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is as if two travellers starting one east, the other west, should the second and the third “Religious War” in France. Somemeet the other side of the world. They are in the same spot, what weak in motive, the story abounds in stirring incidents, but how differently they regard it, by what different ways have and gives a true notion of the wiseries from which Elizabeth they reached it !

and the Channel saved England. Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of

Navarre, her son, afterwards Henry IV., and de la Mothe It has been suggested that the Queen should shortly pro

Fénélon are among the characters. The book appears to be a claim herself Empress, not only in India, as she is at present,

sequel to the author's “ For the Religion," and deals with the but of the whole Empire. That gives us another idea of

same subject as his recently published book, “A King's Pawn.” Empire than that of Dante's and Lord Rosebery's. This sug.

(3) Mary E. WILKINS. “The Heart's Highway." Subgestion implicitly delines Empire on the modern territorial idea,

title : “A Romance of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century.” that which inspired Francis II. when he called himself Emperor

(308 pp. ; front.] of Austria, which was burlesqued in the Emperor of Hayti

,

(John Murray.)— The central point of the

story is a kind of Virginian anticipation of the better-known which is assumed when we translate Czar by Emperor. But

“Boston Tea-Party”—the article destroyed being not imported we called attention to the suggestion in order to emphasise the

tea but native-grown tobacco. It illustrates the discontent existimportance of one or two recent items of news. What kind of

ing in the American colonies nearly a century before the Stamp Empress would the Queen be in a dominion where such events

Act, and also colonial attitude towards the King-Parliament as these are possible : (a) “ Negotiations have been completed

controversies of the time. Atmosphere better than story: Why between the Imperial and Canadian Governments for the

does Miss Wilkins forget the names of the places in the story, establishment in Canada of a branch of the Royal Mint to coin

and why does she make Jamestown the capital of Virginia six Canadian and British currency"; (6). “Mr. Chamberlain has

years after Bacon burned it down? finally refused to give any pledge to withdraw the four addi

(4) AMELIA BARR. Trinity Bells.” [278 pp. ; 16 ill. ] tional nominated members of the Legislative Council appointed

(Fisher Unwin.)--A bright story dealing with New York about last year ; a serious political agitation for the restoration of

one hundred years ago. It originally ran through St. Nicholas the former régime is now anticipated ” ; (c) “The Premier of

Magazine (which is as good as a page of eulogy), and the illusWestern Australia has informed Mr. Chamberlain that that

trations are excellent. The principal character is a young girl colony does not intend to reduce her Governor's salary.”

of Dutch descent whose father has fallen into the hands of the Governors are appointed in England ; some colonies are pro

pirates of Algiers. posing to reduce their Governors’ salaries.

(5) GILBERT Parker. “The Lane that had no Turning.” [313 pp. ; front.] (Heinemann.)-Mr. Parker's latest and, if he does not repent his threat, last book of stories about French

Canada. Among the points illustrated are the great authority RECENT HISTORICAL NOVELS. of the clergy, the curious blend of reverence and criticism in the

attitude of the habitant towards the seigneur, and the difficulty of This month's batch of historical tales differs from the last in reconciling the nationality of blood and speech with the nationconsisting mainly in books intended for adult readers; but none ality of an “alien” flag. Mr. Parker's sketches of the people are absolutely unsuitable for young people. No. (4) was ex

of Pontiac are worth bluebooksful of statistics. pressly written for children. Nos. (5), (6) and (8) would pro- (6) Ellen Glasgow. “The Voice of the People.” [444 pp. ] bably seem rather uninteresting to the young; the remainder are (Heinemann.)- A story of modern Virginia by a Virginian who suitable to any age, though not equally pleasing to all tastes.

knows and loves her native state well, and who has the power The two novels dealing with Virginia past and present-(3) and of describing it so as to make the reader share her pride in the (6)—are marked by high literary merit. Miss Glasgow's book, Old Dominion. She draws us negroes, “white trash,” and in particular, is as good a novel as one could wish, and a great gentle folk of various kinds, in a way which we feel must be deal better than one generally comes across. The last four “true.” Her hero is a poor white who works himself up till books on our list are not “historical" at all in the usual sense he is chosen governor of the state. The story begins soon of the word ; they are, however, pictures of bits of contemporary “after the war,” and the scene is mainly Kingsborough (Willocal life, viewed from within, which might well serve to "give liamsburg ?). The book may especially be commended to those verisimilitude to the otherwise bald and unconvincing narratives” who imagine that all Americans are “Yankees,” and that the contained in our geographical text-books. We should especially United States possess “no ruins and no curiosities." like to commend the general preface to the “Overseas Library” (7) William Bulfin. “Tales of the Pampas.” [248 pp.) -in which No. (7) appears—to the notice of all teachers. All (Fisher Unwin.)-Spirited stories of cattle, and sheep-keeping the books are published at six shillings except No. 2 (3/6) life on the Argentine Pampas. Many of the characters are and No. 7 (1/6).

Irishmen. The social and climatic conditions of the estancia (1) S. R. CrockeIT. “Joan of the Sword Hand.” [393 pp. ; and the “camp” are well depicted. A teacher about to give a 16 ill.] (Ward Lock.)—This book, which seems to be a kind lesson on Argentina would pick up much “colour" from these of sequel to “Red Axe," deals with the South Baltic lands tales in a pleasant way. during the pontificate of Pope Sixtus IV. (1471-1484), who (8) JULIA CROTTIE. “ Neighbours.” [307 pp.) (Fisher appears as a character (drawn to the life) towards the end of the Unwin.)-Sketches rather than stories of modern Irish life in volume. Viewed simply as a rapid succession of vivid tableaux “Innisdoyle,” which is represented as a typical country town in it is capital ; regarded as historical pabulum it is rank pasture. Munster. They are not so powerful as Mr. Morrison's “ Tales Mr. Crockett's physical and political geography is puzzling and of Mean Streets,” but they are just as depressing and probably anachronistic to a degree which seems quite unnecessary. But just as one-sided. It is difficult to believe that Munster folk any reader who, after enjoying the story, has his interest aroused are almost invariably superstitious, revengeful, consumptive, in the real history of the Baltic lands towards the end of the sordid, shistless, dishonest, insolvent and drunken. Most of fifteenth century will certainly find his reward.

the details may be "true,” but they seem hardly varied enough, (2) HAMILTON DRUMMOND. “A Man of his Age.” [319 | hardly full enough of spirituality, to make up a complete picture pp. ; 4 ill.] (Ward Lock.)-Scene, mainly the kingdom of of what may fairly be called Munster life. Are not the Irish in Navarre during the year 1568, in the critical interval between Mr. Bulfin's “Pampas Tales” more truly Irish ?

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25.

not previously been edited for schools. They are well told, but RECENT SCHOOL BOOKS.

rather sombre; the first and second end with the death of the Modern Languages.

principal character ; in the third we have the half humorous,

half pathetic figure of a schoolmaster who in the end loses his Foundations of French. Arranged for Beginners in Prepara

only son. The book is well got up. tory Schools and Colleges by F. D. Aldrich, A.B., and I. L. Foster, A.M. xv. + 177 pp. (Edward Arnold.)–From Selections in Prose and Verse from German Authors of the the preface we learn that “a large part of our American youth Day. Selected by Dr. A. Weiss. Two parts, 56 pp. and do not begin the study of French until the later years of a high- 64 pp. (Hachette.) Is. each.-A convenient selection for school or preparatory course, and a considerable number not practice in unseen translation. The passages are taken from until the freshman year in college or scientisic school.” And many authors, and are of moderate difficulty. There is about later on : “ This book has been prepared with the needs of one verse passage to five in prose. The text is well printed, these maturer students constantly in mind.” We are therefore according to the revised spelling. prepared for a clear and concise summary of the essentials of grammar, and (as the main object of such students is to gain a

Classics. reading knowledge” of the language, again according to the

Xenophon's Anabasis. Book 1. By E. C. Marchant, M.A. preface), above all, an attempt to provide a suitable vocabulary.

121+xxxi. pp. (Bell.) 15. 6d.—The well-known “Illustrated We rub our eyes as we examine the book; the rules are to the

Classics” series now includes Greek authors, of whose works front, and are not particularly well expressed, and there are

this is the first instalment. The Greek text is well printed, the numberless detached sentences for translation into French,

illustrations include several landscapes as well as reproductions many of which are of the well-known kind. A few infelicitous

of ancient sculptures and paintings, and there are exercises and inventions may be quoted : “He has watches and some few

an appendix on syntax rules. Mr. Marchant disclaims all hats---He is in the habit of lying to me, but I do not hate

“trace of erudition," but his scholarship has availed to produce him-I am willing to go to eat my breakfast, but it rains-All

a very useful edition, which should even prove an interesting countries are not so small as England—The days are longer in introduction to Xenophon such as most of us, when schoolboys, summer in England than one would believe." It is refreshing

emphatically did not have. to come across such a book; but what a sad waste of

Bell's Illustrated Classical Series grows apace. We have energy!

received Selections from Cicero, by J. F. Charles, B.A., Colloquial French. By L. Meunier. xliii. +ili pp. (Philip,

107 +xxxvi. pp. ; Fables of Phaedrus, a selection by R. H. Son, and Nephew.) - Whatever may be the advantages of

Chambers, M.A., 96+ liii. pp. ; Stories of Great Men, from this book, they are outweighed by the serious objection that

Romulus to Scipio Africanus Minor, by F. Conway, M.A., much of the type is far too small. It is false economy; and no

95+ xlvii. pp.; Horace, Odes, Book III., by H. Latter, M.A., teacher with any regard for the children committed to his care

107 + lix. pp. ; and Vergil, Aeneid, Book VI., by J. T. Phillipwould let them use the book. Teachers may derive some

son, M.A., 112+ xliii. pp. (Bell.) Is. 6d. each.--It will be advantage from a perusal of it ; but they must be warned against

sufficient to say that these volumes quite keep up

useful the section on the pronunciation (which is also published sepa

features of this series, in which there is now something to suit rately), for it is evidently not based on a scientific study of the

all stages in the early growth of the future Latin scholar. The phonetics of French. The method is, with slight modifications,

illustrations range from simple outlined pictures to reproductions that known as the “ grammar and translation method,” with

from photographs of scenes in which the events of the text are detached sentences.

laid, and the notes are all that could be desired to elucidate the Exercises on the French Irregular Verbs. By M. Guichard, grammar and subject-matter of the authors. B.-és-L. vi. + 75 pp. (Longmans.) Is. 60.– The author has had the happy idea of writing a number of short stories,

Sallust. Catiline. By W. C. Summers, M.A. xl. + 120 pp. each containing the parts of some one irregular verb which are

(Cambridge University Press.) 25.—This edition has been likely to give difficulty. This he has done with much skill, and

prepared specially “for passmen and private students,” but the result is a little volume which can be recommended without

will be found none the less useful for school use. It contains reserve, especially as he has not added a vocabulary. It will

much valuable matter in the introduction on Sallust, the march be useful to any teacher, whatever his method may be.

of events which led up to, and the progress of, the conspiracy,

together with a sketch of the Roman Constitution. The text Macmillan's German Idioms. Prepared and translated by mainly follows that of Jordan, though the editor sometimes finds Myra Taker. viii. + 268 pp. (Macmillan.) 35. 6d.—A very occasion to differ from it, differences for which he gives his useful book for purposes of reference. German words and reasons, and perhaps the best feature of the notes is the discusphrases are given in alphabetical order, and an idiomatic sion of MS. readings and variations. There is a very full English rendering is supplied in a parallel column. Miss

index of ten pages. Taker has done her work very conscientiously. It seems a pity that the plan adopted in the companion volume for French (by

The First Epistle of S. Peter (Greek Text). By the Rev. J. H. Mme. Plan) was not adopted here also ; explanations in

B. Masterman, M.A. X. + 190 pp. (Macmillan.) 35. 6d. net. German would have made it a very helpful book for the New

-The Principal of the Midland Clergy College intends this Method teacher. It would have been well to add the name

book “ for candidates for Deacon's orders as a useful introducof the author from whose works the passages quoted are

tion to larger and more detailed commentaries.” It may, how. taken.

ever, be treated here as likely to be serviceable in the hands

of the master, for a Greek Testament class. The introduction Krieg und Frieden. Tales selected and edited by Dr. W. contains discussions of date, place and circumstances of writing, Bernhardt. ix. + 120 pp. (Edward Arnold.)-This little and also particularly useful chapters on the language of the volume contains three stories: Mutterliebe, by E. Frommel ; writer in its relation to that of other books in the New TestaDer Sohn der Pussta, by“Villamaria ;" and Publius, by ment. The “Paraphrase " which follows is hardly necessary H. Hoffmann. The editor has supplied short biographies and in addition to the text of the Revised Version, nor is it very good notes. The stories themselves are new to us, and have successful. The earlier portion of the commentary (where an

the very

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editor has the advantage of using Dr. Hort's Commentary-a and contains all that is essential in the larger work. In debt acknowledged by Mr. Masterman) seems to us better than addition it is served by a most elaborate index which is in itself the latter. The notes throw light on words and usages of New a masterpiece. Testament Greek, though that on Odbolos (p. 167), and

The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians. By Rev. G. W. Additional Note C (pp. 179-180) do not convey a very con

Garrod. 163 pp. (Macmillan.) 25. 6d. -Mr. Garrod has vincing impression. There is somewhat too much poetical

already dealt with no inconsiderable portion of the epistolary quotation, and we have noticed a few misprints. But the editor

matter of the New Testament upon exactly the same plan he has on the whole produced here a stimulating edition of an

uses in this volume, which is of the same excellence for teaching epistle which contains very difficult passages.

purposes as his foregoing volumes. There is every indication of Edited Books.

learning and temperate judgment in his pages ; and his appendix Woodstock, by Sir Walter Scott. Edited by H. Corstorphine.

of passages deserving special attention will commend itself to 224 pp. (A. & C. Black.) 15.—This volume is a little more many students. Altogether, a most helpful guide and a clearly attractive than some others in this series, for which we have

conceived teaching method which will be appreciated wherever

it is known. found no praise to spare. As a reading book intended to make schoolboys take an intelligent interest in Sir Walter Scott, it will

The Book of Daniel (Cambridge Bible). Edited by Prof. probably be found serviceable ; but the editor and the edition of

Driver. 214 pp. (Pitt Press.)-We have waited long for this Scott as an author for schools have yet to be discovered. The

book, but it has come at last ; and the wonder is how so much introduction to this volume is really very well done. The notes

can have been compressed into so little space. It is truly are terse and not very full ; and we question whether the state

a marvellous edition ; broad and thoughtful in conception ; ment that “priest is a doublet of presbyter” will not need even

accurate, learned, and yet literary and readable in a very high more explanation than it affords. Some of the mythological

degree. The introduction fills almost half the space at com. allusions also are very scantily dealt with ; but a great many mand, and in it every point of interest in the study of this proexplanations of obsolete military phrases will be found very found and obscure Book receives illumination and critical interesting

discussion. The historical portion is brilliant ; the question Carlyle's Essay on Burns. Edited by J. Downie. 116 of authorship and date is treated with professorial fulness; and

; (Blackwood.) 25. 6d.-This is a small book at a high figure ; the section on apolyptic literature contains much that is new and but the work of editing it has been so well and conscientiously suggestive. The notes on the obscure visions and prophecies in done that it is worth more than the price charged. It is chapters vii. and ix. of Daniel do not tempt Prof. Driver into the first attempt to make a schoolbook out of a very remarkable

anything but a display of real critical scholarship, and a wide-eyed criticism, and is almost deserving of the name of a brilliant

comparison of many conflicting theories about them; and in a performance. The introduction and notes are masterly.

manual for students this is undoubtedly the best and wisest lyle was heroic; Burns was magnetic”; an editor with such

The volume will undoubtedly enhance the reputation powers of criticism and expression as are found here is capable

of the well-known series of commentaries in which it takes of even better things.

high rank; and those steady-going people who do not want to The Animal Story-Book Reader. -Edited by Andrew Lang.

be dogmatically certain about every point that is obscure to the

greatest intellects, and yields very little result to the most 174 pp. (Longmans.) Is. 4d.-In literature Mr. Andrew Lang is ubiquitous, and he is now to be found asking for

patient scholarship, will read Prof. Driver's notes and comments admission to the school forms of juveniles. In his own way he

with a feeling of positive gladness in their reasonable and is always striking ; in the present instance he has achieved

temperate tone, and rise from the study of this work with greatness. A most admirable children's book, very finely

knowledge greatly enlarged, and convictions subjected to no

undue strain by positive statements which not even an archillustrated.

angel could verify. The index is tolerably complete, and Arnold's Continuous Story Readers. Grades I. to IV. 105, includes a section devoted entirely to Hebrew expressions ; also 127, 189, 223 pp. Prices, iod., 15., Is. 2d., 1s. 4d. respectively. a list of the archaisms in the Authorised Version which will be This is a very good idea very well carried out and pretty certain interesting to students of English literature. to achieve popularity. The style, printing and illustrations are excellent.

History, Cowper's Expostulation. 61 pp. (Macmillan.) Is. - This Rome : its Rise and Fall. A Text-Book for High Schools and is a small edition of a very little known work, but it is well and

Colleges. By Philip van Ness Myers, L.H.D. (Boston : Ginn.) ably done.

55. 6d. —This seems to us a very good book : accurate in detail,

just in the general survey of national tendencies and moveHelps to the Study of Lyra Heroica. By E. Ruse.

127 pp.

ments, written in an easy and clear style. It shows inde(Macmillan.) Is. 6d. Also, Notes and Elucidations to Henley's Lyra Heroica. By W. W. Greg and L. C. Cornford. 80 pp.

pendent study of the authorities, a mastery of the most recent

literature of the subject, and steers clear of many small errors (David Nutt.) 15.-Speaking strictly for ourselves, we never

which schoolbooks are apt to show. For a schoolbook, indeed, found Mr. Henley's glorious anthology greatly in need of

the history seems to be well adapted. In particular, the earlier professorial illumination ; but to those who are in the schoolboy

constitutional history, which is very hard for a child to under. and student stages these two booklets may possibly prove very

stand, is treated with simplicity ; too much is not attempted, helpful. They represent considerable and accurate scholarship,

and the pupil may fairly be expected to learn it all. Thus the and exhibit much enthusiasm, and are the evident result of

account of the Twelve Tables is quite interesting. There are great painstaking in the rather uninviting fields of scholarly

about a hundred illustrations and maps ; the latter sufficient for research.

their purpose, the former well chosen and full of interest. The Shakespeare's Life and Work. By Sidney Lee. 232 pp. value of such aids to learning is still too little appreciated, and (Smith, Elder & Co.) 25. 60.This is not the monumental life

we welcome their presence here. It would be useful, however, of Shakespeare which has earned for Mr. Lee so high a place in

for the teacher, and could do no harm to the child, if the contemporary scholarship, but an abbreviation of the same per

source of these pictures were always indicated, and especially fectly adapted to the needs of students. It is splendidly done,

any English books, such as Anderson's “Atlas of Antiquities,”

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where they are reproduced. Another good point in the book is its scope. The history does not stop short at the battle of Actium, as though the empire were not in some respects the most important period in Roman history; it is carried down to the fall of the empire, and thus in one brief volume the whole story of Rome is contained. The empire takes up nearly half the book, and it is necessarily treated in brief; but attention is concentrated on important things, so that the march of events is clearly discernible. Among the causes of Rome's fall one most important cause seems to be omitted, the universal corruption of officials. This, as Mr. Dill has brought out, always accompanies the decay of empires, when they do decay. Chapters on architecture, literature, law and philosophy complete the volume. There are chronological and statistical tables here and there, and each chapter is followed by a list of useful references for further study. Mr. Myers is judicious, though perhaps he is a trifle too sceptical in the early legends, and not sceptical enough in the story of the sack of Rome by the Gauls. We have only to add that the explanations of pontifex given in text and note to p. 34 should be transposed, and that there is a vexatious misprint on p. 28, “devorere" for devovere.

authorities, and treating in an introductory way the interesting story of Europe in the nineteenth century. Comparing this with the second edition, we find that some of the slight defects which were then visible have been removed, and those which still remain do not seriously detract from the value of this excellent manual.

Europe in the Days of Nelson ; or, England and Europe (1789-1815). By T. J. Walker.

107 pp. (Gill.) Is. 6d. - Mr. Walker's book, though small, is a very good history. We are particularly struck with the unusual clearness of his exposition. Even those who have no previous knowledge of the subject will, we imagine, have no difficulty in understanding even the complications of international relations during the period of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Specially good are the sections on the commercial war which consisted of Berlin and Milan decrees, Orders in Council, &c. The book contains besides nine clear, coloured maps which supply the necessary geography.

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Source-Book of English History. By Elizabeth K. Kendall, M.A. xxii. + 483 pp. (New York : The Macmillan Company.) 35. 60.-Our American cousins are busily treading in the footsteps of our English historians, and are editing “sourcebooks,” or selections of contemporary documents illustrative of national history. They are doing more ; they are leading in the adaptation of such work for junior students. Some months ago we welcomed a selection of documents illustrative of American history edited by Professor Hart, of Harvard, and now Miss Kendall sends us something that is useful for our own purposes. It is good--of course it is good. All such publications must needs be so. All that the reviewer can do is to indicate the particular kind of goodness. The selections begin with Tacitus on the Britons and Germans, and end with a quotation from the Spectator of 1898. The former half of the book brings us down to the “Restoration," and consists of quotations from mediæval chroniclers, from political poems, diarists and historians. The latter half draws on newspapers, parliamentary debates, and a great variety of contemporary

The documents in foreign languages are given in translations; those in older English are modernised to the capacity of school children. “ Authorities” and their study divides itself as a subject into two parts. The advanced student reads the documents in extenso, selects, or rather collects, all that can possibly be of service, and bases there. upon his conclusions, whether to be published or For beginners (and “beginning" is in this case a long process) the documents must be used as illustrations only. In other words, the reasoned results of research must be taught first, even if they take the form of the “driest " history, and selections from the authorities may then be introduced, such selections being carefully made and still more carefully edited. It is for these reasons that we welcome heartily and recommend strongly such books as Miss Kendall's. No teacher should lose an hour in procuring this book, and at least reading to his class the quotations which refer to the period they may happen to be studying.

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Mathematics. A Treatise on Geometrical Optics. By R. A. Herman, M.A. x. + 344 pp. (Cambridge University Press.) 10.—This is a very useful and by no means superfluous companion to the treatises of Heath and Pendlebury. With the help of a theorem

а due to Helmholtz, Mr. Herman deduces the properties of a symmetrical system from the consideration of the divergence of small periods. This method is very instructive, and will probably seem to most readers more elementary than Gauss's analytical treatment. In the chapters on the characteristic function due reference is made to the work of Clerk-Maxwell, Larmor and Sampson ; and the chapter on distortion is more complete than is usual in works of this kind. It is hardly necessary to add that the author's analysis is both exact and elegant, so far as his subject admits of these qualities.

The Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus. By J. W. A. Young and C. E. Lineburger. xviii. + 410 pp. (Hirschfeld Bros.) 1os. 6.1.---This is based upon the “Kurzgefasstes Lehrbuch ” of Nernst and Schönfliess, and it is interesting to find that in each case one of the collaborating authors is a professor of chemistry. The result is that we have a proper development of graphical methods, and an unusually large number of applications drawn from theoretical dynamics, physics and physical chemistry. Although the work is of considerable length, it is strictly elementary: the authors have refrained from discussing the peculiarly subtle difficulties which beset the subject, and have at the same time succeeded in avoiding the suggestion of false conclusions. A working knowledge of the calculus is becoming more and more necessary to the student of physical science, and a book of this kind, so attractively presenting the essentials of what he ought to know, deserves a warm welcome. The volume is a very favourable specimen of American typography.

A Treatise on Elementary Dynamics. By H. A. Roberts, M.A. xii. + 258 pp. (Macmillan.) 45. 6d.- This is a work of quite exceptional value and interest, because, while it is intended for junior students, the first principles of the subject are presented in the form which has commended itself to the latest authorities, more particularly Mach. It will thus form a very useful introduction to Professor Love's more advanced treatise. Mr. Roberts's preliminary chapters on kinematics are exceedingly good, and very properly include the elements of vector analysis. The examples, both worked and unworked, have been carefully selected. The treatise may be warmly recommended as marking a distinct advance towards the logical presentation of this difficult subject in a form which is not too abstruse for beginners.

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A Century of Continental History (1780-1880). By J. H. Rose. x. + 408 pp. (Stanford.) 6s.-A book which has reached its fourth edition, as Mr. Rose's has done, scarcely Deeds commendation from us. He has been for years an extension lecturer under the Cambridge scheme, and, we gather, has written his book originally for his audiences. It is a book admirably adapted for its purpose, based on a study of the best

No. 25, Vol. 3.]

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The Principles of Mechanics. By F. Slate. Part I. xii. + 300 pp. (The Macmillan Company.) 7s. 6d.—This is another work which shows the growing appreciation of the modified view of the principles of dynamics which is due to Kirchhoff, Mach and others. It is best adapted, perhaps, for university students who attend lectures on the subject ; such readers will probably find it both helpful and stimulating. The use of elementary calculus is, of course, to be approved ; but the treatment, generally, is rather unnecessarily analytical, and there is a lack of numerical examples which is certainly to be regretted.

Inductive Geometry for Transition Classes. By H. A. Nesbitt, M.A. viii. + 92 pp. (Swan Sonnenschein.)

Is. 6d. - This is an elementary course of geometrical drawing which really does seem likely to develop the pupil's powers of observation and resource, and to make him familiar with the first notions of geometry. It is a pity that parallel rulers are re. commended : set squares are the proper instruments, and the use of them ought to have been fully explained.

Monthly Progress Tests. Scheme B, Part III. By R. F. Macdonald. 48 pp. (Macmillan.) 3d.--Questions in arithmetic of a very monotonous type, eighty per cent. or so dealing with the compound rules for money. The papers are designed to cover the work of three terms, and are said to be graded : we have entirely failed to see evidence of this. It is earnestly to be hoped that there are not many schools where the whole school year in arithmetic is spent on such questions as, “What money is 47 times £2 Is. 10 d. ?” or “Find the total value of 10 sovereigns, i crown, i florin, 17 sixpences, 12 threepenny pieces, 12 penny and 6 three-halfpenny stamps.” The last, by-the-bye, is for the last month of the third term. A rather serious proportion of the questions are disfigured by ambiguity or clumsiness of expression.

Botanical Tables for the Use of Junior Students. By Arabella B. Buckley. New edition. (Stanford.) 15.60.-The use of tables is frequently of value in teaching, provided, of course, they are properly used, and not abused in the process known as “cramming.” This danger, it is pleasurable to note, has been guarded against by the author, for she heads the first table with a few remarks which the teacher will do well to note. For example, " Definitions are given of all technical terms, which may be learnt after they have been explained and illustrated by the teacher.” And again, “In describing a plant each pupil should have a specimen ." The first table deals with morphological definitions, the majority of which are both clear and correct. There are certain points, however, which need improvement. For instance, the two following definitions might be mentioned :—"Threadlike leaves, stipules, or petioles are called tendrils," "ovules are formed of a nucleus surrounded by an inner coat or secundine, and outer coat or primine." Then again there are a few omissions ; it would have been well to have pointed out the different kinds of bulbs, and to have included a definition of “saprophyte ” to accompany those given of parasites and epiphytes. The second table deals with classification, several parts of which are open to objection ; for example, the Phanerogams are divided into dicotyledons or exogens and monocotyledons or endogens; the use of the archaic terms endogens and exogens results in the placing of the Coniferæ among the dicotyledons, which is anything but their correct position. Besides these two terms, others such as acotyledons, acrogens and thallogens are utilised, notwithstanding the fact that they are seldom or never used by modern botanists. The description of several of the families of the Cryptogamia leaves a great deal to be desired.

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Miscellaneous.

Science and Technology. Handbook of Practical Botany. By Dr. E. Strasburger. Translated and edited from the German, with many additional notes, by W. Hillhouse, M.A., F.L.S. Fifth edition. xxxii. + 519 pp. (Swan Sonnenschein.) 1os. 6d.—This work is the fifth English edition of Prof. Strasburger's well-known manual, “ Das Botanische Praktikum,” and although the translation has been practically rewritten throughout, full use, we are informed in the preface, has been made of the third edition of Strasburger's work. This handbook is so well known that a detailed review is hardly called for. Without doubt it is one of the most complete and satisfactory practical works on anatomy and histology for the use of botanists extant. Not only is the volume admirably suited for the use of advanced classes of students, but also for those who, from desire or circumstances, work at the subject without the aid of a teacher. Starting with descriptions of a few different microscopes and the making of the simplest preparations, the work increases in difficulty until the last chapter is reached, which, dealing with cell and nuclear division, is certainly the most arduous work, both as regards observation and technique, that a botanist is called upon to perform. A large amount of information is given concerning the different stains and reagents used, but we do not notice any mention made of azoblue, which is one of the best reagents for the demonstration of callus. Types of the principal groups of plants are described ; as a whole, very little fault is to be found with their selection. We do not, however, consider that Marchantia is a good type to take as a representative of the liverworts, on account of its highly modified reproductive organs. If it were considered desirable to retain this plant, then it would have been well to have added an alternative simpler one, as for example Pellia.

The Secondary School System of Germany. By Frederick E. Bolton, M.S., Ph.D. xix. +398 pp. (Edward Arnold.) 65.Professor Bolton gives, in convenient compass, a very readable account of the essential characteristics of German secondary education. The treatment is not of the detailed kind to which we called attention in reviewing Dr. Russell's book on the same subject last year.

The writer's point of view is throughout distinctly American. All comparisons instituted are between the schools and teachers of America and Germany, so that in some respects the volume is scarcely suitable for British readers. As a fair estimate of the relative advantages of German and American methods in education, we can heartily recommend Prof. Bolton's little book. Some sections of the volume form peculiarly suitable reading for the English assistant-master, so much exercised as he is just now with salary grievances. It would, indeed, be worth while for a member of the A.M.A. to bring besore the next meeting of the Association a carefully prepared comparison between the amount of preliminary training required from German schoolmasters and the salaries they can earn with similar data as far as they affect English schoolmasters. The results, unless we are much mistaken, would prove very surpris. ing. A great deal of information as to German methods of presenting various school subjects to the classes of secondary schools can be gleaned from Prof. Bolton's pages. considerably impressed with the small amount of laboratory work the author found is done by the German boy during his school training in science; in this case, at all events, we manage these things better in England. Here is one of the author's examples :-“In the lessons on the Marchantia . .. the diagrams were profuse, fine wax models were numerous, and the teacher's explanations lucid, concise and scientific, but the majority of the class were not within twenty feet of the models,

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