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ENTRAL REGISTRY FOR TEACHERS.

25, CRAVEN STREÁT, CHARING Cross, W.C.

(Telegraphic Address-"DIDASKALOS, LONDON.") Conducted by Miss LOUISA BROUGH, late Registrar of the Teachers' Guild, formerly Secretary of the Women's Education Union, Teachers' Training and Registration Society, &c.

Miss Brough supplies University Graduates, Trained and Certificated Teachers for Public High Schools and Private Schools, Visiting Teachers of Special Subjects, Kindergarten Mistresses, &c., as well as English and Foreign Governesses for Private Families.

No charge is made to employers until an engagement is effected.

CAMBRIDGE
HIGHER LOCAL

EXAMINATION.
By the Tutors of the University Examination Postal

Institution. Containing particulars as to books recommended for 1901 and 1902, and general suggestions for a method of study, and

statistical tables (not obtainable elsewhere).

COLOURED LANTERN SLIDES.

New Edition, 76 pages, ready in the course of February, obtainable, post free, by any Candidate by writing to the Manager of the Institution, Mr. E. S. WEYMOUTH, M.A., 27, Southampton Street, Strand, London, W.C.

NOW READY. More than 300 Map Slides, illustrating Elevation,

Climate, Industries, Means of Communication, &c. A COMPLETE ATLAS OF LANTERN SLIDES

FOR GEOGRAPHY TEACHING. Price 28. each, with discount of 10 per cent. on 12 or more.

Carriage extra. To be obtained from THE DIAGRAM COMPANY, 27, VICTORIA ROAD, CLAPHAM COMMON, S.W.

343 U.E.P.I. Candidates prepared successfully for this Examination during 1895-1900, of whom 62 gained distinction. At the latest Examination, December 1900, which is confined to Mathematics and Languages, of the three candidates who took distinction in German two were prepared by this Institution ; so also was one of the two who took distinction in French. Also in Mathematics, one of the two who took a first class was prepared by one of the Mathematical Tutors of the Institution.

Coloured Map and Diagram Slides of all kinds made for Lecturers and Teachers at moderate charges.

JOHN BALE, Sons & DANIELSSON, Ltd., Oxford House, 88-89, Great Titchfield Street, Oxford Street, W.

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EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH. (Illustrated.) 1: Pre-Historic

Greece. By F. E. THOMPSON, M.A. ... TYPICAL SCHOOL TIME-TABLES. Y: Cardiff Intermediate School for Boys SEASONAL NATURAL HISTORY. A Few Suggestions for Practical Work in Schools. By Prof. J. ARTHUR

THOMSON, M.A. ON YARIOUS METHODS IN THE TEACHING OF ARITHMETIC. By R. N. HAYGARTH, B. A THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH COMPOSITION. By M. P. WILLCOCKS PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN SCHOOLS. III: School Furniture and Routine. By C. E.

BADDELEY, M.D. COMMON EXAMINATION ERRORS. IY: French (Concluded). By CLOUDESLEY BRERETON, M.A. THE SIMPLIFICATION OF FRENCH SYNTAX. Alterations Approved by the Academy THE TEACHING OF HISTORY IN SCHOOLS. By W. M. CHILDS, M.A. PENSIONS FOR TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS CURRENT GEOGRAPHICAL TOPICS. The Physical Features of the Balkan Peninsula. By Dr. A. J. HER

BERTSON, F.R.G.S.

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UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN IRELAND

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ITEMS OF INTEREST. General; Scottish; Welsh ; Current History
RECENT HISTORICAL NOYELS
REYIEWS OF RECENT SCHOOL BOOKS
SCOTCH LEAYING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, 1901. Higher Grade Revision Test Papers
SCOTCH LEAYING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, 1901. Lower Grade Revision Test Papers
CORRESPONDENCE:

Mathematical Reform. By G. H. J. HURST, M.A.
Professor Armstrong and the Teaching of Science. By A. ABBOTT, M.A.
A Method of Teaching Greatest Common Measure. By H. H. HIGGS, B.Sc.
What is the Duty of an Assistant Master? By “H. J. H."
German Holiday Course at Kiel. By E. M. CUNNINGHAM
The Social Position of Assistant Masters. By “SCHOOLMASTER"

Rules of Rhyme, Rhythm and Metre. By FLORENCE E. M. J. REES
PRIZE COMPETITIONS. Nos. 13 and 14

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Messrs. LONGMANS & CO.'S LIST.

BY SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER, M.A., LL.D. A STUDENT'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO 1885. Vol. I. : B.C. 55-A.D. 1509. With 173 Illustrations, crown 8vo, 4s. Vol. II. : 1509–1689. With 96 Illustrations, crown 8vo, 4s.

Vol. III. : 1689–1885. With 109 Illustrations, crown 8vo, 4s.

COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME, with 378 Illustrations, crown 8vo, 12s. PREPARATORY QUESTIONS ON THE ABOYE. By R. SOMERVELL, M.A., Assistant Master at Harrow School. Crown 8vo, is.

A SCHOOL ATLAS OF ENGLISH HISTORY.

With 66 Maps and 22 Plans of Battles, &c. Fcap. 4to, 5s.

OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY, B.C. 55 TO A.D. 1895.

With 96 Woodcuts and Maps. F'cap. 8vo, 2s. 6d.

BY THE REV. D. MORRIS, B.A. A CLASS-BOOK HISTORY OF

OF ENGLAND. Designed for the use of Students preparing for the University Local Examinations,

the London University Matriculation, &c. With 4 Historical Maps, 20 Plans of Battles, and 30 other Illustrations. One Hundred and First Thousand. Fcap. 8vo, 3s. 6d.

BY BENJAMIN HALL KENNEDY, D.D.
THE REVISED LATIN PRIMER.

Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d.

THE SHORTER LATIN

PRIMER.

Crown 8vo, 1s. EXERCISES ON THE SHORTER LATIN PRIMER. By M. G. and J. E. KENNEDY and H. WILKINSON, M.A.

Crown 8vo, 1s. 6d.

A KEY, for the use of Masters only. 2s. 9d, net, post free. The Child's Latin Primer, or First Latin Les- The Public School Latin Primer. Edited with the

sons; with Questions and Model Exercises, adapted to the Principles sanction of the Head Masters of the Nine Public Schools included in of the Public School Latin Primer. 12mo, 2s,

Her Majesty's Commission. 12mo, 2s. 6d. The Child's Latin Accidence. Extracted from the

Subsidia Primaria, Steps to Latin; Companion Child's Latin Primer, and containing Declensions, Conjugations of

Exercise-Books, adapted to the Public School Latin Primer. By the Regular and Irregular Verbs, Particles, Numerals, Genders, Perfects

Editor of the Primer. and Supines, a Parsing Scheme, and a Brief Syntax-all that is neces.

Part I. Accidence and Simple Construction,

28. 6d. Part. II. Syntar, etc., 38. 6d. sary to lead Boys up to the Public School Latin Primer. 12mo, ls.

A KEY, for the use of Masters only, parts I. and II., 5s. 2d. post free. Second Latin Reading-Book; or, Palæstra Latina. Adapted to the Public School Latin Primer. 12mo, 58.

Subsidia Primaria, Part III. Manual of the Rules of The Public School Latin Grammar.

Crown 8vo,

Construction in the Latin-Compound Sentence: & SUPPLEMENT to

the Public School Latin Primer. 12mo, ls. 78. 6d. By ARTHUR SIDGWICK, M.A.

By LÉON CONTANSEAU, M.A. A First Greek Writer. Crown 8vo, 39. 60.

A Practical Dictionary of the French & English A KEY, for the use of Masters only. 58. 2 d. net, post free.

Languages. Post 8vo, 38, 6d. Introduction to Greek Prose Composition. With

A Pocket Dictionary of the French and English Exercises. Crown 8vo, 58.

Languages. Being a careful Abridgment of the Author's Prae. A KEY, for the use of Masters only. 58. 3d. net, post free.

tical French and English Dictionary," preserving all the most useful

features of the Original, condensed in a much smaller Volume. Square Scenes from Greek Plays. Rugby Edition, Abridged

18mo, ls. 6d. and Adapted for the use of Schools. Fcap. 8vo, ls. 6d. cach. Aristophanes.-The Clouds. The Frogs, The Knights. Plutus.

By A. A. SOMERVILLE, M.A. Euripides.-Iphigenia in Tauris. The Cyclops. Ion, Electra. A First French Writer. For the use of Lower and Alcestis. Bacchae. Hecuba, Medea.

Middle Forms of Schools. Crown 8vo, 38. 6d. An Introduction to Greek Yerse Composition.

By Rev. the Hon. E. LYTTELTON. By ARTHUR SIDGWICK, M.A., and F. D. MURICE, M.A. With Exer cises, Crown 8vo, 58.

Training of the Young in Laws of Sex. Fourth A KEY, for the use of Masters only. 38. 27d. nat, post free.

Impression. Crown 8vo, 2s.6d, net.

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., LONDON, NEW YORK, AND BOMBAY.

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is to make the pupil feel that the writers of the EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF RECENT past and those whom they describe were real men ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH. and women of like passions with ourselves, to

render their teaching more animated, more fruitful, By F. E. THOMPSON, M.A.

more humane, and by touches of nature to make

the ancient and the modern world kin. 1.-PRE-HISTORIC GREECE.

It is proposed first to sketch briefly some of the

most important and best established results of RCHAEOLOGY, during the last half-century,

recent archaeology as they affect the history of the has gone on from triumph to triumph, and

Greeks, the Romans and the Hebrews, and afteris pursuing unchecked its victorious career.

wards to suggest how these results may be used It has exhumed the long-lost civilisation of Meso

by teachers in our schools. potamia. It is re-writing the history of Egypt, which it claims to have traced back to a no longer

GREECE. mythical Menes. In Syria and Palestine it has made discoveries of surprising interest. In Asia 1.-PRE-HISTORIC GREECE.—When the Greeks Minor it is producing evidence which throws fresh awoke to a consciousness of their national existlight on the writings of the New Testament and ence, their poets and logographers attempted a the early developments of Christianity. It is un- reconstruction of their past history. There were remittingly pursuing its work in Italy and in the abundant materials for scientific research, had a provinces of the Roman empire. But nowhere true conception of scientific research then existed. have the results of archaeology appealed more Traditions had been handed on; old races still strikingly to the imagination than in the Aegean dwelt in the land; pre-historic monuments conislands and the adjacent mainlands. For there a fronted men's eyes. But Greek reconstruction of civilisation unknown to, or at the most dimly its past took, for the most part, the futile form of suspected by, the Greeks themselves, a civilisation “ fables and endless genealogies." of a high order, co-ordinate with, but independent The pioneer of Greek archaeology in its modern of, Egypt and Mesopotamia, a civilisation essen- phase was Heinrich Schliemann. Nobly enthusitially European in its possibilities, has re-emerged astic and intrepidly persevering, but insufficiently from the grave where it had lain buried for three equipped with classical training, he excavated in thousand years.

Ithaca (1868), Hissarlik (1870-1873) and Mycenae An attempt will be made in this and three (1876). He believed that he had discovered the following papers to show the bearing of recent very homes of the much-enduring divine Odysseus archaeological discovery upon the teaching of the classics and the Scriptures in our Schools. For let it not be supposed that archaeology, which deals with the material remains of the past, has little interest for the teacher of the languages, the literatures and the histories of the past. Material products are the surroundings in which we live and move and have our being; they are the work of men's minds, and in turn profoundly influence men's lives. The Parthenon and Olympian Zeus, the Cathedraland the Bon Dieu of Amiens, St. Peter's Fig. 1a.-Treasure from Aegina. Gold Cup, showing typical Mycenaean and the Sistine Madonna, are as representative

pattern of the returning spiral. (Brit. Mus.)

(From the Journal of the Hellenic Society.) of human ideals as the Homeric poems, the Attic tragedies, the Platonic dialogues, the Aeneid, and the divine swineherd, the very Ilios of Hector the Divina Commedia and the plays of Shake- and Andromache, the very body of the king of speare. The highest achievement of the teacher men, Agamemnon, interred in shameful haste after

No. 28, Vol. 3.]

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his most soul and most unnatural murder. What Museum, while for the whole period "Aegean" and Schliemann unearthed was interpreted by the “Levantine" have been tentatively employed. A trained judgment of Sir Charles Newton. few typical instances of discoveries must suffice.

On the eastern coast of Greece remains similar to those of Mycenae and its earlier neighbour, Tiryns, have been found from Thessaly to Laconia. In Boeotia, on the western shores of the now drained Copaic lake, a sepulchral vault, with designs showing, like the palace of Tiryns, a marked Egyptian influence, built presumably by the kings of “golden Orchomenos. On a rock in the lake itself, a palace and fortress, with massive walls like to the Argolid buildings in structure, but unlike in plan. In autochthonic Attica, vaulted tombs at Eleusis, Acharnae and elsewhere. At Athens itself, the “Cyclopean" or “Pelasgic ” wall, in parts nearly twenty feet thick, with the ascent and postern scaled and entered by the Persians, and a large chamber, possibly the Chalcotheke or store-house for bronzes. In Laconia, the tombs of the princes of Amy. clae and the magnificent golden cups of Vaphio, somewhat Assyrian in style.

Of the islands, from Euboea Fig. 1b.— Treasure from Aegina (view of Fig. 1a from beneath). Central Rosette and returning spiral. to Cyprus, Melos and Crete (From the Journal of the Hellenic Society.)

alone can be noticed. saw that the treasure-trove of Hissarlik and of the At Phylákopi, in Melos, three early settleCircle-Graves of Mycenae could not be identified ments have been exposed. The uppermost and with any known art. It was like and yet unlike latest is “Mycenaean;" below this a strongly fortithe art of the Homeric poems; there were Egyp- fied town of the bronze period; below again on tian, Mesopotamian, Phoenician affinities, but it was neither Egyptian, Mesopotamian, nor Phoenician.

Since then unremitting explorations in the Aegean islands and coastlands have demonstrated the correctness of Newton's interpretation. An independent and indigenous civilisation is shown to have existed for at least a thousand years before the coming of the Hellenic tribes from the north. But

Fig. 2.- Treasure from Aegina. Gold Rings; No. 2, the Boeotian shield, the form which afterwards in carrying back this civilisation to high

(From the Journal of the Hellenic Society.) antiquity new terms have been found necessary. the rock an unwalled village of the neolithic “ Mycenaean ” is seen to be strictly applicable age. only to its later developments; “Proto-Mycenaean" But the most important discoveries, both in or “Pre-Mycenaean” have been proposed for the quantity and value, are the most recent, those in earliest stages; Sub-Mycenaean” for a late sur- Crete," the promised land of the Greek archaeovival or afterglow represented by the Aegina or logist.” The size of this island, its legendary the Enkomi (Cyprus) treasures in the British

as mistress of the sea, its many races,

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