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be marked in every word they say, for here is a company. Bardolph, for whom
feel shrewd piece of national appreciation by the best sympathy begotten of that thought of his master, qualified of all Englishmen. Bates is of a fine “Would I were with him, wheresome'er he is, bull-dog courage and devotion. Though he admits either in heaven or hell;" Nym, who at least had
we have no great cause to desire the approach of ten times more valour than Pistol; were hung : day," he stoutly maintains, as regards the responsi- the Boy, a lively, likeable young rascal, had his bility of the King, “I do not desire he should throat cut with the rest of the lackeys: Hostess answer for me; and yet I determine to fight Quickly, blundering, kindly, disreputable Quickly, lustily for him." Williams uses the prerogative dies in hospital. Only Pistol survives. It may be of the average Englishman to grumble. The noted, in passing, that Shakespeare has called for King had said he would not be ransomed "to make our interest in the Boy, and shown him going us fight cheerfully; but when our throats are cut | lightly and unsuspecting to his fate, to make us he may be ransomed, and we ne'er the wiser." understand the sudden fury which prompted the He has thought seriously of his situation. “I am murder of all the French prisoners. afeard there are few die well that die in a battle; There are still two scenes which call for comfor how can they charitably dispose of anything ment
and Henry's when blood is their argument ?" But he readily wooing. The dangerous plot against the King's yields up his opinion to what appears to him sound | life, on the eve of so perilous an enterprise, reasoning. After the disguised king's remonstrance heightens our interest in him, especially when we he concedes, “ 'Tis certain, every man that dies ill, see his magnanimity in pardoning the man who the ill is upon his own head, the king is not to had railed on him, and find him, in his execution answer it." Fluellen's character, apart from the of the conspirators, simply retorting their own humours of it, finds its key notes in a couple of cruel counsel upon themselves. Henry V. crushes sayings: “ It is the greatest admiration in the conspiracy so ihat it never revives, because he universal world, when the true and aunchient acted openly, honourably, and with a high hand. prerogatises and laws of the wars is not kept," His father found conspiracy a many-headed hydra, and, “I need not be ashamed of your Majesty, which could never be slain, because his courses praised be God, so long as your Majesty is an were subtle, secret and deceitful. In the wooing honest man.” Pistol and Nym and Bardolph, for scene the King, as Dr. Johnson has observed, has the main purpose of the play, represent the evil “neither the vivacity of Hal nor the grandeur of scum which is inevitably to be found in every Henry." But Shakespeare chose the lower tone army, and serve to bring out the stern justice and with full deliberation. " To have heightened the discipline of the King.
tone and made Henry a Romeo, or, on the other The trio of Falstaff's followers, however, are not hand, to have made the scene wildly mirthful, and only to be regarded as typical specimens of the army the king a Hal, would have been to distract the which invaded France, they must also be considered attention of the audience from the main interest of as seriously typical of the peculiar society in which the play, and confuse the simple lines of Henry's the young prince had moved, and as Shake. character. The view of Henry which the poet speare's caricatures of contemporary manners. wished to leave with them was that of the soldierPistol is an example of the hangers-on of the Rose, king. It was not to be confounded with any other the Swan, and the Curtain, who snapped up the presentation of him rivalling this in interest." bombast of extravagant tragedies; Nym is a type The conclusion of the piece, as I have said, may of the swaggering tavern haunters, who thought to be taken as prophetic rather than historical. Was grace their conversation with the inanities of it mere coincidence that Shakespeare put the current slang. Shakespeare had announced his in- prayer for union between the two kingdoms, so tention, in the epilogue to Part II. of“ Henry IV., soon falsified by events, in the mouth of the of making the comic interest of Henry V. centre hateful Isabeau of Bavaria ? round Falstaff. Fortunately, he afterwards saw There are, of course, many excellent editions that it would be cruel to expect the old man to of the play. Professor Moore-Smith's, in the make mirth any more.
The result was the won- Warwick Series, has a valuable literary as well derful pathos of Falstaft's death, told by a coarse, as grammatical and historical commentary. The ignorant, disreputable, but still womanly woman. main points of the story and characterisation are Dame Quickly—one of the most wonderful of well brought out in Mr. Quiller-Couch's “ HisShakespeare's creations in low life is full of torical Tales from Shakespeare.” But the best Christian charity. She makes no doubt that the commentary on a play is the stage. No one who old knight is in “ Arthur's bosom.” She resents has the opportunity should miss to see Mr. the suggestion that he “cried out on women," and Benson's representation. when overborne by testimony, explains that his expressions were “rheumatic," and only applied to
One hearty laugh together will bring enemies into closer the Babylonian woman. That Shakespeare holds
communion of heart than hours spent on both sides in inward Henry entirely right in the conduct which killed
wrestling with the mental demon of uncharitable feeling. To Falstaff's heart only makes the pathos more
wrestle with a bad feeling only pins our attention on it, and sincere. Probably it is with genuine intention keeps it still fastened in the mind : whereas, if we act as it from that Shakespeare leaves Pistol alone surviving--- some better feeling, the old bad feeling soon folds ils tent like Pistol, the least deserving of all that unsavoury an Arab and silently steals away.-William James.
a more or
Infectious Disease. PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE
By the term “infectious disease” is meant every IN SCHOOLS.
abnormal condition of an individual which is
capable of being reproduced with similar By C E. BADDELEY, M.D. (Lond.)
symptoms in another susceptible individual by
association or other means. This definition will I.
include the diseases popularly known as “conY bringing together a number of young and tagious," and also a number of other conditions susceptible individuals within
which until recently have not generally been less confined space, schools afford a fertile regarded as infectious, such as consumption field for the spread of various forms of disease, and pneumonia. The communication of these especially those which are popularly known as
diseases seems to demand the transference of some infectious in character.
material particle from the diseased to the healthy, As education is by law compulsory in this and in many this is known to be the case, but in country, the great majority of children have to others so subtle is the nature of the infective particle attend school in some form, and a moral obligation
that its detection has not been yet effected; but is thus thrown upon school managers, as far as may
even in these there is good reason to believe that lie in their power, to safeguard the health of the this want of knowledge is due rather to cur children attending their school.
defective powers of observation than to the especially to communicable or infectious disease, absence of an infectious particle. It is only since, should a child contract a disease of this within comparatively recent years that the innature at school, it not infrequently happens that fective organisms, which are now known to be it communicates the disease to the other members the cause of a number of different diseases, have of the family, thus entailing much expense and
been discovered, yet so successful has been the hardship on the parents.
study of bacteriology that already a great deal is The Public Elementary Schools are under the known of their life history, and it is only reasonsupervision of the Board of Education, which to able to suppose that this knowledge will rapidly a certain extent prescribes to the Board of
extend. Management the construction, sanitary arrange
The value of this knowledge of the life history ments, and other details for each school, as well as of infective organisms, from the point of view of the maximum number of scholars to be accom
prevention of the spread of disease, is very great. modated, curriculum, times of attendance, &c. The specific nature of the diseases themselves Private schools are under no such supervision,
has been long recognised, and now the specific but this in no way lessens the responsibility of characters of the organisms which are the cause the proprietors.
of disease are becoming recognisable, and the The object of these articles is not to describe peculiarities of the life history of a specific large and elaborate sanitary and hygienic con
pathogenic organism are often found to explain structural details, which, however important to peculiarities in the propagation and incidence of the health of the school population, are quite out of
the specific disease which it causes, which were reach of many school managers, but rather to indi formerly shrouded in mystery. Although it may cate some comparatively simple precautions which, not be strictly capable of proof, it may be perif intelligently used, are of the utmost value in pre- missible to assume that for each specific disease venting the spread of these diseases. To make there is a specific infective organism. As to the full use of these precautions a clear understanding origin of these infective organisms it would be of the essential nature of the various infectious unprofitable to speculate here; it is sufficient to diseases and their modes of propagation is
state that most of the evidence points to their necessary. Even in the most perfectly con
being derived from antecedent cases of specific structed and carefully managed school, there is disease, and that there is very little of their being the constant risk of cases of infectious disease derived from organisms hitherto innocuous. Inbeing introduced, the more so when, as is
fectious disease, therefore, depending upon the generally the case, a proportion of the scholars
introduction of an infective organism from without, attend daily; and the prompt recognition of such is theoretically preventable. a case, and its removal from the school, is the only way of preventing the spread of the
INFECTIVE ORGANISMS. disease.
Definite recognition of the nature of the disease Many of the organisms which are known to be in its early stage is often exceedingly difficult even the cause of disease belong to the great family for an expert, but there are many obvious Fission Fungi, or bacteria. This family belongs to symptoms which are sufficiently suspicious to the vegetable kingdom, and its members are the justify a schoolmaster, who desires to keep his lowest form of organised life known to science. school free from disease, in excluding a scholar Bacteria are all minute unicellular bodies, consisting exhibiting any of them from school until a of a minute particle of the substance known as definite diagnosis of the nature of the case can protoplasm, and containing within smaller be made.
condensed part called the nucleus. They are so
minute that very many thousands can be con- or vegetable matter. They are then said to have veyed on the point of an ordinary needle, and their a saprophytic as well as a parasitic existence. structure and mode of life can only be studied When an individual is invaded by parasitic under the highest powers of the microscope ; but bacteria some escape from the body with the so successful have recent researches been that various excretions, and are so disseminated. many hundreds of distinct species are known. These bacteria, upon being introduced in an They are of various sizes and shapes, but each appropriate manner into the body of another species maintains its general characteristics susceptible individual, are capable of producing the through a large number of generations. They symptoms of the special disease with which they all multiply by division; that is to say, that the are associated. By no means all bacteria are cell which constitutes an individual becomes disease producing or pathogenic. Many, indeed, constricted and divides into two parts, each of perform important and beneficent parts in the which eventually presents the special charac- economy of nature. Bacteria are so minute in teristics of the original cell. Many of them also size that they may be transported some distance reproduce their species by means of spores. In through the atmosphere with moisture or dust. certain circumstances the contents, or part of the Nevertheless, like all other material particles, contents, of one of the cells become altered in they are subject to the force of gravity and other character, perhaps surrounded by a a special physical laws, and by appropriate means their envelope. The parent cell perishes but the access to a particular spot can be prevented. By spore remains, and in favourable circumstances such measures their access to surgical wounds is casts off its envelope, and becomes a cell like its prevented, and the success of modern antiseptic parent. The practical importance of this mode surgery promises more than a possibility of the of reproduction is that the spore is much more exclusion of the specific organisms of infectious tenacious of life than the original bacterium. disease from the human body. Each of these organisms is possessed of the The conditions under which a specific organism characteristic function of life, that it is able to is said to be proved to be the cause of a specific select from its surroundings certain elements, disease are four, called Koch's postulates :and assimilate them to its own substance and use. They can thus only maintain their vitality That the organism shall always be found and reproduce their species under certain con- associated with the disease. ditions of temperature, moisture, and food supply. That the organism shall be cultivated in a These conditions are so important to a proper
medium outside the body. understanding of their propagation and diffusion That the organism from such a cultivation that it is necessary to set them down in some introduced into an individual shall reproduce the detail.
disease. All bacteria require for their growth moisture, That the specific organism shall be recoverable certain chemical substances as foods, and a certain from the individual so affected. degree of heat (from 15° to 60° C.). Some require air, some will grow with or without it, and some Organisms belonging to the family of Bacteria will only grow when air is excluded. All bacteria are known to be the cause of diphtheria, plague, are killed in a liquid medium by a temperature of influenza, typhoid fever, cholera, erysipelas, and boiling water, and also by certain chemical sub- blood poisoning or septicæmia, pneumonia, and stances which are called antiseptics or germicides. consumption (tuberculosis), as well as several Sunlight destroys certain species of bacteria. In other less
diseases. Although the a dry state bacteria do not seem to be able to organisms have as yet not
been definitely maintain their vitality for long, except in the form identified, there is much evidence that bacteria of spores. Spores also possess greater power than also cause scarlet fever and German neasles, and bacteria of resisting both heat and germicides. various forms of tonsilitis, and inflamed sore At low temperatures bacteria do not multiply, throat, measles, whooping cough, mumps, typhus but even very great cold does not destroy their fever, and epidemic meningitis. vitality.
Organisms of this class also play an important In the process of their growth bacteria produce part in all localised and inflammatory diseases with certain chemical changes in the medium in which suppuration, such as ophthalmia, cold in the head, they live.
Bacteria which produce disease live suppuration in the ear, boils, and pustules, &c. and multiply in the fluids of the body of the The organisms which cause chicken pox, small individual they affect, and are called parasitic. pox, and the vaccination pustule have not yet They produce in the individual the chemical been identified. Some few diseases, of which the products of their growth. Some of these products most important is ringworm, are
, caused by are of a highly poisonous nature, and are called organisms belonging to the true fungi. Itch is toxins. These toxins are absorbed into the blood caused by an animal parasite, the Acarus scabiei, of the individual affected, and produce the which burrows in the skin of the affected symptoms of the special disease with which the individual. Thus it will be seen that almost all organism producing them is associated. Some of the more common infectious diseases of school these parasitic bacteria can also live and multiply life may be ascribed to infective organisms of outside the animal body, in decomposing animal bacterial nature.
ON THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH IN A
extempore translation from Swedish and English;
vocables La serious obstacle to the master's freeSWEDISH SCHOOL.
dom, at least it was never held up to me as a By Daniel ELFSTRAND, Phil.Cand.,
warning. Besides, with two-thirds of the official Teacher of Modern Languages in the Municipal School of rule I was in perfect sympathy, and it was not Gefie, Sweden.
difficult to come to an arrangement about the reT is more than eleven years since I made my
maining third. first attempt at teaching English on the prin
PHONETIC TRAINING.-PRONUNCIATION. ciples laid down by modern reformers represented by the Scandinavian Society “ Quousque When I began teaching modern languages in Tandem” and “ l'Association Phonétique Inter- school, it was something like an axiom taught me nationale." I set to work with a strong belief in by conclusive experience, not always of a cheering the soundness of those principles, and, let it be kind, that the only rational and effective method said at once, my eleven years' experiences have of approaching the study of a modern foreign thoroughly confirmed that belief.
language lay through a preliminary training in It seems in these days, with their lively interest phonetics, theoretical and practical; and, if suband great activity in the development of modern sequent practical tests have had any modifying language teaching, that the results of individual influence on that view, it has certainly been in the efforts in applying principles for and against which direction of confirming it. It was therefore very so much has been said and written may be of gratifying to be associated with a headmaster and some interest to teachers whose own language is a senior modern-language master who, far from concerned. So, acting upon an English friend's showing a hostile front to the “phonetic movesuggestion, I have taken the bold step of laying ment," from the very first willingly granted me before English colleagues a short account of my carte blanche to found my teaching on a phonetic basis. personal experiences and conclusions.
Thus my starting-point always was, and still is, For a better appreciation of my work it will be the sound, the paramount importance of which, as well to premise a few remarks by way of intro- the physical condition of speech, I try to make duction.
very clear to my pupils, and this point of view is My experiences are for the most part drawn ever afterwards kept steadily in the foreground, in from the Municipal School of Gefle, a commercial order to prevent relapses into the “ belief in the and technical establishment based on a completed letter," a belief that is certainly more injurious to elementary school course.
modern language teaching than most teachers have The average age of beginners is about 13 years. yet realised. Accordingly, the very first hour is deThe school is divided into four forms, each sup- voted to a practical examination and analysis of some posed to require one year in ordinary circum- of the sounds of the vernacular, which naturally stances. The school year comprises 35 weeks for leads me to a short description of the organs of the two lower forms, 31 for the two upper ones. speech and their most important functions, aided by Among the subjects taught, English holds a diagrams and an artificial larynx. The sundaprominent place, being the chief foreign language, mental difference between voiced and voiceless with a weekly allowance of 8 hours in the first consonants is thoroughly demonstrated and brought form, 7 in the second, 4 in each of the third and home to the pupils by constant practice in fourth forms.
producing the voiced-and, vice versa, voicelessThis seems a large amount of time, but con- representatives of those consonants which lack sidering the scantiness of previous linguistic train them in the vernacular. ing in the mother tongue-the only language After taking our bearings in this way, we taught in our elementary schools—a smaller allow. approach the foreign sounds one by one, slowly ance would be altogether insufficient; and it will and systematically, and always with the help of a not be surprising to learn that a not inconsiderable phonetic notation—that of Dr. Henry Sweet, portion of the time, in the first class at any rate, slightly modified to meet Swedish needs. has to be devoted to general grammatical training. It has been found convenient to start with the
My first two years' experience was gained in “ front vowels,” exemplified by such series as the public school of the place, where three years' big, beg, bag ; bid, bed, bad, as being the easiest for thorough preliminary training in Swedish and Swedish children ; and from this starting point we German constitutes a very different sort of founda- work our way gradually through all intermediate tion for the study of English, which begins in the steps to the opposite pole, the “back vowels." fourth school year on the modern side.
The examples are, with very few exceptions, taken It may perhaps also be worth mentioning that from the simple texts that form the essential matemy efforts throughout have been absolutely un- rial for the next step to be taken in our methodical trammelled either by school codes, or examinations,
advance. After the vowels have been gone through, or by personal interferences of any kind. On the the consonants are approached, the explosives contrary, at the public school I received much being taken first. support from my senior in the subject, and I can- This method of teaching the sounds one by one, not call the regulation laid down in the Public embodied in isolated words as examples, has School Code_Class IV. Practice in pronunciation and reading; accidence in connection with
1 A few years later the rule was considerably modified to meet modern
proved so fruitful of results that I unhesitatingly tation is considerably simplified, the necessary prefer it to starting with whole groups of words or phonetic training having been completed, and the sentences. Through the former a more intense worst effect of cross-association being thus avoided. concentration on each separate sound is rendered The question whether the phonetic method possible, the pupil's mind is not bewildered by the necessarily involves the use of a phonetic trandifficult task of grappling with a whole set of scription can, as far as English is concerned, foreign sounds, and a suitable transition to the according to my experience, only be answered in reading or uttering of connected specimens of lan- the affirmative. When the relation between guage is thus established.
sound and symbol has been so utterly destroyed, After a considerable amount of practice of the as is the case in modern English, it follows as kind described has been got through, we pass on a matter of course that the orthography can have to the phonetic texts, to which a period of nine or no other effect on the beginner than that of multiten weeks, representing some seventy or eighty plying the difficulties in his way and encumbering hours, is given. This allowance has, on the his progress, thus frustrating the object of a whole, been found sufficient to lay the foundation reasonable orthography. of what, according to English judges, may be called a good pronunciation. To attain this end In concluding this part of my paper, I cannot the power of imitation must of course be made help adding that at the present day I even find it the most of, and hence the training of the pupil's hard to realise how so many teachers have come ear must be an important part of the teacher's to neglect and look down upon a practical mastery task. From the first, therefore, what is to be of speech sounds, the actual bearers of the means read by the pupils is first read by me, not once, of communication they are concerned with. In but over and over again, if this is needed.
all likelihood, however, this strange phenomenon Yet it is a fact that in many cases imitation is to be explained as one of the results of centuries alone does not suffice, and then no better means of dealing with dead languages exclusively, where can be devised than the application of what pho- the sound counts for nothing or next to nothing, a netics has taught about the organic formation of view which must of necessity prove fatal to modern sounds. A colleague of mine, with some twenty | language-teaching. The advocates of the à outrance years' longer experience, having of late years training-of-the-mind theory within the linguistic given the phonetic method a fair trial, frankly department have apparently overlooked the fact declares: “With the old method I succeeded in that a training which leaves out of view one of arriving at a good result with only a few gifted the essential characteristics of its medium is, eo pupils, whereas now, with the phonetic method, ) ipso, doomed to, at any rate partial, failure. the same result is attainable with all.” And for Nor can I explain the so often-heard arguments my part, I do not hesitate to say that with the against “phonetics in schools" otherwise than as help of the modern science of phonetics a prac | the outcome of ignorance. It is not true that tical as well as theoretical command of difficult what is needed of phonetics is harder than most sounds, which in former days defied years
of other school subjects. It is not true that it is strenuous efforts on the part of both teachers and abstract. It is, on the contrary, as concrete as learners, can be brought about in a few hours. any other subject, or even more so, it being the But perhaps there is no more convincing proof of simplest thing in the world, in many instances, to the value of phonetics than that which may be illustrate its teachings in the most palpable way gained by testing it in teaching a foreigner one's with the help of the organs of speech themselves, own language.
which is indeed often just as easy as it would be To return to my class-work—after a piece of to make anyone call forth the right note from a text has been thoroughly worked through, writing piano simply by saying, "Put your finger on this from dictation on the blackboard comes in as a key and press it down.” I cannot for a minute final test of the pupils' capacity of distinguish | take into account the opinion of those who argue ing the foreign sounds and of handling the phonetic that, because there are hard and dark points in symbols.
this science, as in all others for that matter, it is As regards the much talked-of difficulty of unsuitable as a school subject; for if that principle transition from phonetic to ordinary spelling and were strictly upheld, how many, and what, subthe risk the latter is supposed to run of being jects would be deemed suitable for schools ? Or hopelessly spoilt, my experience does not bear out ought not even the simplest elements of what these fears. The same texts that the children are we impart in school to repose ultimately on a already quite familiar with in their phonetic form scientific basis? are now presented to them in their traditional But it may seem out of place for a foreigner to costume, piece after piece; they read them with- try to demonstrate the value of phonetics to a out any difficulty because they know them almost public who have among them a phonetician of by heart, and they have to prepare so-and-so many the unique rank of Dr. Henry Sweet, whose works lines at home for the special purpose of writing on general phonetics, and more especially on them from dictation in the class. For some time English phonetics, have rendered the student of onwards we concentrate our attention chiefly on English invaluable services, and made English the spelling. The task now set before the chil- one of the most fruitful and gratifying branches dren of inferring from the sound to its represen- of pure philological study.