were approneutral territory, hurried him from his priated to the purpose. Some of them bed before a military midnight tribunal, were sent by water to Damietta, and and thence to a sudden and ignominious the rest were accommodated, in the deati:----Nay, says this monster, “the best possible manner, to accompany same fate should have followed had it their comrades in their march across been Louis xvIII." And he justifies the Desert. Seven men, however, octhis atrocious violence “because he cupied a quarantine hospital, who were found it necessary to roll the thunder infected with the plague ; whose report back on the metropolis of England.” was made me by the chief of the medi. This excuse, it is evident, would be as cal staff ; (I think it was Degenette.) good for torturing Captain Wright, as He further added, that the disease had for the seizure and murder of the Duke gained such a stage of malignancy, d'Enghien.

there was not the least probability of For our own parts we had never their continuing alive beyond fortymuch doubt that Captain Wright had eight hours. been tortured and subsequently murder “• I said, tell ine what is to be done! ed; now-if we are to believe that Mr. He hesitated for some time, and then Warden gives an accurate report of repeated, that these men, who were Bonaparte's explanation-we can have the objects of my very painful solicinone at all.

tude,could not survive forty-eighthours. *Our opinon of the natural atrocity --I then suggested (what appeared to of Bonaparte's mindis confirmed by the be his opinion, though he might not arowal which he makes to Mr. War- choose to declare it, but wait with the den, and what is of more importance, trembling hope to receive it from me) which he has made to others, in whose the propriety, because I felt it would veracity we place more faith than in be bumanity, of shortening the suffer. the Doctor's—that he suggested the ings of these scven men by administering poisoning of his own sick, and the mas. Opium. Such a relief, I added, in a sacre of the garrison of Jaffa. The similar situation, I should anxiously charge of perpetrating these crimes solicit for myself. But, rather contra. (which was first made by Sir Robert ry to my expectation, the proposition Wilson, on what we have always was opposed, and consequently abanthought very sufficient authority) had doned.'"--p. 156–159. been vehemently denied by Bonaparte's It is thus put out of all doubt that, adinirers : they are now set at rest by of this crime, as far as first suggesting,

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and being anrious to execute it--which, dignation of the soldiers knew no in fact, are the real constituents of a bounds: they were perfectly infuriated; crime-Bonaparte is guilty. If the and with the most eager impatience, men were not poisoned, or, as he and demanded to be led on to the storm. the Doctor gently express it, if opium I did not hesitate, under such circumwas not administered, it was no merit stances to command it. The attack of his. With respect to Bonaparte's was dreadful; and the carnage excowardly insinuation that the mind of ceeded any action I had then witnessthe chief physician anticipated his de- ed. We carried the place, and it retermination, and waited, with trem- quired all my efforts and influence to bling hope, for orders to poison his fel- restrain the fury of the enraged sol. low creatures-it is clear, from his own diers. At length, I succeeded, and account, that he suggested, that he night closed the sanguinary scene. At pressed, that he insisted on this abo- the dawn of the following morning, a mination, and that it was only prevent- report was brought me, that five huned (if it was prevented) by the cou- dred men chiefly Napolese, who had rageous and humane resistance of the lately formed a part of the garrison of medical staff of the army.

El Arish, and to whom I had a few • The massacre of part of the garri- days before given liberty, on condition son of Jaffa is thus related :

that they should return to their homes, " At the period in question General were actually found and recognized Desaix was left in Upper Egypt; and amongst the prisoners. On this fact Kleber in the vicinity of Damietta. being indubitably ascertained, I orderI left Cairo, and traversed the Arabian ed the five hundred men to be drawn desert in order to unite my force with out and instantly shot.”—p. 161–163. that of the latter at El Arish. The . Here again we have two or three town was attacked, and a capitulation remarks to make on the palliative cirsucceeded. Many of the prisoners cumstaoces adduced by Bonaparte. were found on examination, to be na • We will say nothing of the perfidy of tives of the mountains, and inhabitants the war which he was himself waging ; of Mount Tabor, but chiefly from Na —we will not attempt to show that ihe zareth. They were immediately re- poor prasants of Mount Tabor might leased, on their engaging to return be supposed to be ignorant of the etiquietly to their bomes, children, and quette of European capitulations and wives : at the same time, they were paroles ;—we shall not insist on the recommended to acquaint their coun- impossibility of the French recognizing trymen the Napolese, that the French the men found in Jaffa as the very inwere no longer their enemies, unless dividuals who capitulated in El Arish; they were found in arms assisting the we shall not state, as Sir Robert WilPacha. When this ceremony was con- son states, the massacre to have been cluded, the army proceeded on its of more than as many thousands as march towards Jaffa. That city, on Bonaparte confesses hundreds-we the first view of it, bore a formidable shall not urge against Bonaparte that appearance, and the garrison was con- he actually obliged officers to serve siderable. It was summoned to sur- against us who had been released from render : when the officer, who bore my England, on parole, not to serve: we dag of truce, no sooner passed the city shall give up all these topics, and only wall than his head was inhumanly insist upon the plain facts of the case struck off, instantly fixed upon a pole, which prove this transaction to be one and insultingly exposed to the view of of the foulest and most inexcusable the French arıny. At the sight of this massacres that was ever perpetrated. horrid and unexpected object, the in · These poor people were taken at

El Arish; their homes were Nazareth or if it had been besieged long enough and Mount Tabor; they were bound to allow the poor people to get away to return thither; froin El Arish to from it, or if they had been found in Nazareth, the high road passes through it after a lapse of time which ought to Jafía. Bonaparte describes himself as have carried them beyond it, some. having lost no time in marching to thing, though, God knows, but little, Jaffa ; he could not, therefore, be far might be said in defence of Bonaparte; behind the Nazarites ; must, indeed, but as the fact is stated by himself, have arrived before the town almost as the bloody perfidy is clear, and the soon as they entered it: the place was whole of Bonaparte's conductis proved, summoned-tbe assault is immediately by his own confession, to have been given--and Jafra is taken ; but in it, detestably and infamously base. on their way home, were found the • We have now done with the " Letgarrison of El Arish; and, because ters from St. Helena !”- We have felt they were found therewhere Bona. it on this occasion necessary to enter parte must have known them to be, if into minute, and often, we fear, tedious they adhered to the capitulation-he details, because Mr. Warden's preordered 500 of his fellow-creatures to tences and falsehoods, if not detected be drawn out and instantly shot !—and on the spot and at the moment when this too the next morning after a car- the means of detection happen to be nage which exceeded all that this tiger at hand, might hereafter tend to dehad ever before witnessed. If.Jaffa ceive other writers, and poison the had been ever so little out of the way, sources of history.'

Art. 3. The Oficial Reports of the Canal Commissioners of the State of New

York, and the Acts of the Legislature respecting Navigable Communications between the Great Western and Northern Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean; will perspicuous maps and profiles. Published at the request of the Board of Commissioners. T. & W. Mercein, New-York.

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E have read, with interest, these opinions we respect on most questions,

able documents on a most im- who avow themselves hostile to the portant subject; and have derived whole plan of improvement in internal much information and satisfaction from navigation by artificial communications. the perusal. To facilitate the commer. The opponents of this system endeacial intercourse between the different vour to assimilate it to the mania for sections of this extensive empire, has manufactures, which has so lately peplong been a favourite object with her vaded our country. So far, however, most enlightened statesmen. It was from any analogy existing between with extreme regret that we saw the them, no two projects were ever more very liberal appropriations of the last opposite. Congress, towards a fund for internal But before we proceed to demon. improvements, unexpectedly defeated strate this, let us guard against a mis. by the veto of the President. The apprehension, to which silence might public attention has, however, been render us liable on another point, by roused by the discussion, and, from the distinctly declaring our belief that, on spirit generally evinced, we are inclin- the whole, the community are gainers ed to believe that, if there were real from the recent exertions to introduce grounds for Madison's scruples, the new branches of manufactures among constitutional obstacle to the measure us; though experience has proved can easily be removed.

those efforts to have been, in many There are, nerertheless, men, whose instances, premature, and individuals

have undoubtedly suffered from their mount it require, the whole sum will failure. Various useful works are still be expended within the state. Thus in successful operation, and the im- the greater the disbursement the greatportation of many articles of indispen- er the spring that will be given to busable necessity is entirely supersed- siness by it; and the reaction will, in ed. In finer fabrics, and inventions of a great degree, restore the momentum luxury, we care not how long it be which produced it. before we can enter into competition But it is the narrowness of our views with foreigners. The state of society, that makes us consider this undertaking which could alone enable us to do it so vast. Let us familiarise ourselves a with advantage, is, we hope, remote. little with the works of this description The direct tendency of the scheme, of which have been constructed in Europe, which we confess ourselves the advo- and we shall lose much of our awe in cates, is to remove it.

approaching the calculations of the The only impediment to the prose- commissioners. We will say nothing cution of manufactures in this coun- of the immense canals of France, nor try, is the high price of labour. The of the stupendous inland navigation prime cause of this enhancement of of Russia,-in Great Britain alone Tabour is the cheapness of land. This there are more than two hundred of arises from the immense disproportion these artificial rivers, completed and in between the quantity of arable land use; and nearly a hundred more in in the country, and the number of progress, or projected. They are from hands to till it ;-whatever, then, 5 to 100 miles in length, and have cost brings more land into market has the from 30,000 to 10,000,000 of dollars. effect of raising wages. Turnpikes Most of them have proved profitable and canals which facilitate intercourse, concerns, and the stock of many has and, as it were, abridge distances, ac- appreciated more than 100 per cent. complish the one, and must produce As an evidence of the spirit in which the other. The surest way, then, to these enterprises have been carried on, Tetard the introduction of manufac- in England, and of the manner in tures, is by holding out more alluring which those who have embarked in prospects to agriculture, by opening them have been rewarded, a brief ac

avenues to enterprise, and new count of one of the earliest experivents to the products of industry ;- ments of this kind may not be uninteand the surest way of effecting these resting, and will serve to calm some of desirable objects is by encouraging our apprehensions. We copy the folturnpikes and canals ;-which is what lowing from Ree's Cyclopedia. we proposed to show.

Bridgwater's Canal.—The general Another objection which is urged, direction of the principal line of this and which is, particularly, insisted up. canal is nearly N. E. (and not a great on in reference to the projected plan way from its eastern end, a main branch for improving the inland navigation of goes off in a N. W. direction ;) the this state, is its enormous expense. length is 40 miles in the counties of A sufficient answer to this might be Chester and Lancaster. It begins in found in the report of the committee the tide-way ; above which the whole of the legislature, who estimate the an- of it is elevated 82 feet at low water, nual expense of transportation of com- except about 600 yards, which the modities to and from Oneida and the locks occupy to gain this ascent. counties west of it, at more than three • The commencement of this canal times the annual interest of the cost is in the estuary of the Mersey river at of the contemplated canal. Nor ought Runcorn-gap, and one of its terminait to be forgotten, that whatever a- tions in the Rochdale canal at Castle

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