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too many cases, in which the interest of one is soldier, bear our Engles in triumph round the not considered as the interest of the other. globe! I hope to God we shall never have Should these conflict, if the judiciary be such an abominable institution. But what, I gone, the question is no longer of law, but of ask, will be the situation of these states orce. This is a state of things whicb no hon- (organized as they now are) if by the dissoest and wise man can view without horror. lution of our national compact, they be
Suppose, in the omnipotence of your left to themselves ? Wbat is the probable retegislative authority, you trench upon the sult? We shall either be the victims of rights of your fellow-citizens, by passing an foreign intrigue, and split into factions, fall unconstitutional law: If the judiciary de- under the domination of a foreign power, or partment preserve its vigour, it will stop you else, after the misery and torment of civil short: Instead of a resort to arms, there will war, become the subjects of a usurping be a happier appeal to argument. Suppose military despot. What but this compacti a case still more impressive. The President What but this specific part of it, can save us is at the head of your armies. Let one of from ruin? The judicial power, that fortress his generals, flushed with victory, and proud of the constitution, is now to be overturned. in command, presume to trample on the Yes, with honest Ajax, I would not only rights of your most insignificant citizen: In• throw a shield before it, I would build around dignant of the wrong, he will demand the it a wall of brass. But I am too weak to protection of your tribunals, and safe in the defend tbe rampart against the host of assail. shadow of their wings, will laugh his oppres. ants must call to my assistance sor to scorn.
treir good sense, their patriotism, and their The gentleman from Virginia has men- virtue. -Do not, gentlemen, suffer the tioned a great nation brought to the feet of rage of passion to drive reason from her one of her servants. But why is slie in that si. seat. If this law be indeed bad, let us joia tuation? Is it not because popular opinion was to remedy the defects. Has it been passed called on to decide every thing, until those in a manner which wounded your pride, wbo wore bayonets decided for all the rest? or roused your resentment? Have, I conjure Qur situation is peculiar. At present our na- you, the magnanimity to pardon that offence. tional compact can prevent a state from act. I entreat, I implore you, to sacrifice those ing hostilely towards the general interest. angry passions to the interests of our country: Bullet this compact be destroyed, and each Pour out this pride of opinion on the altas state becomes instantaneously vested with of patriotism. Let it be an expiatory liba. absolute sovereignty. Is there no instance tion for the weal of America.' Do not, for of a similar situation to be found in history! God's sake, do not suffer that pride to plunge Look at the states of Greece. They were once us all into the abyss of ruin. Indeed, indeed, it in a condition not unlike to that in which will be but of litile, very little avail, whether we should then stand. They treated the re- one opinion or the other be right or wrong; commendations of their Amphictionic Coun- it will heal po wounds, it will pay no debts, it cil (which was more a meeting of am will rebuild no ravaged towns. Do not ba: sadors than a legislative assembly) as we rely on that popular will, which has brought did the resolutions of the old Congress. Are us, frail beings, into political existence. That we wise? So were they. Are we valiant ? They opinion is but a changeable thing. It will also were brave. Have we one commonlan- soon change. This very measure will change guage, and are we united under one head? it. You will be deceived. Do not, I beseech In this also there was a strong resemblance. you, in reliance on a foundation so frail, But, by their divisions, they became at first commit the dignity, the harmony, the existvictims to the ambition of Philip, and were ence of our nation to the wild wind. at length swallowed up in the Roman empire. Trust not your treausure to the waves. Are we to form an exception to the general Throw not your compass and your charts principles of human nature, and to all the into the ocean. Do not believe that its examples of history? And are the maxims of billows will waft you into port. Indeed, experience to become false, when applied to indeed, you will be deceived. Cast not our fate?
away this only anchor of our safety. I have Some, indeed, fatter themselves, that our
seen its progress. I know the difficulties destiny will be like that of Rome. Such in through which it was obtained: I stand in deed it might be, if we had the same wise, the presence of Almighty God, and of the but vile aristocracy, under whose guidance world; and I declare to you, if you lose this. they became the masters of the world. But charter, never! no, never will you get anowe have not that strong aristocratic arm, ther! We are now, perhaps, arrived at the which can seize a wretched citizen, scourged parting point. Here, even here, we stand on almost to death by a remorseless creditor, ihe brink of fate. Pause-Pause-For Heatura bim into the ranks, and bid bim, as a ven's sake Pause !!
The difficulty of extracting, and the sacrifices of paganison to hor three hundred wish to give variety to our selections, of thousand gods, amidst ber sagacious and soeloquent and tasteful compositions, must tered brutes, on the light of birds, and the
lemn consultations over the entrails of slaughbe our excuse for not quoting from the feeding of fowls, it had never entered her other able speeches made on this oc- imagination to call upon the pontiff, the haCasjon.
ruspex, or the augur, for discourses to the We will, therefore, now offer an ex. Maker, their fellow-mortals, and themselves.
people, on the nature of their duties to their tract from the inaugural oration of His This was an idea, too august to be mingled Excellency John Quincy Adams, our with the absurd and ridiculous, or profligate present minister at the court of St. James, and barbarous rites of her deplorable superdelivered by him, at bis installation as kind are indebted to christianity; introduced
stition. It is an institution, for whicb man. Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and by the Founder himself of this divine reliOratory, in the University of Cam. gion, and in every point of view worthy of bridge. In the course of a history of its high original." Its effects have been to the progress of Rhetoric and Oratory, mankind ; not in so high a degree as benethe learned Professor thus indulges the volence could wish, but enough to call forth enthusiasm of a scholar:
our strains of warmest gratitude to that good At the revival of letters in modern Europe, being, who provides us with the means of eloquence, together with her sister muses, promoting our own felicity, and gives us awoke, and shook the poppies from her
brow. power to stand, though leaving us free to fall. But their torpors still tingled in her veins. la Here then is an unbounded and inexhaustible the interval her voice was gone; her favour. field for eloquence, never explored by the ite languages were extinct; her organs were ancient orators; and here alone have the Do longer tuned to harmony, and her hearers modern Europeans cultivated the art witke could no longer understand her speech. The much success. In vain should we enter the discordant jargon of fendal anarchy bad balls of justice, in vain should we listen to banished the musical dialects, in which she the debates of senates for strains of oratory, bad always delighted. The theatres of her worthy of remembrance, beyond the duraformer triumphs were either deserted, or tion of the occasion, which called them forth. they were filled with the babblers of sophistry The art of embalming thought by oratory, and chicane. She shrunk intuitively from liko that of embalming bodies by aromatics, the forum; for the last object she remembered would have perished, but for the exercises of to bave seen there was the head of her dar. religion. These alone have in the latter ages ling Cicero, planted upon the rostrum. She furnished discourses, wbich remind us, that ascended the tribunals of justice ; there she eloquence is yet a faculty of the human found her child, Persuasion, manacled and mind. pinioned by the letter of the law; there sle Sons of Harvard! You, who are ascending beheld an image of herself, stammering in with painful step and persevering toil the barbarous Latin, and ruggling under the eminence of science, to prepare yourselves lumber of a thousand volumes. Her heart for the various functions and employments fainted within her. She lost all confidence of the world before you, it cannot be neces. in berself. Together with ber irresistible sary to urge upon you the importance of the powers, sbe lost proportionably the conside- art, concerning which I am speaking. Is it ration of the world, until, instead of com- the purpose of your future life to minister in prising the whole system of public education, the temples of Almighty God, to be the messbe found herself excluded from the circle of sengers of heaven upon earth, to enlighten sciences, and declared an outlaw from the with the torch of eternal truth the path of realms of learning. She was not however your fellow-mortals to brighter worlds? Redoomed to eternal silence. With the pro- member the reason, assigned for the appointgress of freedom and of liberal science, ment of Aaron to that ministry, which you in various parts of modern Europe, she purpose to assume upon yourself. I know, obtained access to mingle in the delibe. THAT HE CAN SPEAK WELL; and, in this testirations of their parliaments. With labour monial of Omnipotence, receive the injuncand difficulty she learned their languages, tion of your duty. Is it your intention to de. and lent her aid in giving them form and vote the labours of your maturity to the polish. But she has never recovered the cause of justice; to defend the persons, the graces of her former beauty, nor the energies property, and the fame of your fellow citiof her ancient vigour.
zens from the open assaults of violence, and Religion indeed bas opened one new ave- the secret encroachments of fraud? Fill the Rue to ihe career of eloquence, Amidst the fountains of yoor eloquence from ineshausti.
ble sources, that their streams, when they talents, and to make the most of the name of shall begin to flow, may themselves prove in- a scholar, is tempted to turn his literary credit oxbaustible. Is there among you a youth, to the quickest account, by early making whose bosom burns with the fires of honour himself of consequence to the people, or able ambition; who aspires to immortalize his rather to some of their factions. 'From the name by the extent and importance of his ser moment that he is found yielding himself up vices to his country; whose visions of futurity to their service, or hunting after a popular glow with the hope of presiding in her coun- favour, his time, bis studies, and his powers, eils, of directing her affairs, of appearing to yet in their bloom, are all lost to learning. future ages on the rolls of fame, as her orna. Instead of giving his days and nights to the ment and pride? Let him catch from the re- study of the profound masters of political lics of ancient oratory those unresisted pow. wisdom, instead of patiently receiving the ers, which mould the mind of man to the will lessons of history and of practical philosophy, of the speaker, and yield the guidance of a he prematurely takes a part in all the dissen. Dation to the dominion of the voice.
tions of the day. His leisure is wasted on the Under governments purely republican, profligate productions of demagogues, and where every citizen has a deep interest in the his curiosity bent on the minutive of local affairs of the nation, and in some form of politics. The consequence is, that his mind public assembly or other, has the means and is so much dissipated, or his passions disturb, opportunity of delivering his opinions, and ed, that the quiet speculations of the scholar of communicating his sentiments by speecb; can no longer detain bim. He bears at & wbere goveroment itself has no arms but distance the bustle of the Comitia—He rushes those of persuasion; where prejudice has out of the grove of Egeria, and Numa and not acquired an uncontrolled ascendency, the muses call after him in vain. and faction is yet confined within the barri.
The infirmities of noble minds are often ers of peace; the voice of eloquence will not so consecrated by their greatness, that an unbe heard in vain. March then with firm, conscious imitation of their peculiarities, with steady, with undeviating, step, to the which are real defects, may sometimes be prize of your high calling Gather fragrance pardoned in their admirers. But to copy from the whole paradise of science, and their vices, or to hunt in their works for those learn to destil from your lips all the honies very lines, which, when dying, they would of persuasion. Consecrate, above all, the most wish to blot, is a different offence. I faculties of your life to the cause of truth, of know of nothing in literature so unpardona: freedom, and of humanity: So shall your ble as this. He who poaches among the lacountry ever gladden at the sound of your bours of the learned only to find what there voice, and every talent, added to your ac- is polluted in their language, or licentious in complishments, become another blessing to their works; he who searches the biography mankind.
of men of genius to find precedents for bis From some of the sentiments in the follies, or palliations of his own stupid desecond paragraph, we must beg leave, pravity, can be compared to nothing more
strongly than to the man, who should walk with deference, to dissent; but no one, through the gallery of antiques, and every we apprehend, can fail to admire the day gaze upon the Apollo, the Venus, or fine spirit of clasic lore which lives and the Laocoon, and yet, proh pudor! bring breathes through the whole passage.
away an imagination impressed with nothing
but the remembrance that they were naked. The following extracts are from the pen of as fine a genius, as accomplished
I should be unfaithful to myself and to the à scholar, and as good a man, as ever subject, if I should leave it without mention. graced our schools, or consecrated his ing it as the most solemn of our obligations talents to the pulpit. They are froin as scholars, to take care that we give no curan Address, pronounced by the Rev. rency to error or sanction to vice. Unfortu
nately, there is enough of corrupt literature J. S. Buckminster, before the Society in the world; and when the mind has once of ø. B. K. of Ilarvard College, Cam. begun to make that its poison, which ougbt bridge, on the Dangers and Duties of to be its medicine, I know not how the soul
is to be recovered, except by the power of men of letters.
God in his word. Scholars! I dare not say, Every where there are dangers and evils, that the cause of religion depends upon the of which some affect the intellectual im- fidelity of the learned; but I do say, that provement, and others are uulavourable to gratitude and every motive of virtue demand the moral worth of literary men. In this of you a reverence for the gospel. Protos: country, especially, it too often happens, tant Christianity bas in former times given That the young man, who is to live by bis learning such support, as learning nerer can
repay. The bistory of Christendom bears receive such praise, and from us, he witness to this. The names of Erasmus, of can equal or surpass. Grotius, of Bacon, and a host of luminaries of science, who rise up like a wall of fire
With the plan of the valedictory, around the cause of Christianity, will bear immethodical and desultory as it is, witness to this. They cry out in the language we do not intend to find much fault, as of Tully; O vitae dux! o virtutis indagatrix, the occasion did not, perhaps, demand, expultrisque vitiorum! quid non modo nos, sed omnino vita hominum sine te esse potuis though it certainly would have permitset. Without this for the guide and termi- ted a more systematic discourse. Sysnus of your studies, you may " but go down tem, however, does not appear to chahell, with a great deal of wisdom.". My racterize the mind, or the efforts of Mr. friends, infidelity has had one triumph in our days; and we have seen learning, as well as Sampson. He is, we think, better cal. virtue, trampled under the hoots of its infu- culated to produce effect by a succesriated steeds, let loose by the hand of impie- sion of animated sallies, than regular ty. Fanaticism, too, bas bad more than one and well-elaborated trains of thought. day of desolation ; and its consequences have We do not deny him talents, but we think been such, as ought always to put learning on its guard. Remember, then, the place them active, rather than profound, and where we bave been educated, and the pious apprehend he is happier in catching rebounty which has enriched it for our sakes semblances, than in marking differenThink of the ancestors who have transmitted to us our Christian liberties ! Nay, bear the ces. He is much more imaginative voice of posterity, pleading with you for her than logical, and has more generosity peace, and beseeching you not to send down of sentiment, and warmth of feeling, your names, stained with profligacy and ir- than justness of thought and comprereligion.
hensiveness of views. We have not room for any further The faults of the production before extracts, but these are sufficient to show us, however, appertain more to the the manly modes of thinking and speak- manner, than the matter; for the mat ing that distinguish wise and able men, ter is, on the whole, very generally corwhen engaged on important subjects, rect, while the manner is radically bad, and must forever cast into the shade tbe and the language abounds with offences effeminate and tricked-out style of mo- against taste. As a specimen of the dem sentimentalists, whether at the bar former, in our opinion, the best in the or before popular asseinblies.
address, we refer to the account Mr. We, perbaps, ought to apologize to Sampson gives of the truly great orator. the author of the “ Valedictory,” for There is some repugnance among the placing him by the side of such men, ideas even in this, but they appear to with whom, we are persuaded, bis have arisen principally from a want of modesty would never allow bim to com- patience in qualifying and finishing pare himself, even to his own disadvan- off bis thoughts, if we may 80 say, tage. We can only say that we should and as it is the most striking passage Dot have done it, if we had not wished in the oration, we will copy most of it. lo excite and fix on good models, the “ The great orator,” says Mr. Sampo attention of those among us, whose am- son, " is the great man of real life, bition it may be to add their names to and [is] born for action. A daring spithe catalogue of those, who have con- rit, a decisive will, give impulse to the tributed by their eloquence to the glo- convictions of his mind. His argusy of their country, while we were ments may be like the bow of Ulysses warning them against the bad taste of in the hands of common meu, but in his that description of rhetoric of which own, impel the shaft to the feather in Mr. Sampson seems to think most high- the mark. The whole character of his ly, and which it appears to be his wish mind is vehement reason. His elos to imitate; nay, which, we think, if it quence is not the display of sentiment, were any object with Mr. Sampson to or the subtility of disputation, but the VOL, I, NO. !II.
burst of feeling, and the flash of mind description of the true orator, in other that carries conviction. His true cha- jnstances, whose “ imagination is not racteristic is force, and he delights to the fancy of the poet, Joving to repose exert it. He does not seek to delight among its own visions; who trusts not to his hearers, but to hurry them into ac- the glow of bis colours, and does not go tion. Doubt and dismay vanish at his in pursuit of tropes and figures.” look, feebler minds pay homage to the He may, perbaps, resemble the oraenergy of bis character, and, clinging tor, when he “ flings bis brush at the to his protection, take their opinions picture,” but, though we well rememfrom his eye, and acquire courage in ber the story of the great Italian, we the thunder of his voice. The tragic doubt whether a whole picture, atpassions, terror and pity, are the springs tempted in this way, would exhibit of his eloquence, and inaccessible to any much correctness of drawing, or truth but the loftiest impulses of our nature, of expression. he ever assumes the noblest sentiments as Among the specimens of incongruous furnishing motives to action." The fore- figures, we notice the following. "The going is more of an abstract than an ex- spirit of the dove,” Mr. Sampson says, tract, though it is all in Mr. Sampson's (p. 7.) “ descending upon our underlanguage. We have only laid out of standings, brings with it, in its wings, the picture those parts which injured the sublime emotions of a mysterious the likeness and deformed the symme- faith.” Now, part of this figure is spitry, and offer it as an accurate and ritual, and part material, and therefore well drawn miniature, or rather sketch mixed and absurd ; and whether the of a great orator. There is, ibroughout dove be" in the body, or out of the the whole of this composition, a most body, we cannot tell." If“ out of the ravening appetite for tropes, and figures, body," if the spirit of the dove, that is, and epithets, and in alınost every in- the moral qualities thus frequently destance of metaphor and simile, there is scribed, be intended as the carrier of an incongruity,wbile his epithets are, too the emotions, then the carrier is identioften, applied without much discrimi: fied with what is carried; and if “ in nation, making tautology, or weakening the body,” if the dove itself be meant the force of the sentence. A principal to be the carrier, then, we do not think ingredient of strength is simplicity. It she could light upon the understanding, is a great mistake to suppose that an which, moreover, is not the proper reaccumulation of epithets, is an increase cipient of emotions. Besides, we do of energy. They more often encum- not understand how emotions can be carber than invigorate, and when injudi- ried in a pair of wings; if Mr. Sampciously employed, like scaffolding round son bad said motions, we should have a tower, they obscure the meaning and understood bim. A little lower, on the degrade the majesty of the simple sub- same page, there is a hand grasping at a stantive.
thrill, and a dimming eye is affirmed to Nouns of importance, those on which beam with hope ; which last clause has the sentence mainly depends, are much another inaccuracy, the use of dimming like genuine female beauty, “ when in a neuter sense, wben it is always an unadorn'd, adorn'd the most." Mr. active participle. We do not perceive, Sampson, according to bis own decision, furthermore, the propriety of raising a would scarcely make an eloquent storm on the mountains and along shore, preacher, for “ in the pulpit, eloquence in order to exhibit the intrepidity and is seen not in the vain pomp of words;" skill of a helm's-man at sea ; nor can we nor would be suit the senate entirely, well imagine how the same individual for there, “ eloquence assumes a grave can “rise upon the wave, and ride aspect ;' nor does he answer to his own upon the storm," and all the while hare