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come forearmed to the fray, and except from weari- are wrongly numbered, which does not improve ness or carelessness, against which there is no the examiner's stock of good-will; the French protection, except previous training, will not make words given are spelt wrong. A different answer the blunder. Perhaps it might, therefore, be to that required is given, some children going so worth while for those teachers, who are in favour far as to attempt to turn masculine nouns into of having their pupils examined as far as pos- feminine adjectives, under the idea that feminine sible in accordance with the fashion in which they adjectives are required, or—and this is not an isoare taught, to approach such bodies as the Oxford

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ise--they essay to conjugate a noun as if it and Cambridge Syndicates, and obtain from them were a verb, which reminds one of the old “iceconsent to setting alternative papers wholly in cream, thou screamest, &c.” More venial and French for those being taught on the lines of the more common are the failings of those candi. méthode directe. It would, of course, be at once dates who set down the meaning or the gender argued that there would be a danger in setting up when asked for the plural. But the most fruitful two standards in French for the same examina- source of error lies in the giving the wrong persons tion. But examiners are probably gifted with a and tenses--not to mention such work of supererosufficient quantum of common sense to be pre- gation as laboriously writing out the whole tense sumed capable of approximating the papers in when but one person is desired. French tenses, difficulty, and surely the problem cannot be any- it must be admitted, are often badly named, but thing like so arduous as to equalise the standards this only renders it incumbent on the teacher, in in the papers of two such disparate subjects as the first case, to be certain that moods and tenses Spanish and Shorthand.

do not bother the senses of his pupils. As things The present discussion must therefore perforce are, at least one pupil in every ten confuses the be mainly confined to mistakes which occur in the passé défini with the passé indéfini ; while that someclassical and orthodox method of teaching, and what rare tense, the passé antérieur, is sometimes though the new reform has left in abeyance many incorrectly given by one in four, and even less. A well-worn scholastic “ nuces et cruces,” there is still still more serious fault that comes under this the whole language to draw on, so that in fact rubric is that of about three or four per cent. of the the supplies of error are practically inexhaustible. candidates who neglect to read the directions placed Qui embrasse trop, étreint mal, and criticism will at the head of the alternative portions of the paper, therefore be chiefly confined to examinations for with the result that they do part of one section pupils between the ages of twelve and fifteen; and and part of another. The examiner can only even here, again, one must pick and choose. correct the two fragments, leaving it to Vehmgericht Anyone who has been a teacher knows that to at headquarters to decide which piece shall count compile anything approaching to a complete list in the pupil's marks, the first attempted or that of even typical mistakes would be to annotate the which obtains the highest marks; but in most whole grammar and write a big-sized composition cases the candidate loses a substantial balance book into the bargain. One can say there is not a of marks that he sometimes can ill afford to lose. word in any grammar over which a teacher of The second rule is equally simple and equally experience has not found some pupil or other important-“Always read over what you have “bogle.” In vain grammarians laudably strive written.” To begin with, its observance would to hedge in the road to knowledge with rules; the probably have prevented two evidently sorely disteacher, however good a drover he is, knows his tracted children in a recent examination putting flock are always liable to find a gap somewhere, Algebra at the top of the French paper. Its most or make one, if there is not; and therefore, to essential value is that it saves a vast amount of teachers preparing for examinations, the first spelling mistakes not only in English, in which counsel is, mark the places in your grammars the penalties are either very limited or null, but in where you have noticed that your flock have French, when they naturally all score. In some previously shown tendencies to go astray; score of the boys' papers a year ago in one of the big with double lines those passages where veritable public examinations, the number of these “extras stampedes into error have occurred, for the triste which might have been saved, to use a cricketing lupus mania is not confined to the classics, and we metaphor, was really exasperating. Many candihave all had experience at times of forms afflicted dates of the scamp-and-scamper type had clearly with grammatical dementia. Take the pupils, if taken the paper at full speed, with the result that

, necessary, over and over again through these till at times a third and even half the words were there is no fear of a panic, and, better still, when misspelt, either from ignorance or carelessness. taking them over for the first time, use all your Reading over their paper would not only have pastoral skill to prevent them going wrong, for saved a large percentage of ma ks to the candi. first impressions are all-important.

dates, but, what is still more important, it would For the pupils themselves, there are two general have prevented a goodly number from being directions which are so simple that they are far ploughed. One could not help feeling sorry at too often widely neglected (experto crede). The first the time for the masters of those boys who, is (we all know it by heart) to read the questions if they had only set down properly what they over carefully. It is astounding to see the knew, would not have brought disgrace on their number of marks lost (more especially by boys) teachers. Phonetically educated children have through disregard of this simple rule. Questions also special need of employing this means of

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precaution. Another form of mistake that read- would be only to imprint it on the boy's mind. ing over would correct is that which, by a sort The teacher can pitch on the form he considers of process of mental inversion, leads the exami- best, either giving the English and its French nee to write down the French word instead of equivalent, as he is a poet il est poète," or, if he the English in the translation paper, and in a wishes to avoid English, hitting on an antithesis if large examination cases always occur in the possible, as il est poète, mais c'est un poète. The grammar paper in which the pupil sets down the deadly sins ” thus accorded the honour of the English instead of the French. A similar form of affiche" should not exceed four or five a week. error that would benefit from the same revision is Festina lente must be the teacher's motto. These that of the child who is unable to keep the various should then be consigned to the boy's notebook on languages he is learning in water-tight compart- a page specially reserved for these “ literary felo. ments, with the result that he sometimes lapses nies,” or copied into the blank page at the end of into German, and still more often into Latin, his grammar if he has no notebook. Those who especially in cases where the French and Latin can draw may be encouraged to produce fancy are more or less alike. The examiner who, in a cards (designs subject to the master's censorship) French paper for a classical school, asks for the for inscribing on them the sentences of the penal French equivalent of “3,000 men,” is sure to gather code whose shibboleth is “thou shalt,” and not in a certain amount of “ tres " mille hommes or “thou shalt not. Other ways of engraving the homines. Venit for vint is also likely to crop up contents of these phylacteries on the memory of pretty frequently. But the most common spelling the boys is to invent some small memoria technica. mistakes of all are those which resemble one Take, for instance, the feminine of grec and turc. another in form, but are not identical in the two As a teacher, I could never be certain that my languages. Thus not a few candidates will write form would not give me away in the first public " novelle" for “nouvelle,” while words, like mariage, examination they entered for, till I hit on the inappartement, adresse, and the numerous verbal traps nocent “tag” that there was sea about which end in ant or ance in one language and ent Greece than Turkey. Henceforth the mere pleaand ence in the other are sure to cause the downfall sure of recalling this diminutive jokelet was of the careless equally well as the arrantly careless sufficient to safeguard 90 per cent. of the class -two types of delinquents which may be roughly against an unusually inveterate error. defined as those who sometimes deviate into error, The sex of arbre and fleur, two of the commonest and those who sometimes deviate into correctness. words in French, is always being outraged by the

small boy; but if he belongs to a Latin school and High cultivation implies keeping the land very knows his gender rhymes—which he generally clean, and every teacher knows that sound scho- does, if he knows anything,-he is acquainted with larship or even knowledge implies the eradication the gender of flos and arbor. Tell him the genders of a good number of mistakes of the commoner are reversed in French, and the tag, though not sort, and the teacher who will not condescend to perfect, will be found a help. If the teacher does do a proper amount of “weeding" in his form not make the tale of punishable errors mount up because he looks on it as mere drudgery is sure to too fast, and if he will not shrink from putting into it be punished by the crop of blunders his pupils will the commonest mistakes, just those things that any produce when the examination harvest is gathered schoolboy might be reasonably expected to know, in. The veriest tiro begins by learning that à les he will reduce by a very appreciable amount the is a monstrosity, but it is not unknown in the number of marks thrown away in examinations by work of pupils who have been doing French for a his class for no other reason than for that want of year or two, especially if they have not been exer- thoroughness which it is the teacher's function to cised conversationally. Every duffer knows, when develop he is hauled up and made to think, that ayant, and But it is not enough to stamp out the worst not avant, is the present participle of avoir, and yet offences by punitive means; it is also essential it is a certain "booby trap" with a form of any. to take precautions against other “ general" misde. thing like average size. Misrenderings in such meanours of the class. I use the word "general ” common everyday phrases as “in England,” on purpose, because anyone who has taught or “ come and see," “ what a noise," "a tea-cup,” examined will readily admit that there is a regular “ what sort of weather is it ? ” “to pay for a hat,” curve of error which enables one after a time to &c., &c., or confusion between ou and ou, quoi que single out and specify the generic mistakes. To and quoique, and the different meanings of bien or safeguard against these, teachers may start, in adtout, will in some schools, especially when French dition to the register for more serious crimes which has not the prestige it deserves, go on turning up might be called the Index Expurgatorius on the lucus day after day in class till the teacher fancies he is a non lucendo principle, a second list of more venial ploughing the sands. We cannot demand for offences, as they come across them, and make the boys infallibility, but we have a right to establish class take them down in the note-books, or at least a low standard of attention and attentiveness and underscore them in their grammars. These will, punish all who fall below the minimum. The best of course, tend to become numerous, but teachers way to eradicate these tares of idleness is to put can easily adopt some system of classification. up on the blackboard the corrected form of these Those who believe in learning phrases and not mistakes; to set the mistake itself on the board words will incase the particular difficulty in a

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A MODERN-LANGUAGE MASTER'S coated, it is easier to swallow and better to digest; others who hold to inter-translation will give the

LIBRARY OF FRENCH AND GERMAN. English alongside of its French equivalent. One

By OTTO SIEPMANN. plan might be to list these memoranda under the

Assistant Master, Clifton College. following different headings :

(1) List of words with same meaning in English NY specialist in modern foreign languages is, and French, but spelt differently as resentment and of course, aware that it is well nigh imposressentiment.

sible to embody in a short article even the (2) List of words in the two languages which most important works with which a thoroughly resemble but do no translate one another, as pre- competent teacher of French and German should parations (ordinary meaning) and préparation; or a be acquainted. It would of necessity embrace not more general, and therefore better, heading might only a list of books treating of the many departbe lists of English words liable to be mistranslated ments belonging to the living language, but also into French, as expectation, which must be rendered many of those which bear upon the historical and by attente.

philological side of the subject ; for no modern(3) List of words in French more or less alike language master can be regarded as properly in appearance but differing in meaning, as somme equipped for his task unless he has made himself (nap) and soin me (sum).

thoroughly familiar with the vernacular he pro(4) List of words alike in sound but spelt diffe

fesses to teach, with the great masterpieces of rently, as pain and pin.

literature to the appreciation of which his teach(5) List of synonyms.

ing is to pave the way, and with the main features (6) List of pairs of words which, having but one of historical development which enables him to meaning in English, can be confused in French, make his pupils understand many apparent anoas nombre and numéro. Here phrases are very

malies and difficulties in the modern tongue, and, essential.

moreover, gives him the means of developing a (7) List of idiomatic expressions, such as par jour real sense for grammatical forms and for the (a day), or regular phrases like il l'a échappée belle, essence of language and linguistic growth. the latter to be grouped under words where pos

The time has not come in this country when an sible. Thus, j'ai beau dire, when it turned up, adequate number of Englishmen are thus fitted out, would be entered alongside the former; and other for otherwise the present article would be unsub-divisions may be made.

necessary; and until it does come it may be well (8) List of proverbs.

to use every available means of attracting good (9) List of verbs that take (a) no preposition, scholars from Germany and France and to endea(6) or de, (c) or à, (d) or other preposition.

vour to keep as many of them as

are found (10) List of adjectives which take a proposition;

efficient. To delegate to them part of the imin three classes, those with à, those with de, and portant work which the nation has a right to those with others.

demand from modern-language teachers will be as (11) List of expressions made up of verbs and wise a policy as it is short-sighted and foolish to substantives without the article, as rendre justice. raise at the present time a clamour against the

(12) List of grammatical difficulties given, if employment of foreign teachers. The argument possible, in antithesis, i.e., the plural of clou is that Germany and France appoint natives only is clous, but of chou is choux (or in French words). entirely fallacious, because those countries possess (13) Words of irregular pronunciation, as spahis. a sufficient number of their own subjects who are

equipped in the manner described to supply the But whatever system is adopted, there will have

demand ; moreover, teachers in Germany and to be a lot of downright hard learning by heart.

France are members of the Civil Service, to which Grammar is only the framework of the language, foreigners, of course, cannot be admitted. If the more or less empty cadres. Those who wish

Oxford and Cambridge men, and Frenchmen of to possess it must have a big vocabulary. The

culture who have made a special study of their old grammarians were right when they tried to

respective languages, could be appointed as exhaust the list of exceptions. The mischief modern-language masters in German secondary comes in when the beginner is at once confronted

schools, and could be attracted to accept posiwith all these irregularities. They should there

tions in them, there can be no doubt that many fore be collected by the pupil himself out of the

of them would be found an acquisition which reading-book, and not “dug out” of grammars. could not fail to raise the standard of modern In this way the boy will do his own botanising in

languages in German schools still higher than it the language, and form a verbal “herbarium

is already. And the same would, of course, apply which, though incomplete, will be far more real to

to France and other countries. him than the most exhaustive of grammars, which This digression from the real point at issue in too often remind one of those pretentious botanical

this article will help to clear the ground on which collections which, instead of being confined to the

I propose to operate at the invitation of the flora of the school district, are choked up with editors. It is not for the small number of acspecimens of the plants of every possible clime.

complished teachers of modern languages who (To be continued.)

have been prepared at Cambridge or elsewhere,

AND

but to the numerous men and women who, though (Köthen, 1893, 25. 6d.); P. Passy, • Sons du they have studied mainly other subjects, yet are Français,” 5th ed. (Paris, 1899, s. 3d.); “ Fran

“ desirous of taking up modern language work with çais parlé," by the same (2.); Beyer, “ Franzö. a view of teaching French and German in the sische Phonetik” (Köthen, 1893, 3s.); Vietor, near future, that this article may serve as a guide.

" Elemente der Phonetik des Deutschen, Eng. It may be assumed that the tyro to whom I propose

lischen und Französischen," 3r.l. ed. (Leipzig, to give some help is not entirely unacquainted with 1894, about 5s.); Trautmann, * Die Sprachlaute these languages, but that he is ignorant of the books im allgemeinen und die Lau's des Englischen which will best serve his purpose. I take it also Französischen und Deutsch" im besondern for granted that he cannot afford to take regular (Leipzig, 1884-1886, about 55., ; Sievers, "Grundlessons with a competent teacher or spend a züge der Phonetik," 4. A:.11. (Leipzig, 1893) ; couple of years abroad. For the sake of con- Klinghardt, “ Artikulatio:15-und Hörüb: ingen venience it may be advisable to take one language (1897, about 5s. 6d.). There is also an e: cellent after the other, and it is, perhaps, not out of place article written in German by Paul Passy in vol. i. to say at once that a stay in France and Germany of the “ Phonetische Studien on the sounds of in the holidays will be essential, because the French. Finally, attention may be directed to the efficiency of a modern-language teacher will be con- experimental phonetics of Abbé Rousselot. Anyone siderably enhanced by familiarity with the country, who has become acquainted with the works menthe institutions, manners and customs of the people

tioned will need no further guidance. A useful whose language he is going to teach.

bibliography will be found in Breymann's “ Pho. To begin, then, with French. I should first netische Literatur" (1876-1895, München, 1897), of all recommend the study of French pronun- a small volume costing about 2s.). ciation, which can be best pursued by a scientific The number of Modern French Grammars study of the sounds which a Frenchman utters for students published in England is not great, with such astounding facility and unfailing accu- but some of the School Grammars will serve racy, but which are a stumbling-block to foreigners a young master perhaps just as well. Among if they do not proceed in the right way to acquire them I should call special attention to “Pelthem. Even twenty years' residence in France LISSIER's French Accidence

SYNTAXdoes not necessarily convey a proper appreciation (Longmans, 3s. 6d. each); especially the latter of the peculiarities of French sounds, if the student will be found a careful piece of work suitable for follows for this part of his task the pernicious and English teachers. The “ Student's French Gramfallacious rule that a good pronunciation can be mar," by Charles Heron Wall (6s.) deserves to be "picked up” by a short stay abroad. This rule more generally known than it is. Eve and Bauholds good only if it is applied to young chil- diss' "Wellington College French Grammar" (45.) dren, whose faculty of imitation is extraordinary. is a well-known book of a more elementary kind. Grown-up people can learn how to pronounce not

Of grammars written in French there are hunby mere imitation, but by a careful study of dreds which are useful, but none, as far as I know, phonetics.

that are excellent; however, Clédat's “ GRAMTake Prof. Vietor's “ Kleine Phonetik," which MAIRE RaisonNÉE,” 5th ed. (Paris, 1896, about Prof. Rippmann has excellently adapted and 35.) is a book apart which should be read. Protranslated (" ELEMENTS OF PHONETICS," Dent and ceeding at once to works on historical French Co., 2s.6d.), and join the Association phonétique, grammar, there is foremost in my mind Arsène which publishes its monthly organ, “Le Maître Darmesteter's “ Cours de Grammaire Historique PHONÉTIQUE," under the able direction of Dr. de la Langue Françaisé," of which we have now an Paul Passy (20, Rue de la Madeleine, Bourg-la- authorised English edition by A. Hartog (London, Reine, Seine). This publication is admirably 1899, 12s. 6d.). “Schwan-Behrens” is excellent, suited for beginners, and with a few hours' help but more advanced (price 5s. 6d.). Several books

. from a competent teacher the student will derive on more elementary lines have recently appeared in the greatest benefit from it. The annual sub- English which deserve mention. Those known to scription as membre adhérent is 3 f. 50 per annum,

me are: “ Historical Primer of French Phonetics which includes the supply of the “ Maître Phoné- and Inflection," by Margaret S. Brittain (Oxford, tique" appearing on the 15th of each month, 1900, about 2s. 6d.), which is intended to serve except during the summer holidays.

as a historical primer, introductory to BrachetHaving once become familiar with the elements Toynbee :

Toynbee : “ Historical Grammar of the French of phonetics, and being imbued with the import | Language” (Oxford, 1896, 75. 6d.). A. T. Baker's ance of the study of phonetics for the acquisition

• Outlines of French Historical Grammar” (Lonand appreciation of a good pronunciation, as well don, 1899, 3s.) is a most useful little book for as for the purposes of teaching it, the student beginners, and E. Weekley's “Primer of Historical may wish for more, and in that case he should

French Grammar" (London, 1900, about 2/-)

, take up the following works':--Beyer-Passy, contains a very good outline with an additional "Elementarbuch des gesprochenen Französisch" chapter on metre.

Of French publications on this subject Brunot's 1 I have quoted in this article the editions of books on my own shelves,

“ Précis de Grammaire Historique" (Paris, 1894, and have given the prices as nearly as I can from memory. In some cases about 5s.), and Clédat's “ Nouvelle Grammaire there may be more recent editions, though I think that I have the latest of the most important works.

Historique” (Paris, 1889, about 35.) will not be 35. 3d.).

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found wanting. A teacher studying any one of these Merlet, Revues et Continuées par Eugène Lin. works will wish at the same time to familiarise tilhac,” 2 vols. (Paris, 1894, 35. 3d. each). himself with some specimens of the old language. For the nineteenth century “ LE MOUVEMENT

Though I cherish an old love for the “Chresto- LITTÉRAIRE AU xixe Siècle," by Georges Pelmathie de l'ancien Français,” by Karl Bartsch, LISSIER, is indispensable ; 2nd ed. (Paris, 1890, which was twenty or thirty years ago almost the only trustworthy work, and is still to be warmly As a general history of French literature recommended, I fancy that a young English Gustave Lanson's “ Histoire de la LITTÉRAteacher would prefer the “ Chrestomathie de TURE Française," 4th edition (Paris, 1896, about l'ancien Français” (ix.-xv. siècles), by L. Con 6s.) will probably be most useful. At the same time, stans (Paris, 1890, about 6s.), or Toynbee's “ Spe- BRUNÉTIÈRE's MANUEL DE L'HISTOIRE DE LA cimens of Old French” (Clarendon Press, 16s.). LITTÉRATURE FRANÇAISE " cannot be too highly Anyone inclined to take up Provençal cannot, 'I recommended (Paris, 1898, about 6s.). To those think, do better than take up Bartsch's “ Chresto. who prefer a brief account written in English, “A mathie Provençal accompagnée d'une Grammaire Short History of French Literature," by Kastnerand et d'un Glossaire,” 4th ed. (Elberfeld, 1880, about Atkins (London, 1900), about 4s., may be recom55.), though there may be now other and more mended. Brunetière's “ Etudes Critiques," 5 vols., elementary books on the subject with which I am 35. 3d. each, "L'Evolution des Genres," I vol., not acquainted.

3s. 3d., “ Le Roman Naturaliste,” i vol., 35. 3d., Among works treating of the various periods of and L'Evolution de la poésie lyrique en France the language and literature, nothing better can be au xixe Siècle," 2 vols. at 35. 3d. each, along with found for the middle ages than “ LA LITTÉRATURE Jules Lemaître's “ Les Contemporains," half-aFRANÇAISE Au Moyen Age (xi.- xiv. siècle), and dozen vols., at 3s. 3d. each; further, Edmond ed. (Paris, 1890, 35. 3d.), and “La Poésie du Scherer's “Études sur la Littérature ContempoMOYEN AGE," par Gaston, (Paris, 2nd ed. Paris, raine," in 9 vols. at 3s. 3d. each (Paris, 1889), and 1887), and for the sixteenth century than Dar- Emile Faguet's “ XIXe siècle," are works which MESTETER-Hatzfeld's “Le Seizième SIÈCLE no student of modern French literature can pass EN FRANCE, Tableau de la littérature et de la by. I have made no mention of editions of the langue suivi de morceaux en prose et en great masterpieces, and there is hardly any need choisis dans les principaux écrivains de cette to do so, because Brunetière's “ Manuel" gives in époque,” 4th ed. (Paris, 1889, about 6s.). Along its “ Sources," I think, well nigh all that a teacher with it may be recommended Brachet's “ Mor

may want. However, I may mention for the ceaux choisis du xvie siècle accompagnés d'une oldest documents “LES PLUS ANCIENS MONUgrammaire et d'un dictionnaire de la langue du MENTS DE LA Langue Française (with a facsimile) xvie siècle, 3rd ed. (Paris, 1875, about 3s.).

BY E. KoscHWITZ (Heilbronn, 1886, about is. 6d.), For the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries “ Die Ältesten Französischen Sprachdenkthe best guides are to be found in two German mäler, genauer

Abdruck und Bibliographie works: F. Lotheisen, “ Geschichte der Fran- besorgt," von. E. Stengel (Marburg, 1888, about zösischen Literatur im xvii. Jahrhundert,” and 28.), or “Altfranzösisches Übungsbuch," von Hettner, “ Die Französische Literatur des xviii. W. Foerster and E. Koschwitz, Part I., 35. Jahrhunderts.” However, these would be too Also Gaston Paris' edition of “ La vie de Saint voluminous for a novice; to him I should recom- Alexis,” about 2s.; “ ExTRAITS DE LA CHANSON DE mend a manual like Ploetz, “ Manuel de la Roland, publiés avec une introduction littéraire, Littérature Française,” which contains the lives des observations grammaticales, des Notes et un of the great authors, an appreciation of their Glossaire Complet,” par Gaston, Paris, 4th ediworks and good specimens of the seventeenth tion (Paris, 1893, about is. 6d.); Léon Gautièr's to nineteenth centuries; there is also an edition “ Chanson de Roland,” texte critique, traduction in which the lives are in English. A similar work et commentaire, grammaire et glossaire, 19th ed. is “ SelecT SPECIMENS OF THE GREAT FRENCH (Tours, ilgos, about 4s.), should be mentioned on WRITERS IN THE 17TH, 18TH, AND 19TH CEN- account of its modern French translation facing TURIES," with literary appreciations by the most the old French text, otherwise Kölbing's edition, eminent French critics, edited by Eugène Fas- which is an exact copy of the Venetian MS., iv. nacht (London, 1894, 75. 6d.). There are (Heilbronn, 1877); and Foerster's editions in the number of very good books of this type published Altfranzösische Bibliothek,” 15 vols. (Reisland, in France, of which I should mention Demogeot, Leipzig), also the publications of the Société des

, Textes Classiques de la Littérature Française, anciens textes, are more scholarly. A neat little 2 vols. ; vol. i. “Moyen Age, sixteenth and seven- edition of “ AUCASSIN ET Nicolette," mit Parateenth centuries ; vol. ii., eighteenth and nineteenth digmen und Glossar, by H. SuCHIER, 4th edition centuries (Paris, 1886, 25. 6d. each), and “ Etudes (Paderborn, 1899, 2s. 6d.), may be of special inteLittéraires sur les Classiques Français de Gustave rest to English readers.

For Prosody Spencer's “Primer of French The greater works of Diez, “ Grammatik der Romanischen Sprachen," Verse" (Cambridge, 1899, about 5s.), along with of which there is a French translation, with his “ Wörterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen," and Meyer Lübke's new great work, of which there is

Berthon's “ Specimens of Modern French Verse" also a French edition in 3 vols. (about fi each), belong to the sphere of the (London, 1899, 25. 6d.), and Tobler's 6. Vom specialist, but will be found invaluable by teachers who wish to pursue their

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