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hold of the tiller. We bave, also, on dure, that soon follows. There are mathe 8th page, the affections wielded and ny more incongruities, and tautologies; marshalled, at the same time. Inter- and many ill-joined ideas, which we rupted, is a word of stronger import than have not room to notice. In fine, the withstood, and yet, " the triumphs of only good qualities, which belong to eloquence, though interrupted, cannot the style of this Valedictory, are the be witbstood.” And, then, again, free- structure of the sentences, and the pudom flings her breath upon certain rity of the words. We think the senwords; and people are made delirious tences are well varied, and easy, and by drinking freedom. Now, we should the words good English. But of the not wish, for our country, or for vur- metapbors and similies, for which Mr. selves, any freedom that is crazy. Sampson seems to have a most unga

Then there is the march of a stream, vernable appetite, of alınost every one and eloquence is said to exhibit this of them, we may say with Horace, march, at one time, and at another, the "— nec pes, nec caput uni roar of an impetuous torrent. But,

Reddatur forina." according to Euclid, things equal to the The whole of the ornamental part of same thing, are equal to one another; Mr. Sampson's style, we think is radi. ergo, a march and a roar are equal. cally wrong. He has a great deal 100 Mr. Sampson has favoured us, too, with much trope and figure a new kind of revelation : ecce signum! " His mouth he cannot ope. “ Truth shall reveal herself to eyes

But out there flies a trope." accustomed to radiance."

Besides, figures should have as much phetic rhapsody, along here, however, truth-as much logical connexion, as will do tolerably well for those who are simple propositions. · Fancy should not given to visions, until it comes to where be allowed to cruise, after poor sense "our triumphs slumber in the calm, and has become tired.' Errors of this sort lighten in the storm.” In the course of are not morally wrong; they “neither eight lines, there are four triumphs, the break a man's leg, nor pick his pocket;' last of which, is to be sounded forth in but when they are found in the printed strains glorious as a trumpet.What performances of those who claim to be a glorious strain! Such strains are, we scholars and orators, they may, and must believe, rarer than the greener ver. should be exposed.

The pro

ART. 3 An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology, being an introduction to the study of these Sciences, and designed for the use of Pupils; for persons attending Lectures on these subjects, and as a Companion for travellers in the United States of America. By Parker Cleaveland, Professor, in Bow.

doin College, &c. &c. Boston, Cummings & Hilliard. 8vo. pp. 668. 1816. THE THE work before us is auspicious of and Geology in many of our colleges

the advancement of the physical and institutions. Professor Cleaveland sciences in the United States. Miue- is Lecturer on mineralogy in Bowdoin ralogy bas heretofore been cultivated College, Maine ;-William Dandridge by few in this country; but the vast Peck, Esq. Professor of Natural History field for research in this department of in the University of Cambridge, includes nature lying open, has at length invited mineralogy and geology in his acadeattention; and an increasing taste for inic course;-Benjamin Silliman, Esq. investigation in this science begins to has for a number of years lectured on pervade the community. Public lec- chemistry, and latterly on mineralogy, as, tures are annually given on Mineralogy a distinci science, in Yale College, Nevy.

Haven; and Doctors Mitchill & Bruce Mitchill has been one of the foremost have, annually, for a number of years among those who have laboured to extend past, given separate courses on this sub. a knowledge of mineralogy. We bave ject in New-York. These gentlemen attended his lectures, and been delightare among those who have pioneered ed with bis discourses on a subject, the way through the uncultivated forests which, from abstract considerations, of America, and brought to light the might be thought dry and uninterestmineral riches of our country. Their ing. He has collected and preserved, lectures bave been thinly attended, un- in the Medical Repository of Newtil of late years the spirit of investiga- York, observations and facis connected tion has spread, and their bearers have with the science, which will descend to become more numerous. Hence has posterity, as specimens of his industry arisen the call for publications on mine- and attention to this department of ralogy, and hence professor Cleaveland scientific information. Dr. Seybert, of has been industriously employed in col- Philadelphia, has paid aitention to the lecting information for an elementary mineralogy of the United States, and work on mineralogy and geology, which deserves credit for his publications in the is the subject of our examination. Works Medical Museum, and, though for many of this kind are now read with avidity; years a representative in the congress societies are formed for the cultivation of the United States from Philadelphia, of the natural sciences, -among which, he has not abandoned science for the mineralogy holds a distinguished rank; uncertainty of politics. One of ibé cabinets are formed by public bodies most zealous cultivators of mineralogy in and individuals, and periodical journals the United States, is Col. George Gibbs, circulate information on this subject. of Rhode Island, now a resident of NewThese gentlemen are not the only per- York. His taste and bis fortune bave sons who have cultivated this science concurred in making him the proprietor in the United States, or helped to dif- of one of the most extensive and valuafuse a knowledge of the rising impor- ble assortments of minerals that, protance of our country, on account of the bably, exist in America. Col. Gibles mineral treasures of the soil. They, has offered to deposite in the Cabinet of perhaps, bave done more than others the New York Historical Society, a by their public lectures and publica- part of his minerals,--where preparations to produce a taste for mineralogy, iion is now making to receive them; and diffuse a knowledge of the bles, and it is intended to give public sings arising from its cultivation. lectures in the chambers of this society

Professor Silliman has done much at the New York Institution. Mr. credit to bimself, and to science, by his M.Clure has published a geological map lectures and experiments, and particu- of the United States, illustrating the larly by his publications on mineralo. Wernerian arrangement of the magy, in our periodical journals. Dr. terials of ihe globe, which will afford Bruce returned from Europe with a aid and facility in this science in its aplarge collection of specimens, which plication to ihis country. Professor form an elegant cabinet of minerals, Cleareland's work is ornamented with still in his possession, and which lie has Nir. M.Ciure's map and its explanation. used in illustration of his annual lectures We would gladly name many o!hers of on this subject. He is the editor of the our countrymen, who have not been “ Mineralogical Journal," occasionally wanting in zeal for the cultivation of published in New-York, and in wbich mineralogy, but our limits forbid any are embodied communications on this further enumeration ; we must attend subject, and all the recent information to the work before us. and discoveries in this science. Df. The Arst 87 pages of Professor Cleave.

land's work, compose bis “ introduc 2. There exists anotbor class of rocks, less tion to the study of mineralogy,” in distinctly the result of crystallization than the which he enters into the subject of crys, deposites, and sometimes containing petri. tallography according to the method factions. This class, to which belong gray, of the Abbé Haüy. The introduction wacke, certain varieties of greenstone and consists of four parts, viz. 1. Definitions limestone, &c. lies over the primitive rocks,

when both classes occur together, and is calland preliminary observations. 2. Pro-ed the transition class. perties of minerals. 3. Systematic ar

3. The third class is composed of those, rangement of minerals. 4. Nomencla- which are called secondary rocks. These are ture of minerals. The properties of always situated over or above the primitive minerals embrace, crystallization, phy. or transition rocks, and often abound with sical or external, and chemical cha- organic remains or petrisactions. They ap

pear to be chiefy mechanical deposites from racters. Systematic arrangement com- water; in this class we find sandstones, and prises observations on the general prin- certain varieties of limestone. ciples of arrangement; arrangement ac 4. Alluvial substances constitute the fourth cording to the system of Werner; ar- class. They consist of clay, sand, pebbles, rangement according to their chemical &c. and are evidently produced in a great de composition, and the description of mi- sree by the disintegration of the preceding nerals. The nomenclature of minerals, 5. Volcanic productions form the fifth contained in the fourth chapter, exhi- class. bits a tabular view of simple minerals,

This division of the materials of the or the method adopted in the succeed

earth's surface, embraces the system of ing pages of the work.

Werner, the celebrated teacher of mineMineralogy is said to be the key to ralogy and professor at Freyburg. geology. The first considers the mate. The supporters of the Wernerian arrials of our globe singly, unconnected, rangement are numerous ; but notwithand in detail, while the latter, profiting standing able mineralogists have doubtby mineralogical facts, takes up the ed the truth of his system, and opposed wbole subject matter, and viewing it with great warmth, and though the things in their proper situation and re- German professor was never in Amerilation to others, endeavours to form ca, this application of his theory to the correct opinions on the origin and for existing state of things in the United mation of our planet. Their connexion States, is so admirably adapted, that it and relation are, therefore, inseparable. raises a belief in the general applicaGeology follows, and is the application tions of his doctrine, and gives a strong of mineralogy. Our author says, (page proof of the great and discriminating qua33.) Those minerals which fall under the cos Professor Cleaveland espousing the opi

lities of his mind. We are happy to find nizance of geology, may be divided into five classes.

nions of Werner, but we must give him. 1. The first class contains the primitive or the credit of stating with impartiality primary rocks, such as granite, gneiss, puica- at the same time, (p. 593,) the Huttoceous slate, certain limestones, &c. These nian theory of the earth in comparison rocks are chiefy composed of various simple with that of the German professor. minerals, irregularly crystalized, and aggre. gated withoui the intervention of any ce. This is done in bis introduction to geoment. They never contain organic remains logy, (p. 586,) where he enters into a of animals or vegetables

. When connected detail of the opinions and doctrines of with rocks, belonging to a different class, bey occupy the lowest place, in reference the professor of Freyburg, to which to the centre of the earth. They are there. we would refer our readers for a full fore supposed to have been first formed, and and complete view of the subject. He have accordingly received the dame of primi- concludes with an explanation of lire rock." * Foran explanation of the word formation, as the work, together with five plates illus.

M.Clure's geological map, which adorns applied to extensive deposites of minerals, see remarks on geology, at the close of the volume trative of Hauy's crystallography. The

rest of the work, from page 87 to page editions more perfect. There is no 586, comprises the mineralogy of our account of aerolites, or those substances, author divided into four classes, viz. whether earthy or metallic, which have

Class ). Substances not metallic, so often fallen from the atmosphere, composed entirely or in part of an particularly in the United States.' The acid. 2. Earthy compounds or stones. mineral waters of our country, so nu3. Combustibles. 4. Ores.

merous and important, are unnoticed, With respect to this arrangement, except where (p. 105) it is mentioned, we shall not pretend to say whether it that the waters of Ballston, Saratoga, is the best that could be formed, since and Lebanon Springs, in the state of it is sufficient for the purpose intended, New-York, contain carbonic acid. We and we are satisfied that whoever un- have visited these springs, and can assure dertakes to examine into the subject, Professor C. that he is correct in the two the work before us will give him infor- first, but not so in the last. Lebanon mation if uninformed, or refresh bis Spring, in the town of Canaan, Colum. memory if a proficient in mineralogy. bia County, issues from the south side of The old division into earths, metals, a bill, through a limestone of secondary salts, and inflammables, was more fami- formation, underlaid by slate. The liar to our mind; but Professor Cleave- water is tepid and pure, without imland has rendered the subject more pregnation of earth or acid. Bubscientific, by uniting the chemical me- bles of air are constantly extricated, thod with those of Haüy and others. and rise through the water, but do not

The progressive improvement of the combine with it; for on collecting and sciences, and the new discoveries in examining a quantity, it was found to mineralogy, will render all systematic be nothing more than atmospheric air. arrangement imperfect and liable to As the localities of American minechange. We should, therefore, have rals are important to our country, and been satisfied if the method of Cron- additional information, on this subject, sted and Kirwan had been adhered to, will render Professor C's work inore since the attempt to keep pace with valuable, we take the liberty of refere chemical investigation is incomplete, ring him to some localities, not meninasmuch as the important discoveries tioned in his work. of professor Davy, that barytes, silex, There is a nitre cave in Henderson Time, &c. are metallic substances, is not County, Kentucky, which has been adverted to by our author.

discovered and explored for ten miles The descriptive mineralogy of Profes- beneath the surface, having numerous sor Cleaveland is very good. He adheres ramifications. (Med. Repos. vol. xvii. p. to the following method throughout the 391.) There are numerous caves of this whole of his work. The subject is kind in Kentucky, but this exceeds first described, the chemical characters the one described, (p. 108,) and all are given, its uses, the geological situa- others bitherto known." On the subject tion, and its localities. It is on the of the muriate of soda, (p. 115,) our latter point where the importance of author has omitted the incrustations of the subject rests, that the merits of salt on the Arkansas river, and the es. our author are conspicuous. The whole istence of a salt mountain, high up the work may be considered as an elabo- Missouri. (Med. Repos. vol. vii. p. rate and well digested compilation, and 408.) Gypsum has been found abun. in collecting the localities of American dant' in Pennsylvania, on the Susqueminerals, the volume is rendered bigbly bannab, and in Kentucky, of which valuable, both to ourselves and foreign- we have seen specimens, and it has ers.

been brought from 150 leagues up the In this work are some omissions, Missouri. (Med. Repos. vol. viii. p. 80.) mlich if supplied, may render future Allam is manufactured in New Jersey,

from pyrites, and is found native on mice bas been found near Hudson city, Shawangunk mountain in the state of in New-York. Sulphate of barytes is New York. (Med. Repos. vol. ix. p. found in Sussex county, New-Jersey, 326.) According to the best of our re- (Med. Rep. vol. 7.) Sulphuret of Mocollection, adamantine spar has been lybdena, in Chester county, Pennsylvafound near Philadelphia. On the sub. nia ; and in Westchester county of this ject of quartz, (p. 215) Dr. Arnell is state. Manganese, in Nova Scotia, and quoted as authority. This gentleman New-York, (Med. Rep. vol. xi.) Anmade a communication on the mine. timony, near Saugerties, (Med. Rep. talogy of the country where he lived, vol. x.) Sulpbate of magoesia, in a but by some unaccountable mistake he cave, in Green Briar county, Virginia, made the granulated quartz of Shawan- (Med. Repos. vol. ix.) Asphaltumn, at gunk mountain, to be the arid dry Cape St. Antonio, in the island of Cuquartz of Kirwan, which is not the case. ba, (Med. Rep. vol. viii.) and sulphur, Being unacquainted with the subject, in Ontario county, New-York, (Med. he introduced an entire paragraph, Rep. vol. ix. p. 88.) as bis own, from a communication in These are a few of the localities the Med. Repos. (vol. ix. p. 326,) and which have occurred to our recollecby a wrong application perverted the tion, and many others not enumerated sense. In addition to the localities of flint, by Professor Cleaveland, may be found Professor C. may add, that it is found by consulting the Medical Repository of abundantly near Asbury, in Sussex New-York, of which 18 volumes bave county, New Jersey, and in scattering been published. nodules wherever limestone abounds in Upon the whole, we consider this that state, as examined by the writer work a valuable acquisition to the sciof this article, who visited that country, ence of mineralogy, and take pleasure with a particular view, by order of in recommending it to the attention of government, during the late war. He students and others interested in the has also seen hexagonal crystals of subject, and we hope the author.will mica, in the granite found near New. be better rewarded than authors geneYork. No locality for pumice is given rally are, and be requited by somein the United States. A red speci. thing more than our thanks for his men, from the Missouri, was in the pos- Jabour. session of Dr. Mitchill, and black pu K.

ART. 4. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DR. RUSH.

We have copied, by permission, from and Galen, to Sydenham and Boet

Dr. Hosack's Discourse, introduc- baave, the learned Professor proceeds: tory to a course of Lectures on the Theo But, gentlemen, while we thus rery and Practice of Physic, delivered in vere the great and the good of the old the College of Physicians and Surgeons world, let us do bomage to merit in the of New-York, and published in the fourth new. While we acknowledge the bevolume of the Medical and Philosophi- nefits which the science of medicine has ual Register, a work replete with use. received from the physicians of Europe, tul and entertaining maiter, the follow- let us not be unmindful of the debt of ing interesting biographical sketch of gratitude we owe to a native of our own one of the most ingenious and erudite soil, who was no less an ornament to pbysicians, and one of the most amia- human nature, than his various exerble and accomplished men of his age. tions have been precious to his profes

After paying a just tribute to the lu- sion, to science, and his country. minaries of other days, to Hippocrates, • Your feelings, I trust, will be in uni.

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