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to teach the young how to breathe, to speak clearly, to read with expression; at a later age it is always difficult, often impossible. The standard of elocution is higher in a Board school than it is in a public school. Once more we do not blame the preparatory school who ly for this, but in part we do. It is, however, one of the many things which make us long for an intelligent Headmasters' Conference.

In conclusion, we cordially recommend this volume to all teachers. They will put it down wiser than they were before reading it, and, it is to be hoped, they will try to find some means of enabling these praiseworthy institutions to do their work better. The full organisation of secondary education which we look for, not without misgiving, must take account of these schools; and we agree with the report in thinking that their vested interests must not be carelessly set aside.



English Preparatory Schools hold an anomalous position. Whilst most secondary schools for older boys are endowed schools, founded under some ancient deed of gift or charter, the preparatory schools are private ventures. It will surprise most readers of this volume to find that there is no evidence for the existence of a school of this type before the year 1837; and their growth is ascribed by Mr. Cotterill, who deals with the historical part, to the influence of Thomas Arnold. Now there are 280 represented on the sectional Association, and there must be large numbers not so represented. These schools exist simply and solely to feed the public schools ; in their organisation and curriculum, therefore, we shall find a sidelight on the effects of public-school education.

The first thing we note is that the teaching in these schools, or the best of them at least, is above the average. Depending as they do on success for their very existence, they are bound to sist out incompetent masters, and they do so. We offer no opinion here on the important question, whether the men who best carry on the work of these schools are the best teachers from an ideal point of view. We wish to imply only that the men who cannot do the work they are set to do have to go. This work is exacting, and the masters are practically at it from dawn to long past dewy eve. And yet, as Mr. Cotterill points out, their prospects of advancement, even of winning a salary large enough to marry upon, are small, and still dwindling. He recommends that successful assistants should be more often made headmasters of the school to which they belong. We may add, that when a preparatory-school master gets on the staff of a public school, he is generally one of the best men there within certain limiis; but he has very definite limits, as men with a really good degree prefer to begin elsewhere. This speaks well for the thoroughness of preparatory schools, and incidentally proves that it is possible to train teachers.

The second point we note is that the curriculum is faulty in defect and in excess. Not that these schools are to blame for either. Their scheme has to be arranged to suit public-school open scholarships, and in particular, the scholarships of Winchester and Eton, with Rugby as a good third, which are the schools whose names tell in the public mind. There is consequenıly too much specialising, and too little English, history, and geography. There is also a tendency to force promising boys, and in some schools the result is that less promising boys are ofien neglected. Mr. C. C. Lynam, who takes this topic, points out the harm which is done because too little weight is given to general knowledge, and because viva voce tests are not used. It is difficult to speak too strongly of the vicious effects of open scholarships on the education of this country, and we are glad to see that the point is again insisted on here.

All the subjects of school instruction are taken in turn, and each dealt with by a competent person. Much may be learnt from these essays, but we have no space to dwell on them here. We should like to point out one or two serious omissions.

First, it is not sufficiently understood that school efficiency depends largely on what Thring called “the almighty wall.” There should have been a section devoted to the school buildings in their effect not only on health but on discipline and general efficiency. We should expect an examination of what educational plant is necessary in a good school, the pictures and models, the blackboards, and other aids to the teacher. And secondly, not only singing and music ought to be properly taught, but the art of speaking clearly. How many times in an hour has the weary schoolmaster to tell boys to speak out! And public-school boys, from the bottom to the top, do not know the difference between the mumble and the shout. It is easy

the "

FOR THE SPEECH DAY." There can be no reasonable doubt that this somewhat bulky but extraordinarily complete and representative volume will prove exceptionally acceptable and useful, and coming as it does from Eton, it bids fair on every ground to immediately assume a position of authority. To the majority of teachers it will be found to fulfil a great service in saving both time and trouble often spent in hunting out a judicious selection of passages for “speech day” and other great academical occasions ; and what labour this can entail nobody knows so well as those who have ever been responsible for such a task. Many a man who has all the matter of his particular subject in a competent and able grasp is, nevertheless, nonplussed in making such a selection, and by consequence the tendency to fall back upon venerable but hackneyed passages is one which it is difficult to overcome.

The present selection is therefore as welcome as it is praiseworthy, and considering the dearth of manuals for this purpose, it is as unique as it is careful. The compiler modestly disclaims any pretensions to completeness in this volume, but it is certainly full enough for all reasonable requirements; and as

Upper School” speeches at Eton since 1885 have been copiously drawn upon, the fullest resources of academical good taste may be assured to those who use it. Perhap; the most remarkable of all the features of this volume is its polyglot character. Separate sections deal (though not with equal exhaustiveness) with the literatures of Greece, Rome, England, France, Germany and Italy; and a reviewer cannot but recall Charles Lamb's famous passage of self-congratulation : “I bless my stars for a taste so catholic, so unexcluding. Shaftesbury is not too genteel for me, nor Jonathan Wild too low.”

A glance at the table of contents displays the dead languages secure in the first place, but as this section only extends to sixty-two pages, not even the most militant “modern” can feel aggrieved. Mr. Cornish, however, groups the Greek selections under ihe head of Classics, and all the rest under the designalion “ Latin,” which seems a somewhat unfair restriction of the former term, even if it does not detract from the significance of the latter. Under these two heads he has quoted some passages at length, and a large number of others he indicates by the number of the line to commence and the word to finish with. By this means a great deal of space is saved without any sacrifice of completeness, so far as the thoroughly representative character of the section is to be understood. Piato is not represented at all, and the selection from Cicero is singularly modest. Theocritus is also lest out, though Catullus' “ Lament sor Ariadne" is included. None of the selections from Aristophanes are given in full, and only a few from Virgil; but an interesting selection of speeches from Livy and also from

1 Board of Education. Special Reports on Educational Subjects. Volume 6. Preparatory Schools for Boys, their place in English Secondary Education 531 pp. (Eyre and Spottiswoode. 25. 31d.

1 " The Public School Speaker." Compiled by F. W. Cornish, M.A. 570 pp. (John Murray.) 75. od.



Tacitus are printed at length. A selection from Lucretius is as judicious as it is welcome.

The classical section over and done with, Mr. Cornish turns mainly to the literature of England, and devotes to it no less than three hundred and eighty-four pages, which he divides into sub-sections, respectively dramatic, poetical and oratorical. Of this great division of the work it must be noted that America figures largely in it, and that while Scotland and Ireland are not left unrepresented, a slightly larger Irish leaven might conceivably have been introduced. So far as Irish eloquence goes, the supply is adequate and even generous, but the work of poets who have been Irishmen suffers by the exclusion of (at least) Thomas Moore ; and there are, one thinks, no few who can find, and express, more pathos and charm in much Irish verse than the most brilliant orators of Erin could ever put into speeches intended for the senate or the bar.

In the dramatic section are included many old favourites, but the compiler has also gone to less known sources for very effective selections. A purely literary charm atiaches to many of these from their unusual position, and to have included parts of Byron's often slighted plays, a selection from a littleknown work of Thomas Hood and another from Thackeray, while by no means ignoring the claims of the lesser Elizabethans, is an evidence of the fine discrimination of the compiler's taste. Among these latter Nicholas Udall's “ Ralph Roister Doister” is lifted into unaccustomed prominence.

Of the poetical section it is almost impossible to speak too highly, although space does not serve for any detailed account of it. It is almost an anthology in itself, and contains much work that is comparatively little known. If the breadth of Mr. W. E. Henley's recent collection, which includes everybody from the prophet Ezekiel to Charles Lamb, be somewhat (and necessarily) wanting, still Charles Lamb is here. So, too, are solemn Dr. Johnson (who surely missed the function of prophecy by only a short distance) and moderns like Mr. Rudyard Kipling and Mr. Henry Newbolt. The serious tone of most of the American selections is admirably set off by the lighter veins of Praed and Smollet, and James and Horace Smith are cheek by jowl with Walt Whitman. This section tempts the most conscientious critic to be diffuse, so full is it of good things. These, however, are for those who use the volume rather than for one who only feels constrained to praise it. Much also might be reasonably said of the orations which conclude the English section. Lord Strafford and Richard Lalor Sheil, Lawrence Sterne and John Milton have all been drawn upon, adding a leaven of the unaccustomed to selections brilliantly headed by names of more commanding weight. The inclusion of a part of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address is as happy as it is significant.

Concerning the French, German and Italian sections, it is perhaps now unnecessary to say much. The same liberal spirit and careful discrimination are to be observed in the selection of authors and passages as hitherto. Molière gets his sull share of space, and Mons. Rostand and Scribe are included with Théodore de Banville and André Chenier in a division where, undoubtedly, the task of exclusion has been as difficult as that of comprehensive inclusion. Schiller and Goethe divide the honours of the German selection, where however, Heine is only repre. sented by a single lyric. Among the Italian writers moderns like Leopardi and Manzoni are found side by side with Politian and Berni, and hardly overshadowed by the necessary prominence of Dante and Petrarch. It is, perhaps, obvious that a volume of such range and scholarship can scarcely be dealt with in a short review. Equally, its best praise will be found in its wide acceptance and frequent use.

The charm of its pages grows upon even a casual reader ; the value of its purpose ought to secure it enthusiastic recognition; and the dignity and taste of its selections will contribute to the advancement of literature.

COMENIUS AND REFORM. It may seem ungracious to begin a notice of this book by saying that other historical work would seem to claim precedence over the subject of Comenius. Yet it is undeniable that we have in Prof. S. S. Laurie's “Comenius” a very satisfactory book for the English reader desirous to know the views of Comenius without wading through those 2,271 pages of his views in Latin, to the perusal of which Prof. Laurie so plaintively refers. Of other educational writers, the forerunners or contemporaries of Comenius, viz., J. L. Vivès, Wolfgang, Ratke (Ratichius), John Valentine Andreae, John Henry Alsted, we know of no adequate account in English. It would be a great service to have an essay on Vivès or Ratke. We could have felt this even when Mr. M. W. Keatinge published his translation of Comenius's Great Didactic, with the very interes biographical and historical introductions. But Mr. Monroe's work necessarily takes us over much of the ground for a third time. In saying this, however, we have no desire to belittle Prof. Monroe s book. It is a conscientious and valuable contribution in itself, and were it not for the previous works of Dr. Laurie and Mr. Keatinge such a book would be essential. It has, too, individual excellencies and supplementary information. Still we regret that there is not more division of labour amongst historical workers, so as to bring together accounts of educationists inaccessible to the ordinary English reader.

Having now said what seemed necessary to say, perhaps we may state the points in which Prof. Monroe's book is supple. mentary to these writers. His account of European education in the century preceding Comenius - the transition from humanism to realism-gives a sketch of Vivès, slight enough, it is true, but for which we are thankful. Comenius's treatment of the earliest education of the child is a valuable chapter, as we should expect from the fact that Prof. Monroe has edited Comenius's “School of Infancy”—an excellent piece of work-which places Mr. Monroe's reputation high amongst our historical educational writers. Then, too, Prof. Monroe's account of the influence of Comenius on modern educators, from Francke to Herbart, is a distinct contribution to the English treatment of the subject. And best, perhaps, of all is the chapter on the permanent influence of Comenius, which shows the English reader the place which Comenius occupies in contemporary German thought, a matter about which the English reader is usually very ignorarft. Prof. Monroe's Appendices are highly useful, giving a bibliography carefully selected. Perhaps it may now be added that, valuable as the bibliography is, anyone seeking a still more complete one will find it most thoroughly prepared and ready for use in Prof. Monroe's edition of “Comenius's School of Infancy,” already referred to.

In regard to the book as a whole, it should be said that it is very readable, and it is distinctly written with a knowledge of recent German educational thought. It is clear and concise in style, and written with enthusiaam. There is, we venture to think, one point on which none of the three writers we have mentioned-Prof. Monroe, Prof. Laurie, and Mr. Keatingehave written quite adequately, viz., the educational importance of Thomas Campanella. In his “City of the Sun," a work all too litile known, Campanella suggests the utilisation of the walls of the city and public buildings, making a length of over seven miles, reserving them for plain and vivid drawings of the stars and solar system, of the earth, of the countries of the earth with their histories, customs, and laws written very concisely, of all animals and plants, most beautifully and vividly painted, and, in fact, the whole encyclopædia of knowledge visually displayed. The education of children would thus be easily accomplished by taking them to walk round the walls under


1“ Comenius and the Beginnings of Educational Reform." By Professor Will S. Monroe, A.B. (Heinemann.)

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competent guidance and instruction. Surely, here we have an authors are particularly indebted to the German “reformers.” orbis pictus, which Comenius himself cannot be said to have The remarks on the teaching of pronunciation show a satisoutvied. A description of the Civitas Solis might well, there. factory acquaintance with what we may call “school phonetics," fore, find a place in the historical introductions to the books on and leave little to be desired. The text is carefully graduated Comenius.

and well arranged ; much of it being based on a picture which appears in a reduced form in the book, and which is issued as a

wall picture at 12s. net. There are some features, however, to RECENT SCHOOL BOOKS.

which we cannot reconcile ourselves. In the first place, we

continue to think it an absolute mistake from a pedagogical point Modern Languages.

of view to print remarks intended only for the teacher in the André Laurie, Une Année de Collège à Paris. Adapted and

book which is put into the hands of the pupil. Still more edited by Fabian Ware; Notes and Vocabulary by C. H. S. serious is the fact that the English equivalents of the French Brereton. xvi. + 168 pp. (Macmillan.)

This text is

words are given in the vocabulary, and that in a “First French happily chosen ; it tells in an attractive form and in good

Book " there are pieces for translation from English into French the experiences of some French schoolboys. A careful French. This is so completely contrary to the views of the teacher will be able to spend many an interesting hour if he “reformers,” that it seriously detracts from the value of the reads this book in class. It has been skilfully brought within

book as an exposition of the “New Method.” It is all the the limits of a term's work, and has been carefully annotated.

more to be regretted as it is an excellent piece of work in other The vocabulary is practically complete, as far as we have been

respects. It should be added that the transcription of the able to test it. The general editors of the series (Siepmann's)

Association Phonétique Internationale has been used throughhave as usual supplied appendices, containing words, phrases out; and that there are some pages of simple songs with music, and passages for retranslation, the teachers' key to which has

the introduction of which helps to enliven the teaching and at already appeared.

the same time to improve the pronunciation. Louis Enault, Le Chien du Capitaine. Edited by Margaret

G. Freytag, Die Journalisten. Edited by H. W. Eve, M.A. de G. Verrall. vii. + 172 pp. (Cambridge University Press.)

xix. + 193 pp. (Cambridge University Press.) 25. 6,25.—This tale may be recommended as thoroughly suitable for

There is no need to recommend a comedy which competent an intermediate class. The scene of it is a little French sea

critics consider second only to “Minna von Barnhelm in port; the characters are a retired sea-captain, his young wife,

German literature ; and the name of Mr. Eve is a sufficient and the captain's dog, which makes up for its ugliness by giving

guarantee that the editorial work is of the highest quality. He frequent evidence of almost uncanny intelligence. The tale is

has given us an admirable account of the life and work of brightly and well told, with many humorous touches. The

Freytag, and his notes are full of felicitous renderings and usenotes have been written with great care; the only suggestion

ful suggestions. Even one well acquainted with both languages we have to make is that when a phrase in the lext is explained,

cannot fail to learn much from Mr. Eve's scholarly commentary. it should be given in full in the note, not merely the first and

German Exercises. Book II. By J. F. Stein. vi. +114 pp. last words. The vocabulary seems to be complete.

(Edward Arnold.)-We are unacquainted with the author's first P. Caur, L'Ame de Beethoven. Edited by De V. Payen

book of German exercises, which, according to the preface, has Payne. xxiii. + 23 pp. (Macmillan.) 25. We have read

had uninterrupted success for more than twelve years (in this text with some interest, but with ever-growing amazement

America). While recognising that there are some useful remarks that Mr. Siepmann should have considered it fit to be included

in the introduction to this second book, we do not recommend in the elementary section of his series. Surely there are plenty

it, as we cannot bring ourselves to approve of the mosaic method of easy texts available, and we are not yet driven to put before

of translation on which it rests. children the ravings of a lunatic or an account of a spiritualist séance. The notes have been written with great care, and are

Classics. well put ; the vocabulary is practically complete. It is sad to In the “ Cambridge Series for Schools and Training Col. find so capable a teacher as Mr. Payen-Payne wasting his

we have this month Xenophon, Anabasis VI., by efforts on such material.

G. M. Edwards, M.A., XXXV. + 100 pp.; and Caesar, De Bello French Idioms and Proverbs. By De V. Payen-Payne.

Gallico VII., by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A.

(Camb. Univ. Press.) Is. 6d. each. We have noticed other viii. + 221 pp. (Nutt.) 35. 6d.—We are glad to see that this book is now in its third edition, especially as it has been much

books of these authors by the same editors in this series. enlarged by Mr. Payen-Payne, to whom this work has evidently

These two, upon examination, prove to be of equal value with been a labour of love. It is a valuable book of reference for

the earlier books, scholarly, and just what this excellent series every Freuch scholar, and may even be recommended to the aims at being, thoroughly useful. “general reader" as being full of interest. The renderings are The Preceptors' Latin Reader. By the Rev. E. J. G. Forse, in almost every case happy; often we come across old-fashioned M.A. 134 pp. (Clive.) Is. 60.-Here is another book of English phrases, embodying the wisdom of common folk in a selections. The distinguishing feature of this one seems to be terse and vigorous form, which for some reason or other have the brevity of most of the extracts; there are 210 of less than dropped out of the literary language. It is a fascinating field three lines in Part I. Part II. consists of 16 short pieces of research, and we trust that many another edition of this book

preceded by a dissection of each into simple sentences. Part III. will be called for, so that it may become more and more com- contains 144 more advanced prose and verse without any help. plete. There is every prospect of its becoming the standard There is good variety of material, which will afford plenty of work on the subject.

practice. The spelling of words is given correctly in the selecFirst French Book, according to the “New” Method. By tions, but in the vocabulary Mr. Forse seems to waver, and D. Mackay, M.A., and F. J. Curtis, Ph.D., B.A. xviii. admits false forms, either in brackets or with reference to the + 343 pp. (Whittaker.) 25. 6d. net.—This is a book from correct; thus in one column we find caelum (coelum), and which a teacher of modern languages may learn a great deal. caena, Soc., see cena, &c.

This is a pity, as it suggests wrong It incorporates much of what has been done in recent years 10 forms which otherwise might be, and should be, unknown or improve the methods of teaching these languages, and the forgotten.


xix. + 158 pp.

Scalae Tertiae. By E. C. Marchant, M.A. xii. + 120 pp. (Bell.) 15.—The incipient Latin scholar, if he has properly climbed, and not been hastily dragged up, the easy steps of the first iwo ladders, will be ready to ascend the third here planted for his feet. The editor gives such a helping hand that the effort will not even now be great, though some of the steps


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nection between “In Memoriam ” and Peter the Great, or on Wordsworth's “Excursion” and Macadamised Roads. Certainly no two subjects could appear to a cursory observer to be farther apart than those which give a title to this little book. But Dr. Miller explains that he has been for years accustomed to teach Shakespeare to Indian students, not merely as a poet nor as a

theme for philological studies, but in the widest sense as a philosopher whose work has a broad bearing upon many problems of social life. From this unique point of view a rather unique work has proceeded, and those who are interested in Indian affairs will doubtless find much that is worth attention in these pages. For any student of Shakespeare, like. wise, Dr. Miller's work may be found of some value, since it is quite sufficiently clear and thoughtful

be illuminative, and lucid enough to be uncommonly well

worth perusal. De, oe's Robinson Crusoe. Part I. By T. H. B. Masterman. 318 pp. (Pitt Press.) 25.— The editing of this volume has, apparently, been a simple and easy matter. Mr. Masterman supplies a short introduction, useful for young pupils, and a rather inconsiderable number of notes which are arranged in small blocks at the bottom of each page. Perhaps a book like “Robinson Crusoe” could not be better treated. Its general popularity excludes all necessity for pedantic elaboration. As a leading daily journal recently remarked, this habit of compression and modesty might be advantageously pursued in even more important instances.

English. History of the English Language. By T. N. Toller, M.A., iii. +284 pp. (Cambridge University Press.) 45. —" Hitherto our vulgar tongue has scarcely received the attention it de.

A fact as lamentable as it is true, and with obvious consequences. There are comparatively few men in England in a position to give an adequate account of the history of their native language. Prof. Toller is one of the few. No better prool could be afforded of his thorough mastery of English in all phases of its development than the production of the work under consideration. It is distinguished by uniform accuracy of information, the spirit of scientific research and a high and just appreciation of the educational value of English. Teachers and students will find in this new book nothing which they will have to unlearn afterwards. That is in itself a great recommendation. But the positive merits of the book are no less noteworthy. Prof. Toller has unduly depreciated his contribution to the study of English in representing it as a mere tracing of outlines. It is much more than that ; indeed, the one fault of the book is, we are inclined to think, its too great attention to detail. To write a work of this nature requires, above all, a complete sense of perspective. We think the author would be well advised is, in future editions, he were to reduce the amount of space occupied by illustrative matter. For instance, ten

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now take the verse form. The 59 selections are from Phaedrus, Ovid, Nepos and Cicero, illustrated in the manner to which we are now so well accustomed in the “ Elementary Series ” of Messrs. Bell. The frontispiece, which we are allowed to reproduce here, is from a very pleasing photograph of Athens.

Edited Books. Shakespeare's Henry V. By A. W. Verity. 292 pp. (Pitt Press.) 1s. 6d. With so much mili'ary ardour as is abroad to-day, this play is not only seasonably ed ted, but is, by the excellence of Mr. Verity's scholarship and the delt literary craftsmanship exhibited in this volume, likely to prove a standard edition for school purposes. All the elucidatory matter is remarkable for its copiousness, and a careful examination of it discloses the judicious selection which marks its main divisions. In the introduction alone as many points are briefly discussed as would, with only moderate elaboration, furnish an exhaustive literary article upon the play; and the last four sections are sull of suggestiveness. The inclusion of an abridginent from Gervinus is especially happy, and the discussion of the political teaching of the play is calculated to give sound and clear notions on this point to those who are, perhaps, no longer boys, whose political education needs conconsiderable enlightenment. The notes are all that Mr. Verily has accustomed us to expect, and the glossary gives more than modern equivalents ; it supplies copious explanations of obsolete terms. The appendix will repay study even by advanced scholars, and the “hints” on Shakespeare's metre and vocabulary are likely to prove very fruitful. Altogether, almost as much an edition for a scholar's shelves as for a schoolboy's locker.

Shakespeare's King Lear and Indian Politics. Miller, C.I.E. 115 rp. (Luzac & Co.) 25.— The litle of his little brochure is sufficiently startling. One wonders whether before long we may not be treated to disquisitions on the con


By W.

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consecutive pages consist entirely of lists of the words introduced during the “ Second Period" of Latin influence. Instead of this may we suggest, say, a chapter on the economy of sound changes ? It would contain the history of such words as “umpire,” “number," "orange" and the like. There are singularly few errors, typographical or otherwise; “less” on p. 110 should, perhaps, be fewer, and on p. 16 we find the expression “different than.”

Elements of Rhetoric and English Composition.-First and Second High-School Courses. By G. F. Carpenter. iv. +283 pp., ii. +140 pp. (The Macmillan Company.) 46. 6d. – In nothing do our American cousins more completely demonstrate their great superiority in educational matters than in the attention they give to the teaching of English composition. It will probably come as a surprise to teachers in England to hear that their colleagues in America have arrived at an agreement as to the best means of teaching this subject. Mr. Carpenter's book is written to provide for the two years' course that has been adopted. “During the first of these two courses pupils should be trained in the choice of words and the structure of sentences and paragraphs, and during the second course they should be briefly trained in the main principles of exposition, narration and, perhaps, argument.” The book is one that every English teacher should have by him. It is exceedingly good.

New Preparatory Atlas. Edited by C. Carter, M.A. 24 maps. (Relfe.) 6d. -A cheap collection of maps, upon which are represented the chief political divisions and the positions of places of importance. There are no physical maps, and the mountain ranges are shown by the conventional thick lines. The maps may prove of service in showing young pupils how countries and cities are situated with reference to one another.

its use.

History. Macaulay. By Sir Richard Jebb, M.P. 59 pp. (Cambridge University Press.) 25., paper covers is.—This is a lecture delivered at Cambridge last summer to the meeting of University Extension students, and printed by request. It makes out the best possible case for Macaulay as a historian. His “English History” is justified from the attacks made upon it, and the mistakes of the Essays are condoned on account of the circumstances of their production. In itself, the lecture is quite worthy of Prof. Jebb’s fame.

A Reading Book in Irish History. By P. W. Joyce. 220 pp. (Longmans.) Is. 6d. --An excellent and most interesting little work, written out of the wealth of a master of the subject. Delightful in itself both for children and for “the older persons whom Dr. Joyce rightly anticipates as among his readers, it will surely induce many to read the other works of the author to which he occasionally refers us. It consists of chapters on the earliest Irish history and of long extracts from some of the best Irish legends. It is illustrated with pictures of works of Irish art and contains chapters on old customs and old Irish music. We warmly recommend it to all our readers.

cælenterata ; but after a study of this well illustrated volume his views on these divisions of the animal kingdom should become clear and well ordered.

Botany: An Elementary Text for Schools. By L. H. Bailey. xiv. +355 pp.

Illustrated. (The Macmillan Company.) 65.-Judging from the number of botanical text-books recently published, the science of botany is being more widely taught : this is as it should be, for, provided instruction is properly given, there are few subjects of greater educational value. Prof. Bailey's last book is extremely good, and most probably will be used widely. The preface consists of "paragraphs for the teacher,” many of which are excellent. It is to be hoped that the instructor will follow them out. It may not be out of place to quote a few. The youth is by nature a generalist. He should not be forced to be a specialist .. The book should be a guide to the plant ; the plant should not be a guide to the book. Botany always should be taught by the laboratory method ; that is, the pupil should work out the subjects directly from the specimens themselves.” The amount of ground covered is somewhat large. Part I. deals with the "plant itself,” and enters into the principles of morphology, physiology, reproduc. tion ard biology. The second section considers the plant in relation to its environment, and discusses many interesting features of plant life, including variation and its results. Part III. describes the minute anatomy of plants. We notice that the old-fashioned collodion method of embedding is given. The use of xylol and paraffin is a more satisfactory way, and is to be recommended. Again, the use of safranin as a s'ain for lignified tissue gives excellent results when used in conjunction with haematoxylin. The author does not appear to advocate

The last portion of the work is occupied by clasifica. tion. The illustrations form one of the most prominent features of the book. There are over 500 figures, very many of which are from photographs and reach a high degree of excellence. The get-up of the volume leaves very little to be desired ; paper and print are both very good, and the binding is tastesul. The book is, however, rather weighty.

One Thousand Problems in Physics. By W. H. Snyder and I. O. Palmery. 142 pp. (Edward Arnold.) - This is a wellgraduated collection of questions suitable for secondary sehouls. The compilers are experienced American teachers, and are familiar with the requirements and limitations of boys and girls. The questions at the end of the book from the Admission Examination of Harvard College will prove particularly interesting as providing a means of comparison between British and American standards for undergraduates.

Miscellaneous. Winchester. By R. Townsend Warner. With 46 illustrations. (Bell's Public School Handbooks.) 35. 61. — There is more excuse for a Winchester handbook than there is for some of Beil's series, which do little more than boil down the researches of other writers. So many are the books on Winchester, so long and interesting its history, that the literary middleman is useful. And indeed, this book has a claim to exist for another reason. It is meant to be a faiihlul picture of Winchester as it is, and describes in great detail the lise of the present day; noreover, it gives information such as is likely to be useful to the parent who thinks of sending his son to the great school. The historical part is very briefly sketched, too briefly indeed ; for although a list of important dales and events is given, there is no list of headmasters. In spite of his many predecessors, however, Mr. Warner has found something new to print in the shape of several letters from the Verney MSS., which throw light on school life under the Stuarts. A description of school, “from a small commoner's point of view,” is also distinctly original. One other

Science and Technology. Text-Book of Zoology treated from a biological stand point. By Dr. Otto Schmeil. Translated from the German by R. Rosenstock, M.A., and edited by J. T. Cunningham, M.A. Part III.--Invertebrates. viii. + 186 pp. (A. & C. Black.) 35. 60.--Attention has already been directed in these columns, when noticing the previous parts of this text book, to the characters which distinguish this treatise on zoology. This third part, on invertebrate life, completes the work. The contents of this concluding section will take a less familiar aspect to the general reader. He has, as a rule, the vaguest notions of the nature of the arthropoda, mollusca, echinodermata, and

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