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maps extant, I conclude that I have where they have seen pale men and strong grounds on which to found the great boats, &c. These I should natufollowing geographical opinions, viz. rally conclude were Europeans, with

'Ist, That the great Desert is much vessels ; and that it takes three moons higher land on its southern side (as I to get there, (about eighty-five days) had proved it to be on the north by my at the rate of thirty miles a day, which own observations) than the surrounding is the least we can give then with so country, and consequently that its strong a current; it makes a distance wbole surface is much higher than the from hence to the sea of about two thouland near it that is susceptible of culti- sand five hundred miles: in computing vation. 2dly, That the river which this distance, one-third or more should Sidi Hamet and his companions came be allowed for its windings, so that the to within fourteen days ride, and west whole length of the river is above four of Tombuctoo, called by the Arabs thousand miles, and is probably the el Wod Tenji, and by the negroes, longest and largest on the African contiGozen-Zair, takes its rise in the moun- nent. Sthly, That the waters of this tains south of, and bordering on, the river in their passage towards the east, great Desert, being probably the north- have been obstructed in their course by ern branch of that extensive ridge in high mountains in the central regions of which Senegal, Gambia, and Niger this unexplored continent, and turned rivers, have their sourses; and that this southwardly; that they are bome along river is a branch of the Niger, which to the southward, between the ridges TUDS eastwardly for several hundred of mountains that are known to extend miles to Tombuctoo, near which city, all along the western coast, from Senemany branches, uniting in one great gal to the gulf of Guinea, and to round stream, it takes the pame of Zolibib, and with that gulf to the south of the equacontinues to run nearly east, about two tor: that they are continually narrowhundred and fifty miles from Tombuco ed in and straitened by that immense too ; when meeting with high land, it is ridge in which the great river Nile is turned more south-eastwardly, and run- known to have its sources; and wbich ning in that direction in a winding mountains lie in the equatorial region: course, about five bundred miles, it has that this central river receives, in its met with some obstructions, through lengthened course, all the streams that which it bas forced its way, and form- water and fertilize the whole country, ed a considerable fall: for Sidi Hamet between the two before-mentioned having spent six days in passing the ridges of mountains: the waters thus mountains, came again near the river, accumulated and pent up, at length which was then filled with broken rocks, broke over their western and most feeand the water was foaming and roaring ble barrier, tore it down to its base, among them, as he observed, “most and thence found and forced their way dreadfully.” This must be a fall or to the Atlantic Ocean, forming what is rapid. 3dly, That from these falls, it now known as the river Congo. In runs first to the south-eastward, and corroboration of this opinion, some men then more to the south, till it reaches of my acquaintance, who have visited Wassanah, about six hundred miles, the Congo, and traded all along the where it is by some called Zolibib, and coast between it and the Senegal, affirm, by otbers Zadi. 4thly, That as the in- that the Congo discharges more water babitants of Wassanah say they go first into the Atlantic, taking the whole year to the southward, and then to the west- together, than all the streams to the ward, in boats to the great water ; this northward of it, between its mouth and I conceive must be the Atlantic Ocean, Gape de Verd.'

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Art. 7. Memoirs of my own Times : by General James Wilkinson. 8vo.

3 vols. Philadelphia. Abraham Small, Printer.

THIS is, unquestionably, a work of is quite too much of it in the General's

great magnitude,--and of some im. Book. The second and third volumes portance. But its plan is so desultory of his Memoirs are filled with the deand its contents are so anomalous, that tails of bis persecutions, with tbe prowe bardly know how to attempt a de- ceedings of courts of Inquiry and courts lineation of the one, or a classification Martial, and with the multifarious evi. of the other. So much of the work, in- dence requisite to the vindication of deed, is made up of controversy, wbich, his patriotisın, valour, and capacity. though of a personal nature, has a po- Yet these recitals are plentifully interlitical bearing, that we are almost pre- spersed with reflections, not merely on cluded, by the restrictions which we events, but on characters. It is obvihave imposed upon ourselves, from en- ous that this part of his work offers littering into a consideration of its merits. tle allurement to the general readerWe do not mean to violate the pledge though by the statesman and soldier, it we have given, by taking any side in will neither be read with indifference, the General's quarrels, or pretending to nor lightly prized. pronounce upon the relative deserts of

The first volume is more attractive, the parties. We may be permitted, and will always be perused with interhowever, to say that there is an acri. est, by readers of every description. mony in his resentments, and a coarse. About half of it is occupied in describness in bis invective, that no provoca- ing those scenes and occurrences of the tion can justily. He who appeals to revolutionary war with which our authe public, owes some respect to the thor was connected: this portion of the tribunal to which he prefers bis com- work comprises much valuable inforplaints, however little of that sentiment mation. General Wilkinson's official he may entertain for his adversarics. situation and the opportunities incident Violence is generally resorted to in the to it, have put it in his power to elucidearth of argument, and brings suspi- date many transactions that had been cion on the best cause. A degree of either misunderstood or misrepresentdignity is inseparable from innocence ; cd. He has furnished us, too, with and consciousness of truth disdains as- many anecdotes of bis distinguished coseveration.

temporaries, tending to illustrate their Memoirs are a very popular species characters, and the circumstances of of writing; and happily suited to Gene- ibe times. He has taken pains to inral Wilkinson's propensities. It is the troduce us into the very centre of the most inoffensive mode of gratifying gar- camp, and to bring us acquainted with rulity, since it is at the option of every its bustle, its confusion, and its distresses. one whether he will be a listener, or He does not disguise the object which not. But egotism in any shape should has induced him to paint in such sombe administered in moderation. There bre shades the sad realities of war. He

avows his wish to check the mistaken impulse, which can excite men of senardour of his countrymen in the pur- sibility to seek such scenes of barbasuit of the phantom of military glory. Cilley a straddle on a brass twelve

rism; I found the courageous Colonel He justly ridicules the rodomontade pounder, and exulting in the capturewith which we have celebrated the whilst a surgeon, a man of great worth, most trivial successes, and deprecates who was dressing one of the officers, the subserviency with which sturdy re

raising bis blood-besmeared hands in a publicans can bow to a victorious chief, frenzy of patriotism,

exclaimed, Wilkin

son, I have dipt my hands in British bowever in jubted to fortune for his tri- blood. He received a sharp rebuke umphs. He sees in this fondness for for his brutality, and with the troops I military fame, this disposition to mag- pursued the hard-pressed flying eneiny, nify military achievements, and this passing over killed and wounded, until

I heard one exclaim, “protect me, Sir, alacrity to fawn upon military heroes, against this boy.” Turning my eyes, a pregnant source of calamity to our it was my fortune to arrest the purpose country, and of danger to our most va- of a lad, thirteen or fourteen years old, lued institutions. General Wilkinson

in the act of taking aim at a wounded

officer who lay in the angle of a wormis not singular in his apprehensions in fence. loquiring his rank, he answerthis regard. We have heard that a ed, " I had the bonour to command the gentleman who has occupied the high- grenadiers;" of course, I knew him to est station in our government, and be Major Ackland, who had been wbose interest in its welfare bas not the back of a Captain Shrimpton, of his

brought from the field to this place, on ceased with bis administration of its own corps, under a heavy fire, and was affairs, has intimated an intention, at here deposited, to save the lives of both. some period, to raise his warning voice 1 dismounted, took him by the hand, against so alarming a predilection.

and expressed hopes that he was not As a faithful picture of a battle this gallant officer and accomplished

badly wounded ; not badly,” replied ground, where 'grim-visaged war' is gentleman, “ but very inconveniently, rioting in recent desolation, we take I am shot through both legs; will you, the following extract from General Wil. Sir, have the goodness to have me conkinson's account of the action between veyed to your camp ?” I directed my

servant to alight, and we lifted Ackland the armies of General Gates and Gene- into bis seat, and ordered him to be ral Burgoyne, on the 7th of October, conducted to head-quarters.' 1777.

The painting of the Baroness Rei. The ground which had been occupi- desel is not less vivid, when she deed by the British grenadiers presented a scribes the dreadful scenes she was scene of complicated horror and exultation. In the square space of twelve or compelled to witness in the British

We have never seen the narfifteen yards lay eighteen grenadiers in camp. the agonies of death, and three officers rative of the Baroness, of which Genepropped up against stumps of trees, two ral Wilkinson bas presented us with of them mortally wounded, bleeding, some spirited translations. We are sorry and almost speechless; what a spectacle for one whose bosom glowed with that we have not room for the extracts of philanthropy, and how vehement the this journal of the Baroness, with which VOL. I. NO, I.


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the General has favoured us, and which other, perhaps an abler officer, whose are replete with interest.

character and dispositions we may

have to learn The following anecdotes exbibit two

The General acknowillustrious men who have long been red to him, but with noble frankness

ledged these reflections had not occuralike the objects of veneration, in a adınitted their force, thanked Colonel view equally honourable to both. Hamilton for his suggestion, and the

• During my intercourse with Gene. expedition was abandoned. I had heard ral Hamilton at New-York, in 1799, of this incident, and making inquiry of our official engagements produced fre

General Hamilton relative to the fact, quent references to the opinion of he gave me the preceding details. General Washington, and I embraced

On other occasions, when in conthe occasion, to obtain a more distinct versation respecting this great man, view of the private character of that General Hamilton observed, that it was great man than our military relations difficult to decide, wbether General had permitted.

Washington was greater in the field or • There may be many living wilnesses

in the cabinet; be said the world had of the fact, that Sir Henry Clinton, very naturally decided in favour of his whilst he commanded in New-York,oc military capacity, bot from the sum of cupied the house of Captain Kennedy, least equally

sound as a statesman; for

bis observations, he considered him at of ihe British navy, near the battery ; and that there were no buildings at that whatever might have been the jealoutime between it and the river. In these sies or the insinuations of party, it was quarters the chief reposed in security no humiliation to bim to acknowledge, with the ordinary ground in front, rely- that he had in council frequently differing on naval protection for safety in his ed in opinion with President Washing

General Washington bad by bis ton, and that events had generally spies ascertained precisely the ap. proved that he was wrong, and the Presiproaches, not only to Sir Henry's quar. dent right. But he dwelt on a specific iers, but to his bed-chainber, and the trail in General Washington's characenterprise appeared so feasible, that he ter, which it were devoutly to be wisbdelerinined to carry bim off.

ed bis successors could imitate ; this rangements were made for light whale. was, that in “all appointments to office, boats with muffled oars, and 150 Mar. wherein he was especially called to exerblehead scamen, properly commanded ;*

cise his own judgment, he nobly divested every thing being ready, the detach. himself of sympathy or antipathy, and ment waited for the approach of night; the agent to the ofice the ground of his

made what he considered the filness of in the interval Colonel Hamilton took occasion to observe to the General, that choice ;as an evidence of the fact, he " there could be little doubt of the suc

mentioned, that “ Colonel Pickering, at cess of the enterprise, but,” said be, the time he was appointed Postmaster“ bave you examined the consequences

general, was no favourite of President of it?": 'The General inquired in what Washington, but that he knew the Colorespect ?" "Why,” replied Hanilton, nel to be a man of industry and method, “it has occurred to me that we shall and had confidence in his integrity; and

" there had been rather lose than gain by removing Sir as to myself," said he, Henry Clinton from the command of for some time such a standing, or misthe British army, because we perfectly understanding between us, that I had no understand his character, and by taking

more expectation of office than I had of him off we only make way for some being appointed Pope's nuncio, when Y

received the invitation to take charge of • As well as I recollect, Col. Humphreys, of Connecticut, av aid-de-camp to the Gene the treasury department.” Thai a coolral, was selected for this service.

ness had taken place between the Com.


The ar

mander in Chief and Colonel Hamilton, respect of the world; my humble suftowards the close of the war, and that frage could add nothing to be fame of the Colonel had left his family, was no- General Washington, alter be has merittorious, but there were very few per- ed the plaudits of mankind, by the rare sons acquainted with the cause, which example of a military chief, who, bavI sball now submit to my readers, as ing led the armies of his country, correctly as memory will serve me, to the establishment of her indepen. and should I commit an error, will refer dence, peaceably and proudly laid to General St. Clair for correction, who down his arms, and sought his reward is the only man living, within my know. in the bosom of bis fellow.citizens. But ledge, acquainted with the facts. I will gratify the reader with a fac si.

• The army was encamped at New- mile of the heads of General Washing. Jersey at some point east of the Rari. ton's first official letter, dated at Cainton, and perhaps at Perackness. The bridge, July 10th, 1775, to the PresiGeneral was just mounting bis borse, to dent of Congress, which will perpevisit his advanced post, when be recol. tuate the character of bis manuscript, lected a letter he bad recently received and record the extent and accuracy of from the British cominander, which it bis knowledge, in all the variely of occurred to bim be might have occasion military details, a subject little underfor wbilst at the lines; be called Colo- stood in this country at that period, and nel Hamilton, and requested him “to of which his own opportunities for corband the letter to bim.” The Colonel rect information bad been superficial. relurned to the office, but not being able The comprehension and correctness of to place bis hand on it, reported, that his military views, under those circum"it was mislaid.” The General re- stances, must excite the admiration of plied, “I must have it.” Search was every competent judge, and I do con. again made, without effect, and Colonel ceive clearly demonstrate, that whatHamilton returning, repeated that the ever may have been the force and ener. letter had been mislaid, and expressed gy of his mind, when directed to other bis sorrow at not being " able to find subjects, military affairs were undoubtit.” The General rejoined with warinth, edly bis fort. The letter amplifying “Sir, you shall find it.” Hamilton was the topics comprised in these heads was astonished, but replied promptly, “I written by Colonel Joseph Reed, then shall find it, Sir, but must let you know, bis Secretary, and afterwards Governor Hiat in addressing me, you do not speak of Pennsylvania, the original rough to a mnenjal.” The occasion was ho- draft of wbich is in my possession, and .nourable to the parties; it was the the published copy will be found in the quarrel of Sully and Henry; it furnish- first volume of Washington's letters, ed General Washington an occasion for Boston Edition, 1795, page 8.' the display of bis magnanimity, and Colonel Hamilton an opportunity to as

A considerable part of the first vosert his personal dignity and indepen- lume of these memoirs is devoted to dence of mind. Colonel Hamilton re- tracing military movements in the late tired from Head-Quarters, but was appointed to the command of a battalion war, and detecting the causes of the in the elite corps, at the head of wbich failure of our early campaigns. A he stormed a redoubt during the siege multitude of reasons dissuade us from of York before the surrender of Corn• making any remarks on this division of wallis. • It would be presumptuous for me to

the work. In truth, from the political attempt the eulogy of a man who has animadversions interwoven into the deservedly attracted the attention and very texture of these memoirs, and

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