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Had he been one of us, he would have made And yet not cruel; for I would not make, .
An awful spirit.

But find a desolation :--- like the wind,
We now return to the castle Manfred. The red-hot breath of the most lone Simoom,
The Abbot of St. Maurice having heard The barren sands which bear no shrubs to blast,

Which dwells but in the desert, and sweeps o'er
of Manfred's converse with beings of the And revels o'er their wild and arid waves,
forbidden world, comes to offer him some And seeketh not, so that it is not sought,
ghostly admonition. Manfred receives But being met is deadly; such bath been
the holy father with all due courtesy. Things in my path which are no more.

The course of my existence; but there came
But on his disclosing his office, he returns,
I hear thee. This is my reply: whate'er

To elude the importunity of the priest,
I may have been, or am, doth rest between

Manfred withdraws. The Abbot, though Heaven and myself

. I shall not choose a mortal for the present defeated in his purpose, To be my mediator.

exclaimsThe prelate receives this rebuke with This should have been a noble creature : he great meekness, disclaims all interested Hath all the energy which would have made motives, and simply entreats to be al

A goodly frame of glorious elements, lowed

Had they been wisely managed. to smooth the path from sin We follow Manfred to his chamber, To higher hope anıl better thoughts.

where he apostrophizes the setting sun, Manfred thus answers his solicitations. as the Old man! there is no power in holy men,

-material God, No charm in prayer--nor purifying form

And representative of the unknown---
Of penitence - nor outward look---nor fast...

The scene changes, and we find our-
Nor agony---nor, greater than all these,
The innate tortures of that deep despair,

selves with Herman, Manuel, and other Which is remorse without the fear of hell, dependents of Manfred, without the casBut all in all sufficient to itself

tle of Manfred on a terrace before a tow-
Would make a hell of heaven--can exorcise er. These servants, as usual, begin to
From out the unbounded spirit, the quick sense make their remarks on the demeanour of
Of its own sins, wrongs, sufferance, and revenge their master. Herman observes, that he
Upon itself; there is no future pang
Can deal that justice on the seli-condemned has seen some strange things within those
He deals on his own soul.

The Abbot urges that it is not too late Her. Come, be friendly;
to repent, and obtain pardon and peace. Relate me some to while away our watch:

I've heard thee darkly speak of an event
He anxiously inquires-

Which bappened hereabouts, by this same tower.
Hast thou no hope?

Manuel. That was a night indeed; I do reTis strange---even those who do despair above,

member Yet shape themselves some phantasy on earth, 'Twas twiligbt, as it may be now, and such To which frail iwig they cling, like drowning Another evening ; yon red cloud which rests

On Eigher's pinnacle, so rested then--Man. Ay---father! I have had those earthly So like that it might be the same; the wind visions

Was faint and gusty, and the mountain snows
And noble aspirations in my youth,

Began to glitter with the climbing moon ;
To make my own the mind of other men,

Count Mantred was, as now, within his tower...
The enlightener of nations; and to rise

How occupied, we know not, but with him
I knew not whither---it might be to fall;

The sole companion of his wanderings
But fall, even as the mountain-cataract,

And watchings---her, whom of all earthly things
Which having leapt from its more dazzling heighi, That lived, the only thing, he seem'd to love...
Even in the foaming strength of its abyss,

As he, indeed, by blood was bound to do,
(Which casts up inisty columns that become

The lady A starte, his-
Clouds raining from the re-ascended skies,)

Hush! who comes here!
Lies low but mighty still.---But this is past,
My thoughts mistook themselves.

It is the Abbot, who interrupts their
And wherefore so?

confabulation. He insists upon seeing Man. I could not tame my nature down; Manfred again, and is admitted to his for he

presence. Manfred begs him to retire, Must serve who fain would sway---and soothe --

and warns him of approaching danger.
and sue---
And watch all time---and pry into all place --

The monk is unmoved. But whilst they
And be a living lies--wbo would become are yet speaking, a dark and awful
A mighty thing amongst the mean, and such figure' rises,
The mass are; I disdained to mingle with

Like an infernal god from out the earth.
A herd, though to be leader---and of wolves.
The lion is alone, and so am I.

This fiend summons Manfred to follow
Abbot. And why not live and act with other him.

Mortal! thine hour is come --Away! I say. Man. Because my nature was averse from

Man." I knew, and know my hoor is corne, lile;

but not




To render up my soul to such as thee:

a more apt designation of this composiAway! I'll die as I have liv'd-alone.

tion, for we can scarcely imagine one that The spectre, on this, calls other Spirits comes more decidedly withia Jolrison's to his aid. The Abbot attempts to ex- definition of that species of entertainorcise them. They listen very respect- ment. “A Mask,' says Dr. Johoson, "is fully to his injunctions, but inform him a dramatic performance, written in a trathat they have their mission. Manfred gic style, without attention to rule or continues to defy them. The demon probability: Manfred is, therefore, strictreproaches him with pusillanimity in so Iy a Mask. But we will not quarrel about closely hugging life. Manfred retorts

Our concern is with the intrinThou false fiend, thou liest!

sic merit of the work. The ample ex. My life is in its last hour-that I know,

tracts we have made, will alsorii our reaNor would redeem a moment of that hour; ders fair grounds on which to formó a I do not combat against death, but thee And thy surrounding angels; my paut power

judgment on this point. We shall trouWas purchase:l by no compact with thy crew,

ble them with bui feir remarks. But by superior science---penance..daring

Plot to this drain: there is none-unAnd length of watching.--strength of mind---and less the discovery of the nameless crime skill

of Mwfred, amount to a denouement. In knowledge of our fathers.--when the earth But even this is left only to conjectureSaw men and spirits walking side by side,

and we are happy in the opinion, that And

gave ye no supremacy : I stand Upon my strength.--I do defy.--deny.-

such is the purity of most readers, that Spuma back, and scorn ye!

comparatively few, on a cursory residing, Spi.

But thy many crimes will discover it to be incest. Such, howIlair made thee

ever, is the unavoidabl. inference. This What are they to such as thee? is about the only crime which lord ByMut crimes be punish'd but by other crimes,

ron had omitted to celebrate ; and, we An'lgreater criminals...- Back to thy hell! Thou hast no power upon me, that I feel;

trust, it was r.served for the last, as being Thou never shalt possess me, that I know : the last in turpitude. We do, indeed, hope What I have done is Jone ; l bear within that his lordship, having now

sent his A torture which could nothing gain from thine ;

hero to the place of final retribution, will The mind which is iininortal makes itsell

there leave him to be dealt with accordRequital for its good or evil thoughts--Is its own origin of ill and end--

ing to his deserts, and that we shall not be And its own place and time---ils innate sense,

tormented by another metempsychosis. When stripp'd of this mortality, derives

It would be in vain to inquire for the No colour from the fleeting things without; moral of this poem--none was designed But is absorb'd in ontlerance or in joy,

to be conveyeil

. The fatal consequences Born from the knowledge of its own desert.

of criminal coriuet, are indeed vividly Thou didst not tempt me, and thou couldst not tempt m2;

depicted ; but the mind is vitiated even I have not been thy Jupr, nor am thy prey.- hy being led to consider so horrible a But was my own destroyer, and will be deed possible, much more so, by regardMy own hereafter.-.-Back, ye battled fiends!

ing it as possible to be perpetrated hyperThe hand of death in on me--but not yours! [The Demons disappear.

sons of such refined sentiment and intelAbbot. Alas! how pale thou art.-ihy lips are

lect, as Manfred and Astaite, and to have white

grown), too, out of the excess of fraternal And thy breast heaves.--and in thy gesping throat affection. An ancient legislator would The accents rattle---Give thy prayers to heaven--- cnact no law against parricide, lest the Pray.--albeit but in thought---bui die not thus. Man. "Tis over---my dull eyes can fix thee suggestion of a crime of which the existnot;

was unknown, might prompt its But all things swim around me, and the earth commission. It is not by studying the Heaves, as it were, beneath me. Fare thee well-.- calendar of Newgate, that we shall imGive me thy hand.

in purity, though there be little alManfred expires. surement in the exhibition of vice in its Abbot. Coid-cold---even to the heart...

It is the bane of But yet one prayer--alas! how fares it with genuine deformity.

lord Byron's writings that he makes all his -his soul hath ta'en its earthless diabolical heroes men of the most superior flight

understanding, and the keenegt sensibiliWhither? I dread to think

-but he is gone.

tv. He endows them all too with an Such is the tragic catastrophe of this audacity which excites a degree of adDramatic Poem. Lord Byron, we sup- miration. But for this single attribute, pose, has given this title to his piece to what were Manfred ? A most despicable intimate, what is clear enough from a pe- villain. In truth we do not think him far rusal of it, that it was not meant for the from it as it is. Fortitude like his could stage. We should have thought Mask not, however, possibly have been united



He's gone

with such flagitiousness. The conscious or that he entertained a more rational ness of so nefarious a deed and its hor- respect for its opinions. In the one rid sequel, would have bowed the boldest case we should be no longer annoyed spirit. Shame and horror would have with his crudities, in the other we night triumphed over every other sentiment. expect from his lordship's talents, directInstead of insolently vaunting his supe- ed to a proper purpose, and aided by an riority over the vulgar herd, one shrink- honourable ambition, some production jag beneath the sense of so much base more worthy of the genius which he so ness would own himself the vilest of the proudly boasts. Till he do offer somevile. The association of such qualities thing to sustain his jactitations, we shall and such conduct are perfectly incon- continue to measure his powers by his gruous. In this falsehood lies the dan- efforts. ger of lord Byron's romances. He has The machinery of this poem is a most constantly combined elevation of mind ridiculous gallimaufry of mythology, neand the most ardent sensibility to the cromancy, and witchchraft, atheism, grossest and most pernicious vices. Per- polytheism, and christianity. His lordship laps his lordship may be cited as him- has brought together in a promiscuous mob, self an instance of this very union. We Arimanes, (Arimanices) Nenesis, the Parwill confess, that, unless he is much mis cæ, the spirits of air, fire, water, mounrepresented, he is by far the most striking tains, storms, and darkness, the witch of example of it we have ever known. But the Alps, an imp of Beelzebub, and a lord Byron has none of that native minister of the Gospel. No man strength of character which he has held who had any coherence of mind could up to admiration. He has his paroxysms have been betrayed into such absurditjes. of desperation, but they are succeeded Consistency of conduct we do not look by long intervals of despondency. We for in lord Byron, unless it be in the conbelieve a candid hisiory of his lordship's stant parallelism of his literary works,-life might be read without any danger of but such complete confusion of all ideas seducing the uncorrupted by the entice- referable to taste or the moral sense, as ments it would offer to follow in his this tragedy displays, we cannot but refootsteps ; and, in fact, for aught we gard as unequivocal evidence of partial know, might prove the best antidote to insanity. In this opinion we are not the poison of luis writings.

singular. Perhaps it were charitable to To Manfred's arrogant assumption of wish it true. Regarding his religious, or super-human dignity we have already rather irreligious, doctrines, as the ravings adverted. In this impudent pretension of a maniac, we do not deenı it necessahe only keeps pace with the noble author. ry to enter into a serious consideration Lord Byron has already told us in his of them. Were his lordship's theory to own person,

be admitted, that a proportionate remorse I have not loved the world, nor the world me,

always follows transgression, how should I have not flattered ils rank breath, or bow'd we account for progression in crimes. To its idolatries a patient knee,-

But that depravity is progressive, is true Nor coin'd my cheek to siniles,---nor cried aloud to a proverb. Nemno repente fit turpissiIn worship of an echo; in the crowd They could not deem me one of such; I stood

mus. The whole system of divine and Among them, but not of thein ; in a shroud

human jurisprudence is founded on the Of thoughts which were not their thoughts, &c.

maxim that compunction decreases with Manfred has all his lordship's modesty,

the increase of guilt.

But we will not trespass longer on the I am not of thy order,

reader's patience. Viewing this poem is his rude reply to the compassionate merely in a literary light, we might point humter. The same presumptuous claim

out many nervous and some beautiful is urged in every page.


much affectation of From my youth upward

phrase, and, if we may so say, sophistry My spirit walk'd not with the souls of men, &c.

of style. Its prosody is better than usual, My joys, my griefs, my passions and my powers but still there is a frequent tendency to Made me a stranger, &c.

prose. What could be more after the I disdai'd to mingle with

matter-of-fact manner than the following A herd, though to be leader, &c.

dutiful address of the Goddess Nemesis These are a few only of the passages to Arimanes ? which contain this endless repetition. We Sovereign of Sovereigns! we are thine, wish his lordship had sincerely that con And all that liveth, more or less, is ours, tempt for the world, which he is inces

And most things wholly so: still to increase santly flinging in the face of his admirers, Our power increasing thine, demands our care,

And we are vigilant--thy late commands of Dr. Young. His vigorous reasoning, Have been sulalled to the utmost.

his holy melancholy, his philosophic reThis is the very language of a waiting- signation, his moral sublimity, and Chrismaid. Similar tameness and insipidity tian faith, will present a strong and saluare not rare in this poem. In fine, we

tary contrast to the sickly sentimentality, look upon Manfred as the least credita- the miserable fears, the still more miserable production of lord Byron's pen. ble daring, the grovelling philosophy, and We are ourselves at a loss for that irre the forlorn atheism of lord Byron. sistible charm which so many find in his But it is not ours to dictate. Yet we lordship's poetry. If it be the gloominess must be permitted, whilst we leave others of his pictures that is so attractive to con to the gratification of their capricious genial spirits, we must, indeed, concede tastes, to desire that no modern hero, no the pain, to him. But if it be the awe sublimated monster,-no Mokanna, with which even the least reverent treatment of solemn subjects fills the

informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum, mind, the same sensation in a more ex no Manfred, quisite degree may be awakened by read

With Ate by his side, come hot from hell,
ing the Night Thoughts; and we would


those of lord Byron's vota may ramp in our path, what time we forries, who have never read that in- sake the Parthenon to stray with the comparable poem, to seek a solace muses in the vale of Tempe. for their sombre feelings in the pages


Art. 4. Flora Philadelphica Prodromus, or Prodromus of the Flora Philadelphica,

exhibiting a list of all the plants to be described in that work which have as yet been

collected. By Dr. William P. C. Bartón. Philadelphia. 1815. 4to. pp. 100. A

PRODROMUS is a work generally a needful arrangement, notwithstanding

issued previous to the publication that he prosesses the intention or wish of a larger one on the same subject, and that his work should become a manual to whose object is to inform the public of the the Philadelphian Botanist. Whether this author's views, improvements or disco- wish may ever be fulfilled is rather proveries, by giving a succinct account of blematical

, since besides handing us his them; this last particular therefore dis- Prodromus in a 4to. size, a very unusual tinguishes this performance from the shape for a pocket companion, it has been Prospectus, which is merely intended to printed in transverse columns, which have convey an idea of the plan of a subse å very uncouth and forbidding appearquent work.

This denomination has ance; some of them are entirely useless however been hitherto nearly confined to and almost blank, while the whole matter works on Natural History and Botany, might have been very easily included in a and they have been sometimes issued small volume of about 60 pages; and without the intention of publishing an- lastly, the localities of the plants are alother work on the same subject. They together omitted. This unaccountable are often in fact works of great merit, omission renders the work of no value to worthy to stand isolated, and at all times the practical Botanist who may hereafter of greater practical utility than expensive wish to search for the plants enumerated publications. The Prodromus Flora by the author. No local Flora, or ProNovæ Hollandiæ of Brown, the Prodro- ' dromus of a Flora can be deemed perfect, mus Flore Grecæ of Smith, and the unless the student or Botanist is directed Prodromus Florce Capensis of Thunberg, to the places where the plants were found. may be mentioned as instances of able The omission of this necessary circumperformances of this kind.

stance carries with it an ambiguous apBut in order to render them eminently pearance, and a severe critic might insiuseful, their authors have generally had nuate that many plants are enumerated in view that they should answer the pur- without the authority of personal evipose of practical manuals, wherefore dence; but we are far from intending to they have been printed in a diminutive intimate any such suspicion, and only size, and in a shape likely to include a wish, (and we expect every botanist win great deal of matter within a small com- herein agree with us) that our researches pass. It appears that the author of this for many rare plants mentioned in this Prodromus bas entirely overlooked such Prodromus had been facilitated. Mean


while we are merely told in the preface, *Phlox subulata L.
that all the plants enumerated were found *Itea virginica L.
within 10 miles round Philadelphia, which *Asclepias obtusifolia Mx.
includes of course part of Pennsylvania Heracleum lanatum Mx.
and part of New-Jersey.

Sium tenuifolium Mg. The transverse columns are eight in Majanthemum canadense Desfontainumber. The first gives the generic and specific names of the plants, in the usual *Trillium cernuum L. botanical language; here are often added *(Enothera sinuata L. some very useful synonymes. The second *Polygonum tenue Mx. column includes the English and verna *Euphorbia ipecacuana L. cular names of every plant; these last are Geum hirsutum Mg. particularly useful to the American rea *Nuphar kalmiana Smith. der. The third, which is merely taken *Thalictrum polygamum Mg. up by the reference of genera to Jussieu's *Ranunculus fascicularis Mg. natural method, is nearly a blank, and *Hydrastis canadensis L. might have been united with the first. *Scutellaria ovalifolia Mg. The fourth and fifth describe the calyx and *Verbena spuria L. corolla of each genus, to which the use *Obolaria virginica L. ful appendage of the colour of the flow *Corydalis aurea Mg. Fumaria flavula er is added. In the sixth column a pe Raf. culiar diagnostic definition of each species *Glycine peduncularis Mg. Raf. is given in Latin : although these defini Glycine parabolica Mg. tions are sufficiently comparative to dis Hedysarum obtusum Mg. tinguish the species of this Prodromus, *Mikania scandens Wild. it is to be regretted, that they are of *Eupatorium verbenefolium Ms. ten too short, and that they will probably *Orchis spectabilis L. be found defective when the Flora of Phi *Orchis tridentata Wild. ladelphia shall be greatly enlarged. The Orchis blephariglottis Wild. seventh column describes only the fruit Orchis lacera Mx. of each genus, and is very unnaturally Arethusa pendula Mg. severed from the 4th and 5th. The last *Arethusa verticillata Mg. acquaints us with the time of flowering of *Malaxis unifolia Mx. each species, a proper appendage to a *Malaxis lilifolia Persoon. local Flora.

Cymbidium hyemale Wild. About 900 species are enumerated by *Cymbidiu odentorhizon Wild. the author; but many of them are culti *Cypripedium acaule Aiton. vated plants, and they are classed ac Acnida rusocarpa Mx. cording to the sexual system of Linnæus, Mg. is used as an abbreviation of Muhwhich appears to be yet in fashion in the lenberg. Mx.of Michaux. L. of LinnaUnited States, because it is so in Erg Wild. of Wildenow. land! The cryptogamic plants are, as Such as are noted thus *, have also been' usual, omitted, except the Ferns. This found by the writer of this article, near defect in all special Floras of North Philadelphia, and he can therefore atAmerica, is likely to last until a classical test the author's accuracy. work on those plants be published, for This work having been published bethe benefit of the science, or for the use fore the reception of Pursh's Flora of of compilers.

North America, is free from many bleAs many rare and valuable plants are mishes which would have been probably here enumerated, not generally known as copied on that authority-as, the wrong natives of the neighbourhood of Philadel- generic name of Smilacina might have phia, it may not be amiss to mention been preferred to the better one of Majansome of them; the following are there- themum! &c. The omissions arising fore selected.

from not consulting Pursh's Flora are very *Gratiola aurea Mh.

trifling, and very few other errors have Utricularia cornuta Mx.

crept into it. There are some however; Utricularia ceratophylla Mx.

for instance, the Dianthus armeria of *Leptanthus gramineus Mx.

New Jersey is a new species which Mr. Scirpus planifolius Mg.

C. S. Rafinesque called D. armerioides in Scirpus acutus Mg.

his Precis des decouvertes Sp. 116. The Cyperus phymatodes Mg.

Alisma plantago is either his Alisma sub*Leersia virginica Mg.

cordata (N. G. and Sp. of N. American *Andropogon furcatus Mg.

plants in the Medical Repository,) or the VOL. I. NO. V.



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