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Lacepede considers him as a variety; na- black.-Obs. Length five feet and a half, tive of Guyana.
horns large, a black stripe on the breast 22. Cervus coronatus. Geoffr. cat. mus. of the male; native of Paraguay. Cerf couronne. Desm. tabl. p. 31. 25. Mazama bira. Raf. Gouazoubira Crowned Elk. Def. Horns sessile, pal- Az. quadr. Par. Petit cariacou Desm. mated, circular, depressed, short, very tabl. p. 32.- Bira Mazam. Def. Horns broad and denticulated.-Obs. From subulated, short, smooth, body brown, North America ; it differs from the com- legs short.-Obs. A small animal, with mon Elk, by a much smaller size, and shorter legs than usual in other species of having the horns broader and more divi- the same family, horns only one inch ded.
long; living solitary in the woods of 23. Cervus canadensis. Geoffr. cat. Paraguay. Cerf du Canada Desm. tabl. p. 23.--Ca 26. Mazama pila. Raf. Gouazoupita nadian Stag. Def. Horns cylindrical, cur- Az. quadr. Par. Cariacou de la Guyane ved, double the length of the head, very ou Biche rousse Desm. tabl. p. 93.-Pita branched.-Obs. Larger than the C. ela- Mazam. Fallow above, whitish underphus, or common Stag, its horns are neath, horns subulated and smooth.larger and more branched.
Obs. From Paraguay, Guyana, &c. 24. Cervus melanopus. Raf. Gouazou- larger than the foregoing, and with longer poucou Azara quadr. Par. Cougou- horns. Both species having simple unacziete, biche de barallon ou biche des branched solid straight horns, must bePaletuviers Desm. tabl. p. 32. Black- long to my genus Mazama instead of the feet Stag. Def. Horns with five branches genus Cervus, of which they had been at utmost, body fallowish, tail and feet considered as a kind.
Art. 6. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.
REMARKS ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE
Some admire the dog wood, (cornus floLOCUST TREE, (Robinia pseudo-acacia.) rida) some the bean iree, (bignonia catalMessrs. Epitons,
pa) others the horse chestnut, (escutus THE cultivation of the Locust tree on hippocastaneas) some the white wood, or state has been attended to with consider- tives of our own foresty ; but none of them able profit to the agricultural interest, but can compare with the locust either for not with that earnestness which the im- beauty or utility. It therefore appears of portance of the subject demands. This importance to inquire into its properties, may have arisen from the difficulty of and point out some means of cultivating propagating it by transplanting, or not it to advantage. understanding how to raise it from the The Locust is a tree of quick growth, seed.
the wood of which is hard, durable, and The locust tree is a native of the Uni- principally used in ship building. To a ted States, but was not known north or country situated like the United States, cast of the river Potomac, before the with an extensive line of sea coast, penewhite settlers brought it from thence. It trated by numerous bays, and giving rise is the Robinia pseudo-acacia of Linnæus, to many great rivers, whose banks are with a white and fragrant blossom. It covered with forests of extraordinary has superior advantages for beauty or growth, whose soil is fertile, rich and vause to most trees of foreign or domestic riegated, and whese climate is agreeable growth. The delicacy of its green shade and diversified by a gradation of temperais most pleasant to the eye, and so agree ture ; to such a country, inhabited by an able to vegetation, that the earth beneath industrious and enterprising people, coma locust grove, or within the umbrage of merce, both foreign and domestic, must a single tree, is covered with a luxuriant constitute one of the principal employfoliage of tender grass. The odour of its ments. As long as the country possesses leaves is pleasant, but that of its papiliona- the necessary timber for ship building cious blossoms is delightful. As an or and the other advantages which our situanimental tree it is not excelled by any tion affords, the government will continue forest tree of our own country. When in
to be formidable to all other powers. full foliage no tree has a more delicate ap- We have within ourselves four materials pearance to the eye of the beholder, or a necessary for the completion of strong more agreeable shade to man or beast and durable navul struciures. These are
the live oak, locusl, cedar, and pine, which gale of wind, which has never happened can be abundantly supplied. The for- with a locust one. Tillers for large seamer is best for the lower timbers of a vessels are now uniformly made of locust ship, while the locust and cedar form the in New-York. It is the best timber also upper works of the frame. The pine for pins or trunnels, and preferable to the supplies the timber for decks, masts and best of oak. The tree generally grows spars. A vessel built of live oak, locust, straight with few or no large limbs, and and cedar will last longer than if con the fibres are straight and parallel
, which structed of any other wood. Naval ar makes it split well for making trunnels
, chitecture has arrived in this place and with little or no loss of substance. These other parts of the United States to as are made in considerable quantities for great perfection, perhaps, as in any other exportation. country on the globe. Our “fir built The locust tree does not beartransportfrigates” have been compared with the ing well in this part of our country, and British oak, and stood the test, and in in all probability this arises from the cussailing, nothing has equalled the fleetness tom of cutting off the roots when taken of some of our sharp vessels. The pre- up for that purpose. Most of the roots servation and cultivation of these neces of the locust are long cylindrical, and run sary articles in ship building is a matter horizontal not far under the surface. In of serious consideration. It might not transplanting, so few of them are left to be amiss to suggest to the Congress of the the body of the tree removed, that little United States to prohibit the exportation or no support is given to the top, and it of them. The pine forests appear almost consequently dies. If care was taken inexhaustible, and they will be so in all not to destroy so much of the roots, a probability many generations to come; much larger proportion of those transbut the stately cedars of Mobile, and the planted would live and thrive. So great losty forests of Georgia, where the live- has been the difficulty of raising the looak is of sturdy growth begin to disap- cust in this way, that another method of pear before the axe of the woodman. propagating has been generally resorted The locust, a native of Virginia and Ma- to. Whenever a large tree is cut down ryland, is in such demand for foreign and for use, the ground for some distance domestic consumption, that it is called around has been ploughed, by which the for before it can attain its full age. It has roots near the surface have been broken been cultivated as far eastward as Rhode and forced up. From these roots suckIsland, but begins to depreciate in quality ers shoot up, and the ground soon be in that State. Insects attack it there comes covered with a grove of young which are not found in New-York, or its trees. These, if protected from cattle, native situations. These give the timber and fenced in, will grow most rapidly, and a worm-eaten appearance, and render it the roots continuing to extend, new less useful. The locust has been exten- shoots arise, and in a few years a thrifty sively raised in the southern parts of young forest of locust trees is produced. New-York, but the call for it has been so The leaves of locust are so agreeable to great, that few trees aitain any size before horses and cattle, that the young trees they have been wanted for use. Hence must be fenced in to preserve them. they are in great demand and ready sale, When growing in groves they shoot up and no ground can be appropriated for straight and slender, as if striving to outany kind of timber with so much advan- top each other, to receive the most benetage as locust. Besides its application fit from the rays of a genial sun. to ship building, it is extensively used for Another difficulty has arisen in propafencing; and for posts no timber will last gating the locust froin inability to raise it longer in or out of the ground. On Long from the seed. The seed does not al. Island, where wood is scarce, and fencing ways come to perfection in this State, and timber in great demand, the locust be- if it does, it will not sprout unless precomes of much local importance from pared before planting. The method best this circumstance alone, independent of adapted to this purpose has been long its great consumption in this city among ago proposed by Dr. Bard, but is not the carpenters. In ship building it is not generally known, or if known, is not exclusively applied to the interior or usually attended to. When this shall be frame. In many places where strength well understood and practised, the locust is wanting, Incust will bear a strain which will be easily propagated, and then inwould break oak of the same size. stead of raising groves of them, the waste Thus, an ok tiller has been known to ground along fences and places where break near the head of the rudder in a
the useless Lombardy poplar encumbers
the earth, should be selected to transplant it in your hands, in the state in which I
SAML. L. MITCHILL. better and stronger timber.
New-York, Aug. 5th. Dr. Bard's method of preparing the seeds was to pour boiling water on them Nautical Observations on Capes & Headand let it stand and cool. The hard outér Lands; on Ice-Islands in the North coat would thus be sostened, and if the Atlantic Ocean, on the Gulf-stream and seed swelled by this operation, it might some other mattery: In a letter from be planted and would soon come up. Capt. David Leslie, to the Hon. Saml. This has been followed with success on L. Mitchill, dated, Havre de Grace, Long Island, and on a late visit to North France, June 7, 1817. Hempstead I was led to admire Judge
I was much pleased to see, in a NewMitchill's nursery of young trees planted York paper, since my arrival at this place, this Spring
your communication to Mr. Secretary The Judge took a quantity of seed Dallas, concerning the elevation of Necollected on the island, and put it in versink hills. I am certainly of your an earthen pitcher, and poured upon opinion, that the navigation to New-York it water near to boiling. This he let will be rendered more safe in consestand, for 24 hours, and then decanted it quence of its being known; and if the and selected all the sceds that were any elevation of hills and mountains, near the ways swelled by this application of heat sea coast, were more generally known, it and moisture. To the remainder he would be a great guide to navigators. made a second libation of hot water, and For although we do not always measure let it remain also 24 hours, and then the altitude of terrestrial objects with an made a second selection of the swelled instrument, still
, the eye, with a little seeds. This was repeated a third time practice, will estimate the distance from on the unchanged ones, when nearly all an object, whose magnitude is known, to were affected,
and then he prepared the a considerable degree of accuracy, and ground and planted them. He planted this, where the soundings are irregular, the seeds in drills about four feet apart, may be of much use. and in eight or ten days they were all
Knowing your zeal to promote and above ground, and came up as regular as diffuse useful knowledge, I had thoughts beans or any other seeds that are culti- of communicating to you, a description rated in gardens. When I saw them, the of a self-moving Pump, which I invented middle of July, they were about a foot and put in practice with great success, high, all thrifty and of a good colour. last year, at sea; but not having the ho
It is the Judge's intention to leave them nour to be known to you, I was unwilin their present situation about three ling to trouble you, &c. years, and then transplant ; and provided
Although the following may not prove he does not mutilate the roots in removing of much use, still, as no kind of informathem, they will bear transplanting, live tion is lost in your hands, I beg leave to and thrive, and be the most productive communicate it. tree that a farm can have. This method
On my passage from New Orleans to of preparing the seeds and planting the this port, in the ship Peria, under my locust, cannot be too warmly recom- cominand, I was compelled, by a long mended to the farming interest. On continuance of s. E. winds, to go to the Long Island, where fencing timber is northward of the track I intended to have growing scarce, the cultivation of the lo- taken. On my approaching the western cust is of great moment. In the centre edge of the Grand Bank of Newfoundof the island, on and about Hempstead land, on the 14th of last month, in latiplains, where there is no timber at all, it tude 43° 10 north, the air became unusumust be a most valuable acquisition, ally cold, the thermometer having fell, and from the trials made in raising it from in one day, from 66 to 38 deg, though I the seed, all difficulty must be removed had not changed my position much in the to its extensive cultivation.
mean time, the wind being contrary. On
(still westward of the Bank) at day-light
of Messrs. EDITORS,
Ice. I was prepared to meet ice to the I acquit myself of my commission eastward of the Banks, but had but little in regard to the enclosed letter, by placing expectation of seeing such an island to VOL. I. NO.V.
the westward ; such a thing being veryther in the same direction, and again unusual. Having heard many contra- measured its altitude, making its height dictory reports about the supposed height above water 205 1-2 feet. Some days of those islands above the water, and sup- afterwards, a little to the eastward of the posing from its appearance that this could Banks, I saw a number of islands in a not float over the Bank, where there is range parallel with the edge of the Bank, generally on the shoalest parts, about 30 several of which appeared to be five times fathoms water, the weather being mo as long and much broader, and from the derate and clear, I endeavoured to find distance they could be distinctly seen from its height in the following manner. At the deck, after we passed them, must I P. M. it bore, per compass, n. 69 E. and have been still higher than the former. again at Sh. 25min. having steered in the The thermometer, if attended to, will almean time n. 45 E. five miles, it bore s. ways give timely notice on approaching 57 E. making its distance from the ship those islands; the distance that they chill 2.514 miles, when its altitude with a well the air is great; still I found but little difadjusted sextant, was 41 min. 27 sec. the ference in the thermometer at 6 leagues, eye being elevated above the water 15 or at half a mile distance, but it was in feet, which would make its height above the forenoon when I approached it
, and water 185 1-2 ' feet. The wind shifting I suppose the thermometer would have soon after, and still being moderate, I had risen several degrees had I been stationoccasion to tack and pass near it, and ary. having reason to suppose that we were in About the beginning of last month I a current which would affect my calcu- found the current of the Gulf Stream lation of its height, I wished to determine much stronger, and the water warmer it more accurately. It being almost calm, than usual, which I attribute to the long when about a mile from it, I went in my continuance of s. E. winds about that boat to examine it and procure some time. I found myself set to the N. E. at fresh water from it, of which I was rather the rate of three miles per hour for seveshort, taking with me a sextant, thermo- ral days, to the northward of Cape Hatmeter, and log-line. At a distance it ap- teras, the temperature of the water being peared very white, as if composed partly 75 deg. until I reached St. George's Bank. of snow, but on reaching it, I found it to I also beg leave to say something conbe a solid mass of very dense fresh water cerning Artificial Horizons at sea in formy ice. Its form was nearly that of a cube, weather. Patents have been obtained for the flat top having a small inclination various kinds, formed with fluids, plumwith the horizon. There was no appear- mets, &c. and highly recommended as ance of any layers or strata, so that no being very accurate. But it appears to conjecture could be formed in what posi- me to be impossible to obtain a perfect tion it was generated. Both the water horizon by any of those means, while the and air being but a few degrees above the vessel has any velocity, however sinoothfreezing point, it was then dissolving very ly she may glide along, or where there is a slowly; still the water on the surface, for current, for I think the surface of a fluid some hundred yards to the northward, must be perpendicular to the motion comwas almost perfectly fresh. It was sur- pounded of gravitation and the vessel's rounded by many thousand sea fowls, velocity. But I have never heard that the mostly gulls and small murrs, who would patentees or venders of those articles scarcely move out of the reach of our have intimated that any allowance is neoars. I found, as I expected, a current cessary for those things, and I do not running past it to the northward, (it must know that any objection has been made be observed that bodies deeply immersed public by any one, which I think is in water are but little affected by the cur- highly necessary if my conjectures are rent, which is only near the surface,) just, and if so, men of science must three of the sides were nearly perpendi- be aware of those obstacles; and believe cular above, and, as far as I could see, me, sir, no one has a greater influence than under water; on the other side was a yourself in placing matters in a true light, small offset about 50 feet high and about It is no less necessary to recommend one fourth of the base of the whole. I many things which are highly useful and made the log-line fast to one side, then but little used; for instance, the lightrowed directly from it to a convenient ning chain. We every day hear of vessels distance, where I made a knot in the line, being struck by lightning; still I assure and measured its altitude with the sex
that not one vessel in five hundred tant above the level of the eye 44 deg. 38 is provided with one, particularly
Amemin. the eye being 4 1-2 feet above the rican. The respect which is due to the water. I then rowed thirty fathoms fur memory of Dr. Franklin, ought to induce
us to carry them even if they were less The horns which I send you are like useful. Thermometers too, so useful near those which Mr. Moleyneaux describes, the Gulf-stream, in approaching ice, and and were found five feet under ground to show the variation and refraction in they lay upon Marl under a stratum of the air, are but little used at sea, most turf
, in a boggy soil.—Mr. Moleyneaux people
supposing that the sense of feeling clearly proves that this species of Irish is a sufficient guide, not being aware that Deer varies most materially from the our bodies are affected by cold in propor- Elk, or Eld, both in horns and size; the tion to the humidity of the air, and I Elk of Sweden not being more than five sometimes think other causes with which feet high. we are unacquainted. If you should I also send you a Basaltes, taken from think that my objections against artificial one of the natural pillars at the Giant's horizons are well grounded, I beg you Causeway in the county of Antrim. Rest would drop me a few lines; Mr. Pre- satisfied that I shall be industrious in colserved Fish would convey them to me in lecting for you minerals, &c. not only of my peregrinations. If such is the case, Ireland, but of other countries. the vessel must be hove to, while obsery
I am, dear Sir, ing, however smooth the water, or, a cor
Your very obliged servant, rection might be applied for the velocity
LEO: MAC NALLY. or current; but indeed, too complicated John G. Bogert, Esq. Fellow of the Anticalculations are not to be depended on, quarian Society of Massachusetts, and where the data are not well known.
of several learned societies in the U. Should you think any
of the foregoing States, worth communicating to the public, or to any of your friends, I beg that you would Although recent advices from Europe, divest the matter of its sailor garb, and have satisfied us that there is no probarender it intelligible. And should you bility that the uncourteous dismissal of deem it necessary to know something of lord' Amherst will lead to any serious the person who makes this communica- misunderstanding between the British tion, I beg leave to refer you to General and Chinese governments, we have not Swift, of the Engineers, to whom I have considered the ingenious speculations of the honour to be known.
whose favour has been I am, Sir,
some time on file, the less valuable on With profound respect, account of the apparent remoteness of a Your very humble serv't.
rupture on which he had calculated, DAVID LESLIE.
ON CHINA, ITS TRADE,
Ille, seu Parthos Latio imminentes MESSRS. EDITORS,
Egerit justo domitos triumpho, I take the liberty of sending you a let Sive subjectos Orientis oris ter received by me from Leonard Mac
Seras et Indos : Nally, Esq. of Dublin, a distinguished na
Horat, 12th Ode, 1st Book. turalist, as well as lawyer, on the subject That China was known to the ancients of the Irish Moose, and if you should is evident from the above stanza of Hothink it of sufficient interest, you will race. It would seem too, that Augusplease give it a place in your valuable tus Cæsar had views of subduing the miscellany. The head and horns are now Chinese ; though probably his triumphs at the New York Institution.
extended only over those hordes of ChiYour ob't. humble servant,
nese Tartars mixing with the Parthians J. G. BOGERT. and Scythians, who made such frequent New-York, Aug. 18th.
irruptions into the Roman Empire. The
Scythians were unquestionably Tartars Dublin, 1st. Jan. 1817. of Russia, and the similarity that prevails DEAR SIR,
between the neighbouring tribes is such I send you an Elk, or Moose Deer head, as to set discrimination at defiance. with one branch of his horn, dug up from The Baschkir Cossacks, who form part a Marl Pit in the county of Antrim. of the Russian Levies at this day, and These are frequently found under ground come from the extreme confines of Tarin Ireland, and the late Doctor Thomas tary, strongly resemble the modern Moleyneaux, a Physician in Dublin, and a Chinese in countenance. Their conmember of the Royal Society, wrote a tracted eyes, high cheekbones, and dissertation some years ago, to show that swarthy complexions, evince a striking they are a species of the great American affinity between those nations. Deer called the Moose.
The rumou of a war being likely to