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tion of those genera. They are all abundance on the sea-shore, on the sandy Dicotyles.
beach of Mondello, between Monte Gallo I. Genus. ADOCETON. Calyx five and Monte Petlegrino, spreading on a flat leaved, sepals unequal, carinated with surface of three to eight inches diameter; hooded tops and scarious edges. Corolla the whole plant was of a remarkable redfive-petalled, petals hypogyne, persistent, dish colour, and had the habit of a poly, equal, flat and entire. Five stamens hy- carpon: the petals were very small and pogyne, alternate with the petals, and flesh-coloured. Mr. Bivona, a botanist equal, filaments filiform, anthers rounded. of Palermo, to whom I communicated Ovarium central, nearly trigone, one style, the plant, thought it might be the Nieceone stigmna capitated and trilobated cap- brum alsinefolium of Scopoli, vide Persul, one-celled, trivalve, three or six cen soon Sin. pl. 1. p. 261 ; but not having tral seeds.--Small annual herbs with been able to consult Scopoli's description knobby and cylindrical dichotomous and figure, I am at a loss to decide ; I am, stems, leaves opposite, smooth, entire, however, perfectly conscious it belongs to with short petiols, and scarious stipules, the genus Adoceton, rather than the genus lower terminal, congested, nearly corym- Nllecebrum. bose, bracteolated.
II. Genus. PhediMUS. Calyx fiveObservations. Adoceton was one of parted, sepals unequal, longer than the the ancient Greek names for some species petals; five equal petals, 10 stamens, five of the genus Illecebrum, to which this ge- ovaries, the remainder as in Sedum—hanus is nearly related in habit, and even in bit of Sedum, leaves and flowers sessile, diagnosis ; but it differs widely by having annual plants. a corolla, and a capsul neither five-valved Obs. This genus was already enumenor one-seeded. In my natural classifica- rated by me, in my Analysis of Nature, tion of vegetables, it belongs to the first p. 174, as belonging to the first natural class Eltrogynia, seventh order Isandria, class Éttroginia, second order Perimesia, and family Dionidia, together with the family Sarcophyllia,and sub-family Diplogenera Orlegia, Hagea, Dionea, &c. the gynia. It differs from the genus Sedum former of which differs by having only by the striking and peculiar irregularity three stamens, and no corolfa; the second of the calyx, which is not found in any by having emarginated petals, an equal other genus of this family, besides the less calyx, entire stigma, and a many-seeded importantcharacter of having petals shortcapsul, and the last by being decandrous, er than the calyx. The name of Phedi&c.
mus is mythological. 1. Sp. Adoceton Saratile. Upright stems, 1. Sp. Phedimus uniflorus. (Sedum unileaves oval, acute, glaucous and thin, pe- fiorum, Raf. car. N. G. Sp. An. Pl. Sic. tals oblong, obtuse, longer than the calyx, p. 73. Sp. 184, tab. 18, fig. 2.) Stem capsul six-seeded.-Obs. I found this erect, simple, uniflore, leaves opposite, species, as well as the following, on a obovate, obtuse, entire ; flower sessile, herborisation, a few miles north of Paler- sepais obovate, obtuse; petals lanceolated, mo, in Sicily, towards the end of April, acute; capsuls erect.--Obs. I described 1815, in company with my friend, Will. and figured, ever since 1810, this plant, Swainson, Esq. an English botanist and as a new Sedum, overlooking then the irzoologist. He collected specimens as regularity of the calyx, as a generic chawell as I, and I sent some of mine (both racter; but having since found another of this species and the next,) to Dr. Ro- species, with the same peculiarity, I conmer, of Zurich; therefore I have less to ceived they ought to form a distinct. regret the loss of the remainder. It grew group: among stones and rocks on the west side 2. Sp. Phedimus siellatus (Sedum stelof Monte Gallo ; it had the appearance of latum of Desfont. fiora atlant, and some an Arenaria ; the flowers only expand in other authors.) Stem diffuse, branched, the heat of the day: the stems rose from multiflore ; leaves scattered, obovate, spaone to three inches--the petals were thulated, acute, and serrated; fuwers in white. I believe it is figured in the Pan- spikes, one-sided; bracteas lanceolate, phylon Siculum of Cupani, as well as the acute :-sepals cylindrical, acute; petals following species, under the name of Alsine. lanceolated, acute ; capsuls spreading,
2. Sp. Adoceton maritimum. Pro- stellated.---Obs. This plaut grows pear cumbent stems ; leaves ovate, obtuse, Palermo, and in many other parts of Sithick and rubescent, petals lanceolated, cily, in rocky and stony soils : it blossoms acute, shorterthan the calyx, capsul three- in June and July; the petals are reddisb sceded. Obs. This was found'the same white. It appears that many species have tay with the foregoing; it grew in great been confused under the name of Sedum
stellatum, hy Linnæus,and other authors, are found with 1, 2, 3, 4, or more free staseveral being figured in Bauhin, &c. The mens, others with connected stamens, Sicilian species is probably identical with some with a pedunculated or sessile ovathat of Barbary, and of Italy. Whether rium, others with a style or without any. the Sedum stellatum of the remainder of In this situation it is highly proper and Europe (there are at least two species; necessary for the better knowledge of the one with white flowers, and another with species and the improvement of the sciyellow flowers,) is a real Sedum or a Phe ence, to consider those species as forming dimus, must be inquired into by Euro an extensive natural group or sub-family pean botanists; and if it is a Phedimus, (Salicia) in the family Amentacea, which its comparative and distinct characters belongs to the fourth natural order Aranmust be ascertained.
thia, in the first class Eltrogynia. I thereIII. Genus. Prernir. Perianthe oval, fore had already (since 1814,) divided the imbricated; lepids fleshy at the base, ma genus Salir into about ten genera, of which cronate, and spinescent. Phoranthus the Vetrix was one ; that name being one hairy. Calyx downy; down simple cili- of the ancient Latin names for some speated. Corolla elongated; limbus tubular cies of it. I had left the name of Salir to bilabiated ; upper or outside lip four-cleft; the majority of the species, having two lower or inside lip entire, linear, and free stämens, a sessile ovarium, and a acute; all the five divisions linear and style. My other genera were, equal. Five stamens monadelphous and Trisynia. With 2 connected or monasynantherous; stigma filiform, entire, ar- delphous stamens. ticulated with the style—habit of the ge
Vimen. With 2 free stamens, a pedunnus Carduus, leaves alternate, amplexi- culated ovarium. caule, few terminal, and large flowers. Oisodir, 1 free stamens, a sessile ovari
Obs. The name of Pternir was one um, no style. of the Greek names of the Cynara or Ar Diplopia. 3 free stamens, a peduncutichoke, to which genus this is nearly re
lated ovarium, a style. lated, belonging to the same family : Melanir. 4 or many free stamens, à Carduucea, first sub-order; Cynarea, of pedunculated ovarium. the fourth order; Flosculia, in the third Amerir. 4 or many free stamens, a natural class Endogynia, and having the sessile ovarium. same peculiar characters in the Corella and Opodir. 3 free stamens, a pedunculaAnthodium; but it differs therefrom by ted ovarium, no style. the connexion of the filaments, and the Chalebus. 3 free stamens, a sessile ciliated down.
ovarium. 1. Sp. Pternir cynaroides. Stems with I shall give hereafter a general arrangesome uniflore branches ; leaves amplexi- ment of all the species, and particularly caule, oral, sinuated, ondulated, smooth of the American species. toothed and spincscent, veined above, 1. Sp. Vetrir Sicula. Shrubby, all glaucous underneath : lepids oval, mu the leaves opposite, somewhat petiolate, crone longer, canaliculated, divaricated oblong-cuneate, arute, entire, smooth and and thorny.-Obs. This perennial plant pale underneath, catkins opposed, stigma grows on some mountains of Sicily, and thick.--Obs. This shrub rises from six to particularly near Palermo, on Mount San ten feet; it grows in many parts of Sicily, Ciro and Mount Griffone ; the stem rises near Palermo, Catania, &c. on the banks from two to three feet, and branches only of rivers: it blossoms in April, and the at the top; it blossoms in May; the flow- leaves appear nearly at the same time; ers are rather larger than in any species of the branches are opposite and viminal. Carduus; the corollas are purple. I It differs from the Vetrix helir (Salix think I recollect that it is figured in the helir, L.) and nearly all the other species Panphyton Siculum of Cupani.
of Vetrix, by its entire, oblong leares, &c. IV. Genus. VETRIX. Diæcious, amen It bears the vulgar name of Udda with taceous, flowers lepigonal ; male flowers some other species of Sicilian willows. with one stamen ; female flowers with 7. Description of seven nein Species of sessile ovarium, one style, two stigmas ;
Sicilian Plants. remainder as in Salir, L.-habit of Salir, These plants are also extracted from leaves sometimes opposite.
my fragments of a Flora Sicula, or SiciOhs. The genus Salir of Linnæus is now lian flora: they are all dicotyle, except increased to nearly 200 species, and ma the Orchis hyemalis. ny more have as yet been unnoticed or 1. Ruta fimbriata. Stem shrubby, undiscovered in North America, Siberia, leaves decomposed, thick, folioles uneTartary, China, &c. among which some qual, oblong, obtuse crenulated, glandu
lar, the odd one longer, petals lacerated- sallow white, not large, and rather thinly imbriated, capsuls warty.-Obs. It has scattered on the spike. Annual. great affinity with the Ruta chalepensis, 5. Sp. Xylosteon siculum. Stem upL. but it differs by the shape and crenu- right, and shrubby ; leaves ovate or nearlation of the folioles, besides the charac- ly cordate, entire, hairy nearly acute peters of the petals and capsuls. It grows tiolate, the upper ones nearly sessile ; on the mountains of Sicily among rocks; pedicels horizontal, very short verticillait rises three or four feet, blossoms in ted naked spiked, berries distinct, round May and June, and has a powerful fetid and red.- Obs. It belongs to the genus rutaceous smell
, which however is re- Xylosteon of Tournefort and Jussieu (Lolished by the women of Sicily, who cul nicera L); it differs from the X. canescens tivate the plant in gardens and pots, un- by not having a twining stem,&c. from X. der the name of Arruta. I found it wild dumetorum by being destitute of bracteas in the neighbourhood of Palermo on Mt and the pedicels not being vertical, &c. Pellegrino, Mt. Gallo, and Mt. Moarda ; It is a small shrub, rising s or 4 feet, all the flowers are octandrous and te- which, grows in many parts of the trapetal, except the first unfolded, which interior of Sicily, in mountainous fields is decandrous, and pentapetal.
near Traina, Nicosia, Gangi, &c. It blos2. Sp. Euphorbia montana. Stem sim- soms in May. ple, leaves scattered, sessile, oboval, acute, 6. Sp. Orchis hyemalis. Roots palserrulated; involucrum consimilar, om- mated, leaves oblong ; Spike loose 4-8 bel five branched dichotomous, involuce's flowered, bracteas longer than the ovaovate-rounded acute: perianth four-cleft, rium, spur short obtuse, labellum trilobed, sepals round entire, capsul warty.–Obs. the middle lobe larger rounded entire. It is a small annual plant, two or three Obs. The O. cruenta bears much similariinches high. I found it on the summits ty to this species, but it differs from it by of the highest mountains, near Palermo, its labellum not trilobed, but cordated and Mt. Moerda, Mt. Fico and Mt. Mezzagni; crenulated, &c. This species grows near it blossoms in March and April. It dif- Palermo at the foot of M. Griffone and fers from the E. peplus by the shape of M. Grazia ; it blossoms in February, the involucels, perianth, &c. the sepals of the flowers are large and purplish; this colour perianth being lunular in E. peplus, they extends sometimes to the bracteas and are yellow in both species.
stem: it is figured in the Panphyton Si3. Sp. Orobanche fragrans. Stem culum of Cupani. thick, leaves scaly oval acuminate; spike 7. Sp. Herniaria nebrodensis. Enthick, bracteas lanceolate acute longer tirely smooth, undershrubby; stems prothan the calyx, corolla swelled, four-cleft, cumbent branched diffuse, leaves oppodivisions nearly equal, ondulated obtuse, site petiolate elliptic nearly obtuse, Rowstigma jutting.--Obs. The flowers are ofers in alterne glomerules, sessile few-flow, the size of O. caryophyllea, to which this ered.–Obs. This species grows on the species is nearly related; but instead of summit of the Mt. Madonie, (formerly being white, they are of a pale and livid Nebrodes), it blossoms in July, and forms flesh-colour, their smell is also different, a small shrubby plant of only a few inchbeing peculiarly sweet and fragrant, but es extent, but forming by their reunion a not like pink. It grows on rocky grounds, thick turf. It appears to be intermediary on the mountains near Palermo, on M. between the H. glabra and the H. alpina. Pellegrino and M. Caputo, generally at 8. Florula of the White Mountain of tached to the roots of the Psoralea bitu
Neu-Hampshire. minosa, while the O. caryophyllca grows This Florula is extracted, from a paper exclusively (in Sicily at least) on those of published in the New England Journal the Faba vulgaris. It blossoms in April, of Medicine and Surgery for October, and rises a foot at utınost. Annual. 1816, by Dr. Jacob Bigelow, of Boston,
4. Sp. Orobanche obtusala. Stem under the title of Some account of the simple elongated, leaves ovate obtuse White Mountains of New Hampshire, and concave pubescent, spike slender, brac- including the journal of an excursion on teas lanceolate obtuse, corolla tubular those mountains by Dr. Bigelow, in July, four-cleft, divisions nearly equal, obtuse 1816. The author has annexed to it a entire, stamens and style enclosed.--Obs. catalogue of the plants he found in the It is a very distinct species, growing over alpine or upper region of the mountains, a foot high, near Palermo, on the M. Ca and of those found there by Mr. Boot puto and M. Grifone: it blossomsin May, in another excursion in August, 1816; he the flowers are inodorous, of a dirty or has also noticed a few of the most strik
ing species found in the lower regions. Aira Melicoides, Ms. A.
Carex curta Wild. A.
Although these mountains had often Menziesia----indet. been visited before by botanists, and par
cerulea Swartz, J. ticularly by Mr. Peck and Cutler, no (Erica Wild.) catalogue of any consequence had been Oxycoccus vulgaris, Pers. J. A. published of the plants growing on Pinus nigra var nana, them, until Dr. Bigelow's first attempt, in balsamea v. nana, which he has noticed nearly 70 species, Poa-----indet. among which 6 are new, and 3 undeter- Polygonum viviparum Wild. A. mined; but several other species omitted Potentilla tridentala, Ait. J. in his catalogue, are mentioned in the Epilobium alpinum, A. Flora of Michaux and Pursh, and by Empetrum nigrum, A. diligent researches and repeated visits Geuin peckii, Pursh, J. A. many more will probably be detected. Houstonia cerulea, J. It will be at any time very acceptable to Juncus spicatus, A. see some botanist, living in their neigh
melanocarpus, Mx. J. bourhood, attempt and execute a com Kalmia glauca, J. plete investigation of their Flora, which Ledum latifolium, Ait. J. is probably the nucleus of Botany of the Lichen velleus, New England states.
rangiferinus, 1. Plants of the Woody Region.
pyxidatus, Betula lenta
cornulus, &c. &c. Gualtheria hispidula
Rubus saxatilis, A.
Salix repens Wild. J.
Spirea alba Erh. A.
Solidago multiradiata, Ait. A. Cornus canadensis
Sorbus americana v. nana, Acer saccharinum
Vaccinium tenellum, A. rubruin
Veratrum vivide ? J. montanum
IV. New Genera and Species. striatum
N. B. Dr. Bigelow has shortly noticed Pinus balsamea
6 new species, all found on the Alpine recanadensis
gion, but some of which must even be alba
considered as new genera, as it will apnigra
pear by their description. strobus
1. Aplostemon bracteatum. Raf. Chaff Dracena borealis, Ait.
cylindrical one spiked; spike ovate acute, &c. &c. &c.
surrounded by bracteas. A. II. Plants of the Region of dwarf Scirpus bracteatus, Bigelow. Culmo Evergreens.
tereti monostachys, spica ovata acuta Pinus balsamea v. nana
bracteis involucrata; flosculis monandris. nigra v. nana
Obs. This plant belongs to my genus. Cornus canadensis
Aplostemon, containing all the species of Houstonia cerulea.
Scirpus with one stamen ; it differs maIII. Plants of the Alpine Region. terially from the Aplostemon triqueter, N. B.-J. means found in blossom in July by Dr. Bigelow, and A. in August by * This Plant grew the last on the highMr. Boot.
(Scirpus monander, Rottbol) which has a Holcus fragrans of My. and Pursh, three sided chat and a long triphyllous (Dimesia fragrans,) constitutes a involucrum. Raf.
genus, totally different from Holcus, and 2. Bigelowia montana. Raf. Stem an- belonging to the natural family TRIMEIA gular; leaves oblong, acute enerved; in the natural order ACHIROPIA or the peduncles solitary elongated. A.
grasses. Its character will be, exterior Arenaria seu Stellaria (anonyma)Bige- glume bivalve triflore, interior glume low--Caulo anguloso, foliis oblongis acutis bivalve, two lateral male flowers with 3 enervibus, pedunculis solitaris elongatis, stamens, the middle one hermaphodite floribus apetalis.
and with 2 stamens. Raf. Obs. Dr. Bigelow is doubtful of the 4. Melica trisora. Bigelow. Hairy, genus of this plant, and has not even panicle compact exterior glumes triflore, named it. It cannot be an Arenaria, interior glumes awned, A — Villosa paniwhose character is to have entire petals, cula coarctata, glumes triforis, corpusnor a Sielaria, which must have bifid culo accessorio, Hosiculis aristatis. petals ; it must therefore constitute a pe Obs. This species must form with the culiar genus in the natural family Alsinia, Melica aspera, of Desfontaines, a subintermediate between the genera Phar- genus distinguished by its triflore glumes, naceum, Ballarion and Arenaria, whose and which I shall name Trianthusa. Raf. characters will be: Cal. 5 phyllous, no 5. Scirpus obtusus. Bigelow. Chaff, petals, 10 stamens, 5 styles, capsule uni- cylindrical and spiked, naked ; spike lanlocular, and which is dedicated to Dr. ceolate, scales thick and obtuse at the Bigelow, author of the Florula Bostonien- top, J. Culmo tereti, mido, monossis, &c. Rar.
tachyo, spica lanceolata, squamis apice S. Dimesia monticola. Raf. Exterior carnosis obtusis. Biz. valve of the interior glume: awned on the 6. Vaccinium gualtheroides. Bigelow. back in the lateral male flowers. J. Procumbent, leaves obovate entire, flow
Holcus monticola. Bigelow. Glumisers nearly solitary, herries oblong, style trifioris, hemaphrodito intermedio dian- persistent. J. Prostratum, foliis obodro, maculis lateralibus triandris, valvu- vatis integris, floribus subsolitaris, baccis la exteriore dorso aristato.
oblongis stylo coronatis. Pig. Obs. This plant, together with the
C. S. R.
OESTRVATIONS OY THE USE OF GYPSUM changed and becomes glauber salt or sulAS A MANURE ON THE SEA COAS'r. phate of soda, by assuming the sulphuric
et as a manure, throughout the well facts, and this the manner of accounting cultivated districts of the U. States, bas for them. heen of the utmost importance to the The following method of applying mypAgriculture of the country. Its use, how sum on the sea coast, makes up for the crer, has been limited to the interior, or unsuccessful experiments heretofore perat least now within 40 or 50 miles from formed with it as a manure; and if future the sea board. Its failure to produce fer- practice should corroborate the present tility, within a saline atmosphere, has been statement, it would leave a doubt of the accounted for upon the principles of che- correctness of the theory which accounts ntical afinity. (Trans. Agricultural Socie- for the preceding results in failing to proty, N. Y. Vol. I.) Plaister of paris, called duce fertilizing effects. As the air, rain, also gypsum, is sulphuric acid in combi- and dew have the same saline impregnanation with lime, forming the chemical tion within a sea atmosphere, the same union, making sulphate of lime. The sea chemical changes should take place in salt contained in the atmosphere is muri- whatever way the plaister is applied to atic acid in union with soda, forming mu- produce fertility. The following notice riate of soda. When these two ingredi- was taken from a New-York daily paper ents come together in solution, the sul- of August, 1812. (The Public Advertiser.) phate of lime or gypsuin is converted in “A gentleman of respectability and into muriate of lime by the muriatic acid of telligence, of Long-Island, lately commuthe sea salt. As the action which takes nicated that the following process is rapidplace in this case must be that of a double ly prevailing in his neighbourhood, and in clective attraction, the sea-salt is also many parts of New Jersey. When the