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is to make the pupil feel that the writers of the EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF RECENT past and those whom they describe were real men ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH. and women of like passions with ourselves, to
render their teaching more animated, more fruitful, By F. E. THOMPSON, M.A.
more humane, and by touches of nature to make
the ancient and the modern world kin. 1.-PRE-HISTORIC GREECE.
It is proposed first to sketch briefly some of the
most important and best established results of RCHAEOLOGY, during the last half-century,
recent archaeology as they affect the history of the has gone on from triumph to triumph, and
Greeks, the Romans and the Hebrews, and afteris pursuing unchecked its victorious career.
wards to suggest how these results may be used It has exhumed the long-lost civilisation of Meso
by teachers in our schools. potamia. It is re-writing the history of Egypt, which it claims to have traced back to a no longer
GREECE. mythical Menes. In Syria and Palestine it has made discoveries of surprising interest. In Asia 1.-PRE-HISTORIC GREECE.—When the Greeks Minor it is producing evidence which throws fresh awoke to a consciousness of their national existlight on the writings of the New Testament and ence, their poets and logographers attempted a the early developments of Christianity. It is un- reconstruction of their past history. There were remittingly pursuing its work in Italy and in the abundant materials for scientific research, had a provinces of the Roman empire. But nowhere true conception of scientific research then existed. have the results of archaeology appealed more Traditions had been handed on; old races still strikingly to the imagination than in the Aegean dwelt in the land; pre-historic monuments conislands and the adjacent mainlands. For there a fronted men's eyes. But Greek reconstruction of civilisation unknown to, or at the most dimly its past took, for the most part, the futile form of suspected by, the Greeks themselves, a civilisation “ fables and endless genealogies." of a high order, co-ordinate with, but independent The pioneer of Greek archaeology in its modern of, Egypt and Mesopotamia, a civilisation essen- phase was Heinrich Schliemann. Nobly enthusitially European in its possibilities, has re-emerged astic and intrepidly persevering, but insufficiently from the grave where it had lain buried for three equipped with classical training, he excavated in thousand years.
Ithaca (1868), Hissarlik (1870-1873) and Mycenae An attempt will be made in this and three (1876). He believed that he had discovered the following papers to show the bearing of recent very homes of the much-enduring divine Odysseus archaeological discovery upon the teaching of the classics and the Scriptures in our Schools. For let it not be supposed that archaeology, which deals with the material remains of the past, has little interest for the teacher of the languages, the literatures and the histories of the past. Material products are the surroundings in which we live and move and have our being; they are the work of men's minds, and in turn profoundly influence men's lives. The Parthenon and Olympian Zeus, the Cathedraland the Bon Dieu of Amiens, St. Peter's Fig. 1a.-Treasure from Aegina. Gold Cup, showing typical Mycenaean and the Sistine Madonna, are as representative
pattern of the returning spiral. (Brit. Mus.)
(From the Journal of the Hellenic Society.) of human ideals as the Homeric poems, the Attic tragedies, the Platonic dialogues, the Aeneid, and the divine swineherd, the very Ilios of Hector the Divina Commedia and the plays of Shake- and Andromache, the very body of the king of speare. The highest achievement of the teacher men, Agamemnon, interred in shameful haste after
No. 28, Vol. 3.]
his most soul and most unnatural murder. What Museum, while for the whole period "Aegean" and Schliemann unearthed was interpreted by the “Levantine" have been tentatively employed. A trained judgment of Sir Charles Newton. few typical instances of discoveries must suffice.
On the eastern coast of Greece remains similar to those of Mycenae and its earlier neighbour, Tiryns, have been found from Thessaly to Laconia. In Boeotia, on the western shores of the now drained Copaic lake, a sepulchral vault, with designs showing, like the palace of Tiryns, a marked Egyptian influence, built presumably by the kings of “golden Orchomenos. On a rock in the lake itself, a palace and fortress, with massive walls like to the Argolid buildings in structure, but unlike in plan. In autochthonic Attica, vaulted tombs at Eleusis, Acharnae and elsewhere. At Athens itself, the “Cyclopean" or “Pelasgic ” wall, in parts nearly twenty feet thick, with the ascent and postern scaled and entered by the Persians, and a large chamber, possibly the Chalcotheke or store-house for bronzes. In Laconia, the tombs of the princes of Amy. clae and the magnificent golden cups of Vaphio, somewhat Assyrian in style.
Of the islands, from Euboea Fig. 1b.— Treasure from Aegina (view of Fig. 1a from beneath). Central Rosette and returning spiral. to Cyprus, Melos and Crete (From the Journal of the Hellenic Society.)
alone can be noticed. saw that the treasure-trove of Hissarlik and of the At Phylákopi, in Melos, three early settleCircle-Graves of Mycenae could not be identified ments have been exposed. The uppermost and with any known art. It was like and yet unlike latest is “Mycenaean;" below this a strongly fortithe art of the Homeric poems; there were Egyp- fied town of the bronze period; below again on tian, Mesopotamian, Phoenician affinities, but it was neither Egyptian, Mesopotamian, nor Phoenician.
Since then unremitting explorations in the Aegean islands and coastlands have demonstrated the correctness of Newton's interpretation. An independent and indigenous civilisation is shown to have existed for at least a thousand years before the coming of the Hellenic tribes from the north. But
Fig. 2.- Treasure from Aegina. Gold Rings; No. 2, the Boeotian shield, the form which afterwards in carrying back this civilisation to high
(From the Journal of the Hellenic Society.) antiquity new terms have been found necessary. the rock an unwalled village of the neolithic “ Mycenaean ” is seen to be strictly applicable age. only to its later developments; “Proto-Mycenaean" But the most important discoveries, both in or “Pre-Mycenaean” have been proposed for the quantity and value, are the most recent, those in earliest stages; Sub-Mycenaean” for a late sur- Crete," the promised land of the Greek archaeovival or afterglow represented by the Aegina or logist.” The size of this island, its legendary the Enkomi (Cyprus) treasures in the British
as mistress of the sea, its many races,