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J.C. 1709. him and tents were likewise provided for all the

lords of his retinue. · Some time after, the prince built a house in this place; the officers followed his example, and the soldiers raised barracks, so that his camp insensibly became a little town. As the king was not yet cured of his wound, he was obliged to have a carious-bone extracted from his foot; but as soon as he could get on horseback again, he resumed his wonted labours, always. getting up before sun-rising, tiring three horses a day, and exercising his soldiers. By way of amusement he sometimes played at chess; and as the characters of men are often discovered by the most trifling incidents, it may not be improper to observe, that he always advanced the king first at that game, and made greater use of him than


you shall set out. My most formidable and invincible emperor does not, let any one know his secrets; but he has made his preparations secretly, and he works after he has gotten rid of those who are perfidious. My most amiable emperor has made use of these words: By the foul of my ancestors, 1 will conduct the king of Sweden to the place of bis deftination. The king of Sweden is my brother. Once more don't listen to what your enemies say. If it please God, the field will be our own. My soul, have respect for your gentleman; without him your affairs would not be settled. $ I love him as if he were my child, because he has exposed himself for you, and served you with integrity. That your days may be happy is the fincere wish of The Poor Derviche.

Poftfcript. It is fortunate that Sarai interposes. Without her I should never have known your affairs. My most majestic son, endeavour to keep in with her. Your affairs will be settled to your wishes. Don't be uneasy about Sarai; he is in your interest, and, whilst I have life, you may always depend on me. My soul, you know that my beloved emperor stands alone and is devoured with chagrin ; but the wicked ones will meet their deserts; the field will remain to me, and to you likewise.” AUTHOR.

Note. The gentieman alluded to is general Poniatowski,

cence of

to Charles.


of any other men, by which mean he was always J.C.170 9:

a loser. · "At Bender he had all the necessaries of life Munifiin great abundance, a felicity that seldom falls to the fultan the lot of a vanquished and fugitive prince; for, besides the more than sufficient quantity of provisions, and the five hundred crowns a day which he received from the Ottoman munificence, he drew some money from France, and borrowed of the merchants of Conftantinople. Part of this money was employed in forwarding his intrigues in the seraglio, in buying the favors of the viziers, or procuring their ruin.

"A number of strangers came from Constan- Charles's tinople to see him. The Turks and the neigh- among the bouring Tartars came thither in crowds; all re- Turks. spected and admired him. His rigid abstinence from wine, and his regularity in assisting twice a day at public prayers, made them say : this is a true Mussulman. They ardently wished to march with him to the conquest of Moscovy.

Charles XII.'s envoy presented memorials in his name to the grand vizier, and Poniatowski supported them with all his interest. This nobleman's address succeeded in every thing; he was always dressed in the Turkish fashion, and had free access to every place. The grand feignior made him a present of a purse with a thousand ducats; and the grand vizier said to him: I will take your king in one hand, and a sword in the _ᏤoᏞ.1y. .



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the OTTOMANS. L.C. 1709. other, and bring him to Moscow at the head of Heg. 1521. Live two hundred thousand men. This grand vizier

was called Chourlouli Ali bashaw; he was the son of a peasant of the village of Chourlou. Such an extraction is not reckoned a disgrace among the Turks, who have no rank of nobility, neither that which is annexed to certain employments; nor that which consists in titles. With them the dignity and importance of a man's character depend entirely upon his personal services. This is a custom which prevails in most of the eastern countries; a custom very natural and which might be productive of the most beneficial effects, if posts of honor were conferred on none but men of merit; but the viziers for the most part are only the creatures of a black eunuch, or a favorite female slave. .

The prime minister soon changed his mind. hopes con- The king could do nothing but negotiate, and ceived in the czar could give money, which he distributed

with great profusion; and he even employed the money of Charles XII. on this'occasion. The military chest which he took at Pultoway furnished him with new arms against the vanquished king; and it was no longer a quekion at court, whether war should be 'made upon the Russians. The czar's interest was all powerful at the Porte, which granted such honors to his envoy as the Muscovite ministers had never before enjoyed at Constantinople. The czar thought he might even



Itantly de

demand, that general Mazeppa* should be put J.C. 1909. into his hands, as Charles XII. had caused the unhappy Patkul to be delivered up to him. Chourlouli Ali bashaw could refuse nothing to a prince who backed his demands with millions. Thus, that fame grand vizier, who had formerly promised, in the most folemn manner, to lead the king of Sweden into Moscovy with two hundred thousand men, had the assurance to make him a proposal of consenting to the sacrifice of general Mazeppa. Charles was enraged at this demand. It is hard to say how far the vizier might have pushed the affair, had not Mazeppa, who was now seventy years of age, died exactly at this juncture. The king's grief and indignation were greatly increased, when he learned that Tolstoy, now become the czar's ambassador at the Porte, was served in public by Swedes made flaves at Pul. toway, and that these brave soldiers were daily fold in the market at Conftantinople. Nay, the Russian ambassador made no scruple of declaring openly, that the Mussulman troops at Bender



* Mazeppa, prince of the Coffacks, who had quitted the alliance, or rather the dependance, of the czar, to join Charles XII. Patkul, the general of the Livonians, in rebellion against Charles XII. had been sent ambassador to king Augustus by the coar. One of the articles of the peace concluded between king Auguftus and the king of Sweden was, that Patkul should be delivered up to him as a rebellious subject and a traitor. Augustus, pressed to conclude the peace, violated the law of nations, by delivering to the king of Sweden a man invested with a sacred character; and Charles XII. violated it still more, by having this fame ambassador broken alive on the wheel, who was guilty of nothing but having claimed, in arms, the privileges and rights of his nation. AUTHOR.

L.C. 1710. were placed there rather with a view to secure Heg.1122.

the king's person, than to do him any honor. .

Charles, abandoned by the grand vizier, and vanquished by the czar's money in Turkey, as he had been by his arms in the Ukraine, saw himself deceived and despised by the Porte, and almost a prisoner among the Tartars. His attendants began to despair. Himself alone remained firm, and never appeared in the least dejected. Convinced that the sultan was ignorant of the intrigues of Chourlouli Ali, his grand vizier, he resolved to, acquaint him with them; and Poniatowski undertook the execution of this hazardous. enterprise. The grand seignior goes every Friday to mosque, surrounded by his folacks, a kind of guards, „whose turbans are adorned with such high feathers, as to conceal the sultan from the view of the people. When any one has a petition to present to the grand feignior, he endeayours to mingle with the guards, and holds the petition aloft. Sometimes the sultan condescends to receive it himself; but for the most part he orders an aga to take charge of it, and upon his return from the mosque causes the petition to be laid before him. There is no fear of any one's presuming to importune him with useless memorials and trifling petitions, as they write less at Constantinople in a whole year, than they do at Paris in one day. There is still less danger of

any memorials' being presented against the mii nisters, to whom the sultan commonly gives them


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