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New-Holland ; such as may have fangs in imitation of the ancient Greek and Roought to belong to the genus Natrix, and man writers, given the name of Seathose with cylindrical bodies to the genus Snakes to the large eels or fishes they Pelamis.
happened to observe; this I apprehend 1. Sp. Ophinectes cinereus, Raf. Cine- is the case with Pontopidan in his Natural revus Ophinectes. Entirely gray or ash History of Norway, with Mongitore in colour.
his remarkable objects of Sicily, with Le2. Sp. Ophinectes viridis, Raf. Green guat in his travels to Rodriguez-Island, Ophinectes. Entirely green.
&c. Their observations, and the facts 3. Sp. Ophinectes luteus, Raf. Yellow they record, are notwithstanding equally 0. Entirely yellow.
valuable, since they relate to monstrous 4. Sp. Ophinectes ceralescens, Raf. unknown fishes, which seldom fall under Blush 6. Entirely of a bluish colour. the observation of men. The individuals
5. Sp. Ophinectes versicolor, Raf. Ver- of huge species are not numerous in nasicolor 0. Varied with many transverse ture, either on land and in water, and it is zones, blue, white, red, green, and black. probable they often become extinct for Many species are probably meant here. want of food or reproduction.
6. Sp. Ophinectes maculatus, Raf. Spot Among the four different animals which ted 0. Covered with many irregular large have lately been observed by Americans, spots.--Many species.
and named Sea-Serpents, only one (the 7. Sp. Ophinectes panctatus, Raf. Dot- Massachusetts. Serpent) appears to be ted 0. Covered with numberless small such: another is evidently a fish, and two dots.--Many species.
are doubtful. I shall otter a few remarks 8. Sp. Ophinectes crythrocephalus, Raf. on each. Red-head 0. Head of a beautiful red, 1. The Massachusetts Sea Serpent. body
From the various and contradictory ac9. Sp. Ophinectus dorsalis, Raf. Backed counts given of this monster by witnesses, 0. Dark green with large spots of yel- the following description may be collectlow and light green on the back.-Length ed--- It is about 100 feet long, the body is 3 or 4 feet; near Dewitt's land.
round and nearly two feet in diameter, of 10. Sp. Ophinectes major, Raf. Large a dark brown, and covered with long Ophinectes. Green spotted with red and scales in transverse rows; its head is scaly, brown.-Length from 8 to 10 feet; also brown mixed with white, of the size of a from the shores of Dewitt's land. horse's and nearly the shape of a dog's;
This last species appears to be the the mouth is large, with teeth like a shark; largest real sea-snake, which has fallen its tail is compressed, obtuse, and shaped under the personal observation of natural- like an oar. This animal came in August ists as yet. But larger species still have last into the bay of Massachusetts, in purbeen noticed at different periods. If I had suit of shoals of fishes, herrings, squids; the time and opportunity of perusing all &c. on which it feeds. Its motions are the accounts of travellers and historians, very quick; it was seen by great many, I could probably bring many into notice ; but all attempts to catch it have failed, but this tedious labour must be postponed, although $5000 has been offered for its and I must warn those that may be in- spoils. It is evidently a real Sea-Spake, clined to inquire into the subject, not to belonging probably to the genus Pelamis, be deceived by the imperfect and exagge- and I propose to call it Pelamis megophias, rated accounts of ancient or unknown which means great sea-snake Pelamis. It writers. Whenever they neither mention might however be a peculiar genus, which the scales nor tail of their Sea Serpents, the long cqual scales seem to indicate, and or when they assert they had no scales, which a closer examination might have or had gills or fins, you must in all those decided: in that case the name of Megoinstances be certain that they are real phius monstruosus might have been apfishes rather than Serpents. There might propriated to it. however be found some Sea Snakes with 2. Capt. Brown's Sea Serpent. This out scales, since there are such land snakes, fish was observed by capt. Brown in a and there are fishes with scales and yet voyage from America to St. Petersburg, without fins ; but there are no fishes with- in July, 1816, near 60 N. latitude and 8 out gills, and no snakes or serpents with W. longitude, or north of Ireland. In gills! in that important character the clas- swimming, the head. neck, and fore part sical distinction consists.
of the body stood upright like a mast; it Nearly all the writers which I can re was surrounded by porpoises and fishes. member, have been unacquainted with It was smooth without scales, and had tkat obvious distinction; and they have 8 gills under the neck, which decidedly
evinces that it is not a Snake, but a new 2. It appears that another large species of genus of fish! belonging to the eighth or Water-Snake is noticed by 1. Felix Azader Tremapnea,28th family Ophiclia, and ra, in his travels in South America, (Paris, third sub-family Catremia, along with the 1809. 4 vol. 8vo.) under the name of genera Sphagebranchus and Synbranchus Curiyi, which may belong to the genus of Bloch, which differ by having only one Pelamis, although this worthy traveller or two round gills under the neck. I has omitted to describe its tail and scales. shall call this new genus Octipos (mean. It may be called and characterized as fol. ing 8 gills beneath), whose characters will lows: be-body round, without scales, (or Pelamis curis. (Curiyu. Azara tray. kins,) head depressed, mouth transverse, Vol. I. p. 226.) Spotted and variegated, large, 8 transverse gills under the neck.- of black and yellowish white. And its specific name and definition will It measures over 10 feet, and is ofthe size be Octipos bicolor. Dark brown above, of the leg; it lives in the lakes and rivers muddy white beneatlı, head obtuse. - of Paraguay, north of the 31st degree of Capt. B. adds, that the head was two feet latitude. It goes sometimes on land (and long, the mouth 15 inches, and the eyes shrubs), but moves heavily thereon ; it over the jaws similar to the horse's—the has a dreadful aspect, but does not bite ; whole length inight be 50 feet.
itlives on fishes, young otters, apereas and 3. The Scarlet Sea-Serpent. This was copibaras. observed in the Atlantic ocean by the cap 3. The Water-Snake of Lake Erie has tain and crew of an American vessel, from been seen again, and described to be of a New-York, while reposing and coiled up, copper colour, with bright eyes, and sixty near the surface of the water, in the sum feet long. It is added, that at a short dismer of 1816. It is very likely that it was tance balls had no effect on him ; but it is a fish, and perhaps might belong to the omitted to mention whether it was owing same genus with the foregoing; I shall to having hard scales, (in which case it Fefer it thereto, with doubt, and name it might be a real snake of the genus EnhyOctipos ? Coccineus.--Entirely of a bright dris or Pelamis) or to the indexterity of crimson, head acute. Nothing further the marksman. descriptive was adried in the Gazettes 4. Mr. W. Lee has brought to notice where the account was given, except that another Sea-Snake, seen by him many its length was supposed to be about 40 years ago, near Cape Breton and New. feet.
foundland, which was over 200 feet long, 4. Lake Erie Serpent. It appears that with the back of a dark green; it stood on our lame lakes have huge serpents or fish- the water in flexuous hillocks, and went es, as well as the sea. On the 3d July, through it with impetuous noise. This 1817, one was seen in lake Erie, 3 miles appears to be the largest on record, and from land, by the crew of a schooner, might well becalled Pelamis monstruosus; which was $5 or 10 feet long, and one foot but if there are other species of equal size, in diameter ; its colour was a dark ma it must be called then Pelamis chloronotis, hogany, pearly black. This account is or green-back Pelamiz. very imperfect, and does not even notice 5. Dr. Samuel Mitcbill has exhibited if it had scales; therefore, it must remain to the Lyceum of Natural History, at the doubtful whether it was a snake or a fish. sitting of the 15th September, the speciI am inclined to believe it was a fish, un nen of a species of Sea-Snake from his til otherwise convinced; it might be a gi- museum, sent him some years ago from gantic species of cel, or a species of the Guadaloupe, by Mr. Ricord de Mariana, aivove genus Octipos. Until seen again, which appears to be another new species, and better described, it may be recorded belonging to the genus Enhydris, to which mder the name of Anguilla gigas, or gi- the name of Enhydris annularis may be gantic eel.
given: we shall add its definition and de
scription. 1. The Pelamis megophias,or Great Sea Enhydris annularis. Ringed Enhydris Snake, appears to have left the shores of whitish, ringed with black, rings broadLassachuseits, and to have balled the at er on the back, which is cinereous and ratempts to catch it, probably because those ther angular in the middle ; tail broad, atteinpts were conducted with very little short,obtuse, with 70 pairs of scales underjudgment. But a smaller snake, or fish, neath, more than 200 pairs of abdominal 9 feet long, and a strange shark have been scales. taken, of which the papers give no de This animal is about 13 inches long, coscription; let us hope that they will be vered with smooth and roundish scales described by the naturalists of Bosto). above, the lead is depressed, obtuse, small,
covered with similar scales, and nearly 5. Extracts from the Journal of Mr. black, the lips are white; a white half ring Charles Le Raye, relating to some nero Octs on the mape of the neck, and extends Quadrupeds of the Missouri Region on each side over the eyes; a black line with Notes by C.S. R. connects the eyes with the nostrils; an ob
A concise and interesting Topogralong white band lays below the head, lon- phical Descriplion of the state of Ohio, gitudinally; the nostrils are round, the Indiana Territory and Louisiana, &c. mouth is small and with a few small teeth; was published at Boston in 1812, in a the body is cylindrical, but the back is small 12mo. volume, by an anonymous slightly carinated towards its centre, and writer, styling himself a late Officer of of an ash colour; the black rings are nar the U.S. Army. To this work, an account low underneath. The tail is only two of the Indian tribes East and West of the inches long, very compressed ; the extre- Mississippi, is added; and likewise, the mity is broader, obtuse, tipped with white, Journal of Mr. Le Raye while a captive and has a slight lateral angle on each side, with the Sioux nation, on the waters of or a protuding longitudinal nerve; a simi- the Missouri. Thi: Journal occupies lar appearance is perceptible on the upper from page 158 to 204, and is replete with and lower edges, which appear to be useful and valuable geographical inforthickened; the whole tail is covered with mation and natural observations. large scales of a transverse and broad Mr. Charles Le Raye, who appears to shape.
have been a Canadian trader, and an inThis snake is found in the West Indies, telligent man, was going, in 1801, to trade, in the sea, particularly on the shores of with the Osage nation, when, on the 230 the Island of Guadaloupe.
of October, he was made a prisoner and 6. A fabulous account of a great Water- plundered, by a party of Sioux or NadoSnake that, according to the Indian tradi- wessies, who were then at war with the tion, dwelt in ancient times in a lake near Osages. He remained their captive until Philadelphia, may be seen in Dr. Barton's the 26th April, 1815, and during that peMedical and Physical Journal, Vol. 2, p. riod visited many nations on both sides 163. As other Indian traditions, relating of the Missouri, such as the Ricaras, to the mammoth, the megalonx, &c. it Mandans, Minetarrees, and the Crow, the may be partly formded on truth.
Flat-head and Snake Indians. He was 7. The great Sea-Snake has been seen allowed to accompany a hunting party of again towards the middle of September, Minetarrees (or Menitures or Gros-venin the bay of Massachusetts, and three tres) to the plain of the Yellow Stone yellow collars observed on its neck, which river, and the upper plains of the Mishas led some to believe it might be ano souri, near the Rocky Mountains. Those ther individual and species; but this cir- excursions enabled him to observe macunstance might have been overlooked ny of the new and rare Quadrupeds of before: it is not stated whether it had those regions, and he appears to have streaks of a lighter hue on the body, as been the first observer, who has noticed the first was represented to have by some them with accuracy, and whose observawitnesses. It is therefore likely that the tions have been communicated to the two characters of " streaks of a lighter public: Since such observations of Caphue on the body, and three yellow collars tains Lewis and Clarke, as relate to those on the neck," may be added to its de- parts, were only made between 1804 and scription. The collars are described as 1806, and not published until 1814. about 2 inches broad and i foot apart. Those circumstances will render Mr.
8. Dr. Mitchill informs me that Gene. Le Raye's observations particularly inral Hawkins has written a Memoir on the teresting. It is from intelligent travelSea-Serpents of Massachusetts, which he lers that naturalists derive their most has sent, with a drawing to Sir Joseph correct and accurate materials: I conBanks ; it is a paper of some length, and sider those furnished by Mr. Le Raye as inuch interest, as it relates facts and all highly valuable, mostly new, and entitled the circumstances attending the appear- to priority; wherefore they claim the ance and natural history of those huge attention of all those who shall feel any animals, taken upon the oaths of eye- share of interest in the study of the aniwitnesses. He attempts to prove, with mals of North America : and I have been much probability, that several individuals induced to collect them together and ilhave been seen, and two at least, if not lustrate them by appropriate notes or three species ; one with three collars, comments, hoping thereby to render another withont any, and a smaller one, them of more easy
access and utility. I. Page 165.... Diuing our stay, the
Indians kilicd a dcer, which is called the 4. Page 109.-- A species of the badlong tailed deer. It was longer than the ger, called prarow, inhabits these plains, red deer, of a darker colour, and with a (those of the Sioux river.) Its head much white belly. Its horns are short, small, resembles the dog; legs short and very and someishat Nat; its tail nearly cigh- thick in proportion to its body, armed teen inches long. They are said to be with long, sharp claws, well adapted to plenty in those plains." The plains of digging. The size of the body someihe kanzas river.
what exceeds the ground hog; hair of a Nole. This concise description is suffi- dark brown colour, and tail visibly reciently accurate to enable us to ascertain sembling that of a ground hon. li burthat it belongs to a new species of deer, rows and hedges in the ground.” to known east of the Mississippi, to which Note. By this notice, the animal I shall give the naine of Corvus macro- might be a marmot or Arctomys instead urus, which means long tailed deer; it of a badger, but as it is called such by may be characterized as follows--horns Le Raye, I will consider it as a new spesomewhat depressed, shorter than the cies of badger, which may be named and head, body brownish above, white be- characterized as follows--Melesium prafour, tail elongated.
tense (mcadow badger,) entirely of a 2. Page 168.-“ An animal is found in dark brown, tail boshy, long claws. these plains (on the Sioux river, north of 5. Page 187.--"Bere, (on the Yellow the Missouri) called the Prairie chien, or Stone river) we killed several Rocky meadow dog. It is smaller than the Mountain sheep. The male, or moungray fox, and formed much like the dog tain ram, is considerably larger than the Its cars are pointed and stand erect, and female, and has much longer horns. The the whele head very much reserables the horns of the male which we killed, meadog. Its tail is long, slim, anci of a gun sured three feet in length, and five incl.es colour. It digs holes and burrows in a diameter, at his head. This animal is light loanny suil, und in the same lioies taller than a deer, and has a larger body. a small speckled snake takes shelter, It is covered with soft hair of a dun cowhich the Indians call the don's phard. lour, gradually becoming of a lighter coThe Indians have many superstitious lour towards the belly, which is entirely notions ruspering those dies. The Ay- white. Its horns are shaped, in many 09-wars or. Viz perrés nation, have a ira- repects, like the horns of rams, or the dition that the human race sprang from common sheep, bending backwards, but this dog and the bener. Ali other na have many rough knots. Its tail resemtions hold then in great Yeneration." bles that of the red deer. The legs and
Vale. A very imperfect deseription of fect resemble the sheep, but the hoofs this retr species of fux, wirich I shall somewhat longer. It is swist, and climbs Bilme Canis chlorops, (pen eyed fox, or the clelis of rocks with so much agility meadow fox) as it is probably the same and case, that no other animal can follow specjes better described in Lewis and it, and by this means it escapes the ('larke's travels, vol. i. p. 207. "Its defi- wolves. Its fiesh is esteemed equal to writion, draivn from both accounts, may that of the deer." A figure of this anife-tail elongatel, straii and du colour, mal is annexed. cars long and pointed, eyes green, sur Nole. This species of sheep has been pale reddish browny.
woull described by Geoffroy in the annals 3. Page 168.--A lind e deer is fre- of the Museum of Paris, vol. 2, page 560, quently killed here, (on the Sioux river) and Desinarets has given to it the name called mule deer. It is smaller and oia of Oris cerrina in the new Dictionary of ruker colour than the red deer, having Natural History, vol. 21, page 5, 1614. Harg• branched horns. The cars are very Yet some American Naturalists persist in larze, the tail about five inches long with the wrong belief that it is the same anishort dark hair, and at the end a luft mal as the aryali of Siberia, or Ovis amcomposed of long black hair.
It has been well distinguished by Nole. This short account is however being denominated an animal with the characteristic; it belongs to my Cerus body of a deer, and the head of a ram. hemionus (mule deer) a new species, akin It is called big-horn by some other trato the Cervus melanurus, or back tail veliers. deer. Its description will be--horns ve 6. Page 189.-“We only hunted the ry branched, looner than the head, cars bullalo, mountain sheep and Cabree. A elongated, body of a reddisk browni, tail party was sent to gain the summit of a rond rrith a black tuft at the end.
ridge, so as to miss over the other side,
while the rest of us crawled up, sur Felis concolor. This species I shall call rounding them on every side, excepting Felis misar, and characterize thus :towards the river. As soon as the signal Tail nearly as long as the body, which is was given, by those who had ascended entirely sallow and unspotted. and gained the opposite side, we all rais 8. Page 190.—“ One of the Indians ed a sudden yell, and sprang out of the killed(near the Yellow Stone river) a beaugrass, and the affrighted animals instantly tiful wild cat, about one half larger than fed from us, pitched over the precipice, the house cat. Its fur was long and exand were dashed against the stones at the ceedingly fine, covered with black and bottom, where we killed sixty-one. Some white spots on a bright yellow ground. of them fell nearly two hundred feet; Its belly was pale yellow, and its tail but some of them which were near the about two inches long. It is the richest bottom made their escape. It took us looking skin I ever saw." several days to dress and cure the meat, Note. All the wild cats with short which is cut in thin slices, and dried in tails and only three grinders on each side the sun or by a slow fire.” With a figure of each jaw, form the genus Lynz: This of the Cabree or Missouri antelope. beautiful genus, of which only four have
Note. The Cabree is not described, been recorded, has been increased by me but is figured, and is said in another part to nearly fifteen, in a monography of it, of the work, page 118, to inhabit also the several of which belong to North Amecountry of the Osage. It appears that rica, and among them Leraye's species several animals of the antelope tribe, or shall be distinguished as follows: Lynx allied thereto, are found in the western aureus—Bright yellow with black and parts of North America, four of which I white spots, belly pale yellow unspotted, fiave already ascertained, including this. tail and ears without tufts. 1. The Mazama ovina, Raf. (or Ovis mon 9. The other Quadrupeds seen by Letana of Ord. Ist number of the Journal raye, but not described, are the following, of the Academy of Natural Sciences of which are mostly met between the Sioux Philadelphia) which belongs to an exten- country and the Rocky mountains. sive new genus of animals of the western Leraye.
Notes. continent, where it is the substitute of the Beaver, Castor Tiber, L. antelope tribe of the eastern continent, Otter, Lutrix Americana, Raf. the M. pita. Raf. M.bira, Raf. M. pudu. Ermine, Mustela erminea, L. Raf. (Ovis pudu Gmelin,) &c. belonging Marten, marta? L. to it, and probably many more species. Spotted wild cat, Felis pardalis? L. 2. The Mazama caprina, Raf. or Pudu of Buffalo, Taurus crinitus, Raf. North America, of Blainville. 3. The Elk, Cervus coronatus? Geofroy. Cervus bifurcatus, Raf. (or Antelope bifur- Deer, virginianus, L. cata, of Smith,) which is a real species Grizzly, or white bear, Ursus ferox, Raf, of buck, since it has divided horns. 4. Black Bear,
niger, Raf The Strepriceros eriphos, or the Cabree White rabbit, Lepus variabilis, L. of Leraye, and ibex, or antelope of some Lynx, Lynx rufus ? Raf. other travellers, which by the figure ap- Mountain cat, montanus ? Raf pears to possess the following characters; Fox, Canis virginianus ? L. horns compressed, double the length of the head, tail long and bushy.---My genus Strepriceros includes the species of goats and antelopes with spiral horns.
6. Neogenytum Siculum, or Descriptions 7. Page 189.—“We killed a wild cat of four new genera of Dicotyle Sicilian (near the Yellow Stone river) which re
Plants. sembled the domestic cat, and was about
They are extracted from my Fragthe same size. It was of a sallow colour, ments of a Flora Sicula which I and had a tail nearly of the length of the wrote from memory in January, 1818, body. This little animal is very fierce, about two months after my shripwreck, and often kills Cabree and sheep by I believe all the characters stated are corjumping on their neck, and eating away rect; the plants belonging to those genethe sinews and arteries until they fall, ra having all been observed in the spring and then sucks the blood."
of 1815, were freshly impressed on my Note. This short notice refers proba- memory;
I therefore consider that bly to a new species of cat, very similar should, hereafter, any slight inaccuracies to the cat seen by captain Lewis, but not be detected in my descriptions, they will killed, (see Travels, page 206,) which I not be material, nor invalidate the esCall Feis fossor, and likewise to the tablishment, characters and classifica
VOL. 1, NO. !