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THE

A HISTORY OF THE REGION

WEST OF THE

ROCKY MOUNTAINS;

EMBRACING

CALIFORNIA,
OREGON, NEVADA, UTAH, ARIZONA, IDAHO, WASHINGTON TERRITORY,

BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND ALASKA,

from the Earliest Leriod to the Present Time:

GIVING A FULL ACCOUNT OF

THE DISCOVERY OF THE COUNTRY; EARLY VOYAGES OF SPANISH, ENGLISH
PORTUGUESE, FRENCH, RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN NAVIGATORS; RULE OF
SPAIN, MEXICO, AND THE UNITED STATES; EARLY SPANISH MISSIONS;
REVOLUTIONS; CONQUEST BY MEXICO AND BY THE UNITED
STATES; INAUGURATION OF AMERICAN CIVILIZATION; DIS-
COVERY OF GOLD; MINING, MINERALS, COMMERCE,

AGRICULTURE, AND MANUFACTURES;

ALSO, A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE

BOUNTAINS, SCENERY, VALLEYS, FORESTS, FLOWERS, RIVERS, LAKES, ISLANDS, DESERTS
WATERFALLS, BAYS, HARBORS, SPRINGS, GEYSERS, CLIMATE. SEASONS, NATIVES, BIRDS,
FISHES, BEASTS, LANDS, NAVIGATION, ROADS, DITCHES, CANALS, POPULATION,
CUSTOMS, SOCIETY, CHINESE, COURTS, LAWS, EDUCATION, SCHOOLS, RE.
LIGION, CHURCHES, LITERATURE, EMIGRANTS, CITIES, COUNTIES,

TOWNS, PROFESSIONS, TRADES, AMUSEMENTS, Eto.

WITH A HISTORY OF

MORMONISM AND THE MORMONS,

By R. GUY MCCLELLAN, :

(Seventeen Years & Reeldent of the Pacific Coast,)
AUTHOR OF “REPUBLICANISM IN AMERICA," ETC.,

Illustrated with Numerous Maps and Engravings.

PUBLISHED BY

WILLIAM FLINT & COMPANY,

PHILADELPHIA, PA., CINCINNATI, OHIO, SPRINGFIELD, MASS.
SOUTHERN PUBLISHING COMPANY, ATLANTA, GA.

A. ROMAN & CO., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by

R. GUY MCCLELLAN,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Entered, according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year 1872, by

R. GUY MCCLELLAN,
In the Office of the Minister of Agriculture,

Entered, according to Act of Parliament, in the year 1872, by

R. GUY MCCLELLAN,
At Stationers' Hall, London, England.

Checked May 1913

PREFACE.

In presenting to the reader that region of the Republic of America lying west of the Rocky mountains, a territory bewildering in its vastness, and fertile, rich, varied, wild, and picturesque beyond description, reveals its charms; and a history of unbounded fascination, leading its devious courses through the rough seas of the buccaneer and navigator, over the arid plains and precipitate mountains of the explorer, checkered and interspersed with the pilgrimages of the holy fathers, the march of conquering bands, the achievements of invading armies, the rise and fall of nations, the events of discovery and conquest, the revealing of unlimited treasures, the opening of new avenues of commerce, the building of new societies, the founding of new states, the advent of new social and religious conditions, the weird enchantments of the phantom king, goid, and the delusive and fascinating hopes of his devotees is unfolded.

The binding together of the extremes of the nation by bands of steel, upon which the swift courser with iron hoof and fiery breath leaps over vast plains and climbs arid heights in his journey from sea to sea, the broad-winged messenger of commerce teaching the lesson of exchange and intercourse to the Orient and new republic, daily tend to awaķen interests in our newest but richest half of the nation, and familiarize the people of every clime with the unrivalled beauty and attractions of that vast domain, passing from the chaos of bygone ages into the activities of unsurpassed social and com. mercial life.

So little is known abroad respecting the vastness, fertility, natural wealth, genial climate, and great development of the Pacific slope, that I write in the ardent hope of drawing the attention of the public of America and the adventurous of all lands to a section embracing more than one-half of the area of the whole American Republic, and

containing more of the precious metals than all the world besidea land whose giant mountains in their eternal ermine crowns, looking from their thrones of clouds, forest trees lifting their arms toward the sky, and mountain urns tumbling their crystal floods from aerial heights, present the grandest scenes of terrestrial beauty.

Many books have been written respecting the Pacific coast and its people; but, in most cases, they have been the result of the exaggerated and distorted visions of early voyagers, or the superficial observer, catching brief glimpses of the Sierras in hurried trip from ocean to ocean, or the wild dreams of some enthusiast fresh from the snows of the East, plunged into the flower gardens of the Golden State, and sipping the rich wines of Los Angeles at the festive boards of kind friends.

In producing a History of the whole Pacific Coast, from the northern extreme of Alaska to the tropical regions of Mexico, I have brought to my aid the experience of seventeen years residence and active participation in the stirring events and business affairs of the country, and extensive travel and observation in California, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Idaho, Washington Territory, and British Columbia, where, by the camp-fire of the pilgrim gold-hunter, in the dark chamber of the mine, on the tedious march, and dangerous ascent of the mountain height, the checkered fortune and uncertain fate, I have been enabled to present from personal and long experience the chief events whereof I write.

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